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the Debonair had died the year before, good his claim to this most important and war was then raging between his region of ours.” son Lothaire and his grandson Pepin It was Charles the Bald who did so, on the one side and his sons Louis the as we know, whereupon Odo was deGerman and Charles the Bald on the posed without loss of time, and Lupus other. Lothaire had already suffered a was made abbot in his stead. The office severe defeat at Fontenoy, but during was theoretically elective, but Charles had the campaign of 842 he had recovered no need to do more than suggest a cansufficiently to press very hard the ar didate to the monks of Ferrières, for mies of Louis and Charles, who finally those were not days in which the royal concentrated their forces on the borders advice on such a matter could safely be of the Rhine near Strasburg, and swore, disregarded. Lupus accepted his promoin the presence of their legions, a new tion with equal docility, but did not hesoath of alliance for mutual defense. By itate, in the candor of his spirit, to place way of making this covenant at once the responsibility for the change exactly more binding on themselves and more where it belonged. Shortly after his eleintelligible to their hosts it was taken in vation he wrote a letter to the Bishop of the popular language of the two peoples. Orléans, deploring the destruction (probLouis the German, as he was called, ably by the Norman freebooters) of sunswore in Romance, and Charles the Bald dry farms and vineyards in that diocese, in the Alemannish of the period, and whose revenues were a perquisite of the the rude, stammering, inchoate syllables abbey of Ferrières, and then proceeded were written down phonetically, together

as follows: with their translation into monkish Latin. “I know not what sort of lying rePro Don amur, et pro Christian po- port has reached you concerning our blo," began Louis, and “In Godes minna former abbot; but that you may give ind um tes Christianes folches,echoed it no further credence allow me to ofCharles.

fer your sanctity a veracious account of The Church in general inclined to the what did really happen. Our lord the side of Charles and Louis, for the rea- king gave orders that he should be disson that Lothaire had sought heathenish missed from the monastery, prefacing alliances with Saxons and with Saracens; the command by certain remarks conbut none the less did Abbot Odo, who cerning Odo which it may be as well not was obliged by the terms of the charter to repeat. On my return to the monasof Ferrières to lead his contingent of tery I communicated the tidings to the troops into the field, espouse the cause abbot as gently as possible ; men were of Lothaire and Pepin, of whom the lat told off to escort him, and horses, clothes, ter kept up the struggle in Aquitaine and money supplied him for his journey. for several years longer. It was a time I myself, being under orders from our of great anxiety and suspense for Lupus, lord the king, had to quit the monaswho was personally loyal to Charles the tery on the last day of November, but I Bald, but who was left in charge of left instructions that he should be out the cloister when Odo took the field for of it before the 3d of December, on Lothaire, and who, as early as 841, had which day I expected to appear before written several letters in the name of our lord the king. This I did; and he, the latter, in one of which he says, after according me a ceremonious recep“We fluctuate in a strait betwixt two, tion, inquired what I had done with the not knowing in the least who will make aforesaid abbot. I, who supposed that 1 Not the Fontenoy of Maurice de Saxe's

the abbot had kept faith with me, regreat victory, but Fontenoy near Auxerre. plied that I had executed his [the king's]

orders concerning him. I then got with a small cloister attached, in the leave to depart, but as I drew near the diocese of Amiens. The holy Judocus monastery, on the 12th of December, was an Armorican prince who had reI learned that the oft-mentioned abbot nounced the world and his claims to was still there. Much disturbed at the the throne of his father, and built this discovery that I had been fibbing to our fair church in the wilderness about two lord, I dispatched a messenger to the hundred years before Lupus's day. The abbot by night, telling him squarely that monastery had been given by Charlehe must be out before break of day; that magne to the English Alcuin, at the time it was unpardonable of him to be staying when the latter was abbot of Ferrières, on in defiance of the king's command, to be used as a house of entertainment and preventing me from coming in. He for pilgrims ; chiefly, no doubt, for those replied that he had always intended to who came from the British Isles. Some leave the next day, and I, in order to objections had been made at the time on afford no handle whatever for calumny, the ground of the law against pluralities, answered that I would not enter until he but these were overruled, and Louis the was out. So at last he departed from Debonair confirmed the union of the two the community, I allowing him the same establishments. The Cell retained its abundant provision as before, and some humble name, but it was richly endowed other things beside. I lost no time in and its lands were highly cultivated. laying the matter before my friends at The extraordinary beauty of the site and court, and also, at the earliest opportu- surroundings once inspired a monkish nity, I confessed that inadvertent false- poet with so sweet a strain of elegiac hood of mine to the king, and they all verse that one hastens to cull it like agreed in thinking that I had done per some rare flower of the wilderness. It fectly right. Let those who have spread may be freely rendered thus : other stories see whether they have been

“Home of my heart, beloved Cell, justified in so doing. I have most as Farewell, dear dwelling, a last farewell! suredly had a single eye in the whole Farewell to the shade of blossoming boughs, business, whence I trust that, under Pro The whispering forests that gird the house ;

Healing simples and herbs of balm, vidence, my whole body will be found

Culled by the leech in meadows calm ; full of light.

