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within his own province, though visible zuki. He was a great favorite with the to the multitude and often journeying Kokuző, and used often to play at chess among the people, received almost equal with him. During a game, one evening, devotion ; so that his material power, this officer suddenly became as one parathough rarely, if ever, exercised, was lyzed, — unable to move or speak. For scarcely less than that of the daimio a moment all was anxiety and confuof Izumo himself. It was indeed large sion ; but the Kokuzā said : " I know enough to render him a person with the cause. My friend was smoking; and whom the shogunate would have deemed although smoking disagrees with me, I it wise policy to remain upon good terms. did not wish to spoil his pleasure by tellAn ancestor of the present Guji even ing him so. But the Kami, seeing that defied the great Taiko Hideyoshi, re I felt ill, became angry with him. Now fusing to obey his command to furnish I shall make him well.” Whereupon troops with the haughty answer that he the Kokuzā uttered some magical word, would receive no order from a man of and the officer was immediately as well common birth. This defiance cost the as before. family the loss of a large part of its es

XVII. tates by confiscation, but the real power Once more we are journeying through of the Kokuző remained unchanged until the silence of this holy land of mists the period of the new civilization. and of legends ; wending our way be

Out of many hundreds of stories of a tween green leagues of ripening rice similar nature, two little traditions may white-sprinkled with arrows of prayer, be cited as illustrations of the reverence between the far processions of blue and in which the Kokuzō was formerly held. verdant peaks whose names

It is related that there was a man names of gods. We have left Kitzuki who, believing himself to have become far behind. But as in a dream I still rich by favor of the Daikoku of Kitzuki, see the mighty avenue, the long succesdesired to express his gratitude by a sion of torii with their colossal shimegift of robes to the Kokuzo. The Ko nawa, the majestic face of the Guji, kuzõ courteously declined the proffer; the kindly smile of the priest Sasa, and but the pious worshiper persisted in his the girl priestess in her snowy robes purpose, and ordered a tailor to make dancing her beautiful ghostly dance. It the robes. The tailor, having made them, seems to me that I can still hear the demanded a price that almost took his sound of the clapping of hands, like the patron's breath away. Being asked to crashing of a torrent. I cannot suppress give his reason for demanding such a some slight exultation at the thought price, he made answer : Having made that I have been allowed to see what robes for the Kokuzo, I cannot hereafter no other foreigner has been privileged make garments for any other person. to see : the interior of Japan's most anTherefore I must have money enough cient shrine, and those sacred utensils to support me for the rest of my life.” and quaint rites of primitive worship so

The second story dates back to about well worthy the study of the anthropoloone hundred and seventy years ago. gist and the evolutionist.

Among the samurai of the Matsue But to have seen Kitzuki as I saw it clan in the time of Nobukori, fifth dai is also to have seen something much inio of the Matsudaira family, there more than a single wonderful temple. was one Sugihara Kitoji, who was sta To see Kitzuki is to see the living centre tioned in some military capacity at Kit- of Shinto, and to feel the life-pulse of 1 Hideyoshi, as is well known, was not of

the ancient faith, throbbing as mightily princely extraction.

