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Of timeless passion set my dial true,
That with thy saints and thee I may consort,
And wafted in the calm Chaucerian port
Of poets, seem a little sail long due,
And be as one the song of memory drew
Unto the saddle void since Agincourt !

Not now for secular love's unquiet lease
Receive my soul, who rapt in thee erewhile
Hath broken tryst with transitory things;
But seal with her a marriage and a peace
Eternal on thine Edward's holy isle,
Above the stormy sea of ended kings.


To the lover of ancient learning and villa. The abbot corresponded to the the classical spirit, who looks forward proprietor. The monks were like the from the fast - fading twilight of the freedmen of the great patrician, who fifth or backward from the dazzling cultivated letters, art, and science under sunrise of the fifteenth century, there

the shelter of the villa proper.

In both seems at the first glance to lie between cases the property comprised a more or these two epochs a period of perfectly less extensive area of outlying territory, impenetrable blackness. Like most dark the inhabitants of whose farms and vilplaces, however, this murky millennium lages were, to all intents and purposes, proves to him who has once found the attached to the glebe, lived by supplying courage to plunge in and explore it less the central establishment with the fruits blind and impassable than it looked of their industry, and expected protecfrom without. To the


that steadily tion from it in times of common peril. confronts them the shadows lighten; a The great Roman overlord had inglimmering pathway is first discerned, deed, in most cases, other and richer then landmarks, and finally footprints sources of revenue than the labor of of more than one traveler. The life of these humble tenants, and so had the the race is after all continuous. The mediæval abbot in the voluntary offercustoms and institutions which served ings of pious pilgrims to whatever saintinankind under one order of things are ly shrine or shrines might lie within his found reparable after seeming ruin, and jurisdiction. The Benedictine abbey of capable of being adapted, with certain St. Riguier, near Abbeville, for exammodifications, to wholly new conditions ple, possessed and governed, at its most of existence. Take the case of life in flourishing period, fourteen towns, thirty a mediæval abbey and its dependencies. villages, and an “infinite number” of It was Châteaubriand, perhaps, who farms, while the offerings at the tomb of first suggested the notion that it was, the holy Richiarius amounted to about at least on its material side, only a nat-' four hundred thousand dollars yearly. ural development or adaptation of life This was in Gaul under the Merowithin the precincts of a great Roman vingian kings. A hundred years later,

under Charlemagne, certain of the more Lupus was born during the last decfamous and venerable abbeys, like those ade of the reign of Charles the Great, of St. Martin at Tours and St. Hilary probably in the year 805 or 806.

Of at Poictiers, had considerably declined his birthplace we only know that it was in wealth and importance ; but the mo somewhere in Gaul, of his rank that it nastic establishments of the kingdom, was noble, of his kindred that two of taken collectively, were at the height of his brothers were successively bishops their dignity and influence. The great of Auxerre, while a certain learned and abbots occupied a singularly indepen- saintly Marquard, abbot of the cloister dent position. They were bound by the of Prüm, not far from Treves, was a terms of their tenure of landed property near relation of Lupus as well as a deto give a certain material support to voted friend. their temporal masters ; but they stoutly Lupus received his early training in resisted any assumption of authority by the monastery of which he was afterthe local bishops, against whose claims wards to be the head, and Ferrières was they were beginning to appeal to the a place with a history. The cloister ochigh and general court of Christendom cupied a commanding site between the at Rome. At that time and for many Seine and the Loire, at the point where succeeding years a monastic life opened these two rivers approach nearest to one of the shortest roads to court favor, each other in the modern department such as it then was, and afforded abso- of Loiret. Dense forests, cleft by wild lutely the only chance for the cultivation and all but impassable valleys, encircled of letters under conditions of peace and the spot, and the conventual stronghold comparative refinement. The number probably owed to its exceptional posiof those who affected such conditions tion the immunity which it long enjoyed and yearned for such culture was not from the incursions of those Norse pilarge, but among them — one might rates whose descendants triumphed at almost


foremost among them, at his Hastings two centuries later. own particular epoch a certain

The church of Ferrières was an exabbot of Ferrières, in central France, by tremely ancient building, dating, it was name Servatus Lupus. Some hundred believed, from the first introduction of and twenty of this man's private letters Christianity into Gaul; and in the later have been saved from the wreckage of days of Lupus's own rule it became a his time. They reveal a mobile and in- labor of love with him to restore, or quisitive mind, athirst from its first con rather replace, the venerable structure, scious hour for the springs of human and furnish it with a leaden roof, the learning, and with an inherent attrac- material for which he secured in Britain. tion toward pagan antiquity which would The ties between Ferrières and the have caused him to revel in the thought Church in England were numerous and that his cloister life was but an evolution strong. The abbey had even been held or adaptation of that of a Roman senator for the years between 782 and 796 by in retreat. These letters reflect at the the celebrated Alcuin, who came from same time so vivid a light on some of that centre of light and learning the the more important actors and stirring great monastery at York to open what events of the writer's chaotic period that was known as the School of the Palace the only wonder is they should have been in the house of Charlemagne. so generally neglected.