Flower-sown borders of winding streams “ And so farewell, and may all good Where the nets are spread and the fisher attend you.”


Fragrant fruits of the garden-close, Lupus entered upon his new duties at

White of lily and red of rose ! the close of 842, devoting himself heart

Here, for aye, shall the birds upraise and soul to the welfare of the monastery A matin-song in their Maker's praise, both in temporal and spiritual things.

But the word of truth shall fall no more We have already seen him taking mea

From the lips of the master, gone before." sures to restore the hoary church, and In that final division of territory looking after his humbler dependencies among the descendants of Charles the in the neighborhood of Orléans. But Great which was effected by the treaty there was a far more precious and im of Verdun this beautiful bit of ecclesiasportant appanage of Ferrières, which tical property was included in the porhad been severed from the domain of tion of Charles the Bald, who presently the abbey during the brief period of bestowed it upon a layman named Odulf. Lothaire's ascendency in central France, But Lupus was resolved to have it back. and given to one of his creatures. This He appreciated its loveliness, prized its was the so-called Cell of St. Judocus, associations, and needed its revenues ; now St.-Josse-sur-Mer, then a basilica and he forthwith began to besiege the

monarch in a series of vivacious letters, “ If you desire to know,” he says

bluntsome extracts from which may be found ly in another letter, “what they (the interesting

brothers] really say about you, it is this: He reminds his sovereign that “the that it is most unfair for you to exercise most pious Emperor Louis, author of them with cold and hunger while they your nobility," at the request of “ Ju are under bonds to pray without ceasing dith Augusta, your mother of all-glorious for your temporal and eternal welfare; memory,” had confirmed by a charter and they do not think you will ever atthe union of St. Josse and Ferrières, “to tain the felicity to which you aspire so the end that the monks of this monas- long as you make not your peace with tery might serve the Lord in easy cir our little St. Peter (the patron of Fercumstances and entertain pilgrims in the rières]. And you need not fancy that aforesaid Cell with godly hospitality, and they speak in jest ; for our old men say comfortably pray to God for the health that they had it from their fathers, when and security of them both (Louis and they were boys, and can confirm it by Judith) This their deed of charity their own experience, that whoever inyou at first most graciously approved, Alicts any marked injury upon our house and even confirmed it by fresh enact incurs thereby great peril of his own ments ; but later you were induced by health and life, unless he do quickly recertain persons, who care not how they pent.” offend God so only they get rich, to After a half dozen years or so of unmake null and void this double benefac- wearied and undaunted importunity on tion. ... The consequence is that the the part of our abbot the king succumbed, servants of God in this place, who do and St. Josse was reunited to Ferrialways pray


have failed now ères. The precise date of the formal for three years to receive their accus restitution is not known; but the first tomed allowance of clothing ; and that allusion to it in the correspondence of which they are compelled to wear is Lupus occurs in a letter to the Archworn to rags and very much patched. bishop of York, written from the Cell They subsist upon market vegetables, itself, and praying for a renewal of the with exceedingly rare consolation of fish relations with England which had subor cheese ; and even the servants are not sisted in the days of Alcuin. Lupus paid the wages which are justly their also takes advantage of the comparadue : because all these things used to tively easy communication with England accrue to us from the aforesaid Cell, for which he now enjoys to request of a whose present state of dilapidation and certain abbot in the city of York the its neglect of strangers from beyond the loan of sundry books which he wishes sea may God not hold you responsible.” to have copied, namely, Bede on the Again he writes :

Old and New Testament, the Disputa“Even while we held [our possessions tions of St. Jerome, the books of Jerome intact] we had no harmful superfluity, on Jeremiah after the first six which nor were we tempted to dally in the lap he already possesses, and the twelve of luxury; for the entire resources of books of the Institutions of Quintilian. the monastery barely sufficed to provide King Ethelred of England had married us with what our rule allows. Now, a daughter of Charles the Bald, and it however, for a long time, we have had was to him, therefore, that Lupus apto put up with much less. We cannot plied for the lead which was wanted keep warm, and we abstain when we for the new church roof at Ferrières. would not; and the sick and children and The request appears to have been readthe aged are uncared for.”

ily granted ; and accordingly rafts of

especial strength were built for the con synods from this time on, and there is veyance of the unwieldy metal up the a letter of his, of the year 849, which rivers Seine and Cléry. Their construc shows pretty plainly what he himself tion was all the more necessary because thought of the relative cogency of his Lupus had had the misfortune to lose civil and ecclesiastical obligations : ten of the convent horses, when making “ Lupus to Pardulus, the bishop, his a tour of inspection among the monas- dearly and singularly beloved, greeting teries of Burgundy in company with the in the Lord. Bishop of Troyes. Lupus had also his “I did not attend the synod, because military service to perform, like Odo be I was not summoned by our lord the fore him ; and in June of 844, the de king. I have taken care that his letter tachment of troops with which his con should be exactly copied, so that if by tingent was marching to the support of chance my name is mentioned you may Charles the Bald under the walls of be able to show that I was justified in Toulouse having been cut off by a raid remaining away. However, since you of Pepin's men, the abbot was taken have been so good as to admit me to prisoner. He says in one of his let your friendship, I do beseech you that ters that he “lost everything;" but his now and always, as God gives you opcaptivity was at least a brief one, for portunity, you will intercede in


bewe find him writing that “by the sig half. You know very well that I was nal grace of God, and the intercession never instructed in the principles of atof his saints, and the intervention of tack and defense, nor how to fulfill any one Count Turpio" (of Angoulême), he of the duties, whether of infantry or was back again in his cloister, “safe and cavalry service; nor is it warriors only sound, on the 5th of July.”