in this nineteenth century as ever in

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that unknown past whereof the Kojiki has been due simply to the fact that the itself, though written in a tongue no sinologists have sought for the source of longer spoken, is but a modern record. it in books: in the Kojiki and the NiBuddhism, changing form or slowly de- hongi, which are its histories ; in the caying through the centuries, might Norito, which are its prayers ; in the seem doomed to pass away at last from commentaries of Motowori and Hirata, this Japan to which it came only as an who were its greatest scholars. But the alien faith ; but Shintā, unchanging and reality of Shinto lives not in books, nor vitally unchanged, still remains all domi- in rites, nor in commandments, but in nant in the land of its birth, and only the national heart, of which it is the seems to gain in power and dignity with highest emotional religious expression, time. Buddhism has a voluminous the- immortal and ever young. Far underology, a profound philosophy, a liter- lying all the surface crop of quaint ature vast as the sea. Shintő has no superstitions and artless myths and fanphilosophy, no code of ethics, no meta- tastic magic there thrills a mighty spirphysics; and yet, by its very immate- itual force, the whole soul of a race, riality, it can resist the invasion of Oc- with all its impulses and powers and incidental religious thought as no other tuitions. He who would know what Orient faith can. Shinto extends a wel- Shinto is must learn to know that myscome to Western science, but remains terious soul in which the sense of beauty the irresistible opponent of Western and the power of art and the fire of religion ; and the foreign zealots who heroism and the magnetism of loyalty would strive against it are astounded to and the emotion of faith have become find the power that foils their uttermost inherent, imminent, unconscious, instincefforts indefinable as magnetism and in- tive. vulnerable as air. Indeed, the wisest Trusting to learn something of that of our scholars have never yet been able Oriental soul in whose joyous love of to tell us what Shinto is. To some it nature and of life even the unlearned appears to be merely ancestor-worship, may discern a strange kinship with the to others ancestor - worship combined soul of the old Greek race, I trust also with nature-worship; to others, again, it that I may presume some day to speak seems to be no religion at all; to the of the great living power of that faith missionary of the more ignorant class it now called Shinto, but more anciently is the worst form of heathenism. Doubt Kami-no-michi, or “ The Way of the less the difficulty of explaining Shinto Gods.”

Lafcadio Hearn.


WHEN the world was younger and subtleties of an advanced civilization had perhaps merrier, when people lived more not yet turned men's heads with conand thought less, and when the curious ceit of their own enlightening progress

1 The Kojiki dates back, as a written work, practically absorbed Shinto in other centuries, only to A. D. 712. But its legends and records but in Izumo Shinto absorbed Buddhism ; and are known to have existed in the form of oral now that Shinto is supported by the state there literature from a much more ancient time. is a visible tendency to eliminate from its cult

2 In certain provinces of Japan Buddhism all elements of possible Buddhist origin.


from simple to serious things, poets had We forced a strong position, two recognized sources of inspiration,

And killed the men who held it." which were sufficient for themselves and There is not even a lack of food at for their unexacting audiences. They home — the old traditional dinner of sang of love and they sang of war, of spurs - to warrant this foray. There fair women and of brave men, of keen is no hint of necessity for the harriers youthful passions and of the dear de or consideration for the harried. lights of battle. Sweet Rosamonde We brought away from battle, lingers “in Woodstocke bower," and And much their land bemoaned them, Sir Cauline wrestles with the Eldridge

Two thousand head of cattle,

And the head of him who owned them : knighte; Annie of Lochroyan sails over

Ednyfed, King of Dyfed, the roughening seas, and Lord Percy His head was borne before us; rides gayly to the Cheviot hills with His wine and beasts supplied our feasts, fifteen hundred bowmen at his back. It

And his overthrow our chorus." did not occur to the thick-headed gen- It is impossible to censure a deed so eration who first listened to the ballad irresistibly narrated; but if the lines of Chevy Chase to hint that the game were a hair-breadth less mellifluous, I was hardly worth the candle, or that think we should call this a very barbapoaching on a large scale was as ethical rous method of campaigning. ly reprehensible as poaching on a little When the old warlike spirit was dying

This sort of insight was left for out of English verse, when poets had the nineteenth-century philosopher and begun to meditate and moralize, to inthe nineteenth - century moralist.

In terpret nature and to counsel man, the earlier, easier days, the last thing that good gods gave to England, as a link a poet troubled himself about was a de- with the days that were dead, Sir Walfensible motive for the battle in which ter Scott, who sang, as no Briton before his soul exulted. His business was to or since has ever sung, of battlefields and describe the fighting, not to justify it, the hoarse clashing of arms, of brave which would have been a task of pure deeds and midnight perils, of the outsupererogation in that truculent age. law riding by Brignall banks and the Fancy trying to justify Kinmont Willie trooper shaking his silken bridle reins or Johnie of Braedislee, instead of count upon the river shore : ing the hard knocks they give and the

" Adieu for evermore, stout men they lay low !