It is plain that the young Lupus soon 1 The epithet Servatus, the Saved, is sup illness, or perhaps his escape from death at the posed to have been bestowed or assumed to battle of Toulouse, where he was taken priscommemorate his recovery from a dangerous

oner in 844.


or of

came to the end of what he could learn pected of the great Charles. But alas at Ferrières, where there was no such for romance ! only one monkish chroncomplete and systematic course of in- icler has preserved the tale in this ar struction as that for which the ambitious tistic and symmetrical form, while in the pupil pined. Such he found, however, list carefully given by Eginhard himself at Fulda, in the diocese of Treves, of Charlemagne's children, legitimate the Primat of the German abbeys, and illegitimate, there is no mention of founded by St. Boniface, and the rest- any Emma or Imma. The name of ing-place of his dust, where the most Eginhard's dearly loved wife is usually important school of the ninth century written in the latter way. They lived was then flourishing under the headship long and happily together as a married of the Abbot Rabanus Maurus.

pair ; as neighbors, evidently, and with From Fulda, where he seems to have frequent and tender fraternal interpassed the active and animated years course, even after Eginhard became the between twenty-five and thirty, and lay abbot of the monastery which he where he formed the chief friendships himself had founded at Seligenstadt. of his life, Lupus wrote the first letter It is to this place that Lupus writes of the collection which we possess. It a modest and graceful letter of self-inis addressed to one of the most inter- troduction ; praying for the privilege of esting men of that


time, - to Eginhard's acquaintance, expressing adno less a person than that Einhard, or miration of his Life of Charlemagne, Eginhard, the secretary and exceedingly and asking, after an apt quotation or graphic biographer of Charlemagne, who two from the Satires of Horace and the had shared with the children of the em- Tusculan Disputations, for the loan of peror the advantages of Alcuin's palace- some of the abbot's worldly books. school, and was possibly also the son-in- · Having once overpassed the limits law of Charlemagne. Every one knows of modesty, I make bold to pray that

I the romantic story of the young scribe you will entrust me, while I am staying to whom the Princess Emma accorded here, with certain of your texts, though her favors, who lingered too late one to be sure I have asked a far greater winter night in his lady's turret chamber, favor in your friendship than I could until the courtyard of the palace had receive from your books. These, howbeen whitened by a stealthy snowfall, ever, are the ones which I should like : sure to betray the footprints of the re- first, Tully on Rhetoric, of which I posturning lover; and how, to avoid dis- sess only a very imperfect copy; ... covery, the vigorous young princess - then, under the general head of Rhetowho was evidently a “menskful maiden ric, by the same author, three books of of might,” like Brunehild — lifted him discussions or dialogues on the Orator. . upon her shoulders and bore him to his I think you must have these, because I own quarters. But Charlemagne was found written in the catalogue of your wakeful that night, and pacing and peer- library, after a mention of the book to ing about, as an anxious monarch may Herennius and some other alien matter, do, he witnessed this extraordinary tran- Cicero on Rhetoric, and then Commensit “ by the cold, white light of the tary on the Books of Cicero. I should moon.” The mixture of shrewdness also like the Attic Nights of A. Gellius; and magnanimity which led the emperor and there are a great many others in first to exact a full confession from his the same catalogue which, if God give protégé, and then to offer him the hand

I should most parof his daughter in honorable marriage, ticularly desire to have, after these are is no more than might have been ex- sent back, and to copy while I am here.

me grace

with you,


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By complying with my request you will positors of the divine word Augustine show that you pardon my presumption, and Jerome ; and I have endeavored to and you

will fill with the sweetest fruit take heart from their wise and bracing of learning one who has long been dig- counsels, to rise up under the load of my ging at its bitter roots."

sorrow, and earnestly to consider what In the next letter the vanities of I ought to feel concerning the departure scholarship are forgotten in a heartfelt of my most dear companion, having seen expression of simple human feeling : the end of her mortality rather than

" Lupus to Eginhard, his dearly be- her life.' I have tried even to force loved preceptor.

upon myself, by the exercise of reason, “I have been unspeakably shocked what is wont to come only after a long by the sad news of the death of your lapse of years ; I mean the closing of venerable wife, and I wish more than the wound which my spirit received ever that I could be with you now to through the sudden calamity of that lighten your sorrow by my sympathy, or most grievous loss, — the beginning of else perhaps to assuage it through ear cure by the remedy of spontaneous