of whom our lord the king stands in Before the close of the same year need. I entreat you, therefore, to use we find him drawing up the twelve can your influence, and if possible also that ons of the Council of Verneuil; and of Hincmar, to induce him [the king] very curious some of them are, as, for to consider my (sacred] profession and example :

assign me some duty less inconsistent No. 6. “A maiden who has been with it: the rather since he really holds married by one man, and then seized and my (military] services very cheap. If appropriated by another, must, accord- you truly love me, you will manage this ing to the tenth statute of the Council thing in such a way that I shall not only of Ancyra, be restored to the man by incur no odium, but may even get a litwhom she was first espoused, even though tle credit thereby.” she have suffered violence. But it is re Lupus probably refers, in this letter, commended that the ravager be threat to the preparations for the last expediened with the penalties of the secular tion of Charles the Bald against Nomelaw, since criminals of this class make noius, the rebellious king of Brittany. If very light of ecclesiastical excommuni

so, our abbot was not wholly excused cation."

from service, as he desired, but he came No. 7. “If any nuns, from what safely home, after a brief campaign ; they falsely deem a religious motive, do while Nomenoius, who had declared his either adopt male attire or shave the independence on the death of Louis the head, since we hold this to be a sin of Debonair, maintained the same successignorance rather than of perversity, it is fully until his sudden and rather mysteordained that they be (merely] admon- rious death in 851. He had disposed ished and whipped.”

in the most high-handed manner of the Lupus is almost always found at the 1 The famous Bishop of Rheims.

bishoprics within his province, altering ting nag or any other beast of uncommon the bounds of sees, pulling down one strength, I should consider it a great faecclesiastic and setting up another. His vor. Seriously, though, I shall not take arbitrary arrangements, strange to say, it amiss if I get nothing, provided only subsisted almost unchanged until the you read this letter to our dear Egil, time of the great revolution, but they and you and he keep to yourselves the were regarded as acts of heinous aggres- good laugh I trust it will give you.” sion in his own day; and it seems to Lupus also applied to an Italian have been for the purpose of protesting bishop, bearing the exceedingly Gothic against some of these enormities that name of Regenfried, to have gold of the Lupus was sent on a mission to the country ready for him when he should head of Christendom at Rome some time pass through the diocese of the latter, in the later forties. This journey was on his way to the south; and this is all a very great event; and how anxiously we hear about the Roman journey at and assiduously the abbot made his pre- the time of its occurrence. But there is parations for departure will appear from a letter addressed some ten years later the following naïve letter to his friend by the abbot of Ferrières to his aposthe saintly Marquard :

tolic lord, Benedict III., in which he “For purposes of prayer and the tells that pontiff that he had been most transaction of certain church business, graciously received and entertained by which, God willing, I will explain more his Holiness's predecessor of blessed fully to your paternity on my return, memory; whence we may perhaps conI am about starting for Rome. And clude that the glizza did not prove wholsince I cannot succeed in these affairs ly unacceptable to that fourth Leo, from without the apostolical (that is to say, whom the “ Leonine City” took its the papal] good will, and I know well that this can be won only by means of Lupus held one rather famous theologifts, I hie me to you, as to my father's gical controversy with an heretical monk nay, my mother's

bosom; begging of Fulda named Gotteschalk, on the that you, who have never yet failed me inexhaustible subjects of predestination in any time of need, will deign to assist and freewill; and he was thought to

Be so good, therefore, as to have acquitted himself more gloriously forward me - if possible by the mes in this field than in the campaigns which sengers whom I send — two cloaks of he served under Charles, and quite to dark blue woolen cloth, and the same have demolished his adversary. But the number of those linen ones which the book De Tribus Quæstionibus, in which Germans call glizza,' which I under his own arguments are properly marstand that he (the Pope] greatly ad- shaled, is dreary reading compared with mires. If you are unable to execute the the letters, to which we return for a few whole of this commission, don't fancy more indications concerning the course that I shall despise the half; for I have of our friend's declining years. learned from my worldly books always The cloister of Ferrières enjoyed for to ask for more than I expect to get. a long while a marvelous immunity

“Lest, however, you should imagine from the ravages of the Northmen, who that I am at the end of my desires, I devastated, at one time or another, will add that, should you choose to fa- nearly the whole of the surrounding cilitate my journey by the gift of a trot- country. But its inmates lived in a

1 One editor has suggested that this odd word can hardly have been so, since we infer from was the German form of cilicina, and that it other allusions that the glizza were very costly. was hair-shirts the good abbot wanted; but this 2 Afterward Archbishop of Sens.


me now.

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