My love!

And adieu for evermore." “Johnie 's set his back against an aik, His foot against a stane;

These are not precisely the themes And he has slain the Seven Foresters, – which enjoy unshaken popularity to-day, He has slain them a' but ane."

" the poet of battles fares ill in modThe last echo of this purely irrespon- ern England,” says Sir Francis Doyle, , sible spirit may be found in the War and as a consequence there are many Song of Dinas Vawr, where Peacock, people who speak slightingly of Scott's always three hundred years behind his poetry, and who appear to claim for time, sings of slaughter with a bellicose themselves some inscrutable superiority cheerfulness which only his admirable by so doing They give you to underversification can excuse:

stand, without putting it too coarsely “ The mountain sheep are sweeter, into words, that they are beyond that But the valley sheep are fatter;

sort of thing, but that they liked it We therefore thought it meeter

very well as children, and are pleased To carry off the latter. We made an expedition ;

if you enjoy it still. There is even a We met an host and quelled it;

class of unfortunates who, through no

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apparent fault of their own, have ceased tory and that sing themselves forever. to take delight in Scott's novels, and He honestly felt himself to be a much who manifest a curious indignation be smaller man than Wellington. He stood cause the characters in them go ahead abashed in the presence of the soldier and do things, instead of thinking and who had led large issues and controlled talking about them, which is the pre the fate of nations. He would have sent approved fashion of evolving fiction. been sincerely amused to learn from Why, what time have the good people Robert Elsmere -- what a delicious thing in Quentin Durward for speculation and it is to contemplate Sir Walter reading chatter? The rush of events carries Robert Elsmere !- that “the decisive them irresistibly into action. They plot, events of the world take place in the and fight, and run away, and scour the intellect.” The decisive events of the country, and meet with so many adven world, Scott held, take place in the tures and perform so many brave and field of action ; on the plains of Maracruel deeds that they have no chance thon and Waterloo, rather than in the for introspection and the joys of analy- brain tissues of William Godwin. He sis. Naturally, those writers who pride knew what befell Athens when she could themselves upon making a story out of put forward no surer defense against nothing, and who are more concerned Philip of Macedon than the most brilwith excluding material than with tell- liant orations ever written in praise of ing their tales, have scant liking for Sir freedom. It was better, he probably Walter, who thought little, and prated thought, to argue as the English did not at all, about the “ art of fiction," “in platoons.” The schoolboy who but used the subjects which came to fought with the heroic “ Green-Breeks' hand with the instinctive and unhesitat in the streets of Edinburgh ; the stuing skill of a great artist. The battles dent who led the Tory youths in their in Quentin Durward and Old Mortality gallant struggle with the riotous Irishare, I think, as fine in their way as the men, and drove them with stout cudgbattle of Flodden; and Flodden, says eling out of the theatre they had disAndrew Lang, is the finest fight on graced ; the man who, broken in health record,

—“better even than the stand and spirit, was yet blithe and ready to of Aias by the ships in the Iliad, better back his quarrel with Gourgaud by givthan the slaying of the Wooers in the ing that gentleman any satisfaction he Odyssey."

desired, was consistent throughout to The ability to carry us whither he the simple principles of a bygone genwould, to show us whatever he pleased, eration. “It is clear to me,” he writes and to stir our hearts' blood with the in his journal, “ that what is least for

given in a man of any mark or likeli.

hood is want of that article blackguardly ‘old, unhappy, far-off things, And battles long ago,"

called pluck. All the fine qualities of

genius cannot make amends for it. We was the especial gift of Scott, of the are told the genius of poets especially man whose sympathies were as deep as is irreconcilable with this necies of life itself, whose outlook was as wide grenadier accomplishment. da so, quel as the broad bosom of the earth he trod chien de génie!

He believed in action, and he de Quel chien de génie indeed, and far lighted in describing it. “The think- beyond the compass of Scott, who, amid er's voluntary death in life was not, for the growing sordidness and seriousness him, the power that moves the world, of an industrial and discontented age, but rather deeds, — deeds that make his struck a single resonant note that rings

story of


in our hearts to-day like the echo of good caught the note, but none have upheld it and joyous things :

with such sustained force, such clear and “Sound, sound the clarion, fill the fife! joyous resonance. Macaulay has fire and

To all the sensual world proclaim, spirit, but he is always too rhetorical, too One crowded hour of glorious life declamatory, for real emotion. He stirs Is worth an age without a name."

brave hearts, it is true, and the finest tribThe same sentiments are put, it may ute to his eloquence was paid by Mrs. be remembered, into admirable prose Browning, who said she could not read when Graham of Claverhouse expounds the Lays lying down : they drew her irreto Henry Morton his views on living and sistibly to her feet. But when Macaudying. At present, Philosophy and Phil. lay sings of Lake Regillus, I do not see anthropy between them are hustling poor

the battle swim before my eyes. I see Glory into a small corner of the field. whether I want to or not a platEven to the soldier, we are told, it should form, and the poet's own beloved schoolbe a secondary consideration, or perhaps boy declaiming with appropriate gestures no consideration at all, his sense of duty those glowing and vigorous lines. When being a sufficient stay. But Scott, like Scott sings of Flodden, I stand wraithHomer, held somewhat different views, like in the thickest of the fray. I know and absolutely declined to let “that jade how the Scottish ranks waver and reel Duty” have everything her own way. It before the charge of Stanley's men, how is the plain duty of Blount and Eustace Tunstall's stainless banner sweeps the to stay by Clare's side and guard her as field, and how, in the gathering gloom, they were bidden, instead of which they

"The stubborn spearmen still made good rush off, with Sir Walter's tacit appro Their dark impenetrable wood, bation, to the fray.

Each stepping where his comrade stood,

The instant that he fell." “No longer Blount the view could bear : 'By heaven and all its saints! I swear

There is none of this noble simplicity in I will not see it lost!

the somewhat dramatic ardor of HoraFitz-Eustace, you with Lady Clare

tius, or in the pharisaical flavor, inevitaMay bid your beads and patter prayer,

ble perhaps, but not the less depressing, I gallop to the host.'»

of Naseby and Ivry, which read a little It was this cheerful acknowledgment of like old Kaiser William’s war dispatches human nature as a large factor in life turned into verse. Better for me is the which gave to Scott his genial sympathy undaunted cheerfulness of that hearty with brave imperfect men; which ena knight Sir Nicholas, whom Praed has bled him to draw with true and kindly art shown us fighting bravely for a lost cause such soldiers as Le Balafré and Dugald on the field of Marston Moor. Dalgetty and William of Deloraine. Le

“And now he wards a Roundhead's pike, and Balafré, indeed, with his thick-headed now he hums a stave, loyalty, his conceit of his own wisdom, And now he quotes a stage-play, and now he

fells a knave." his unswerving, almost unconscious courage, his readiness to risk his neck for a Better, a thousand times better, are the bride, and his reluctance to marry her, splendid swing, the captivating enthusi

as veracious as if he were asm, of Drayton's Agincourt, which the over-analyzed child of realism, in- hardly a muck - worm could hear unstead of one of the many minor charac- stirred. Reading it, we are as keen for ters thrust with wanton prodigality into battle as were King Harry's soldiers the pages of a romantic novel.

straining at the leash. The ardor for Alone among modern poets, Scott strife, the staying power of quiet coursings Homerically of strife. Others have age, all are here; and here, too, a feli

is every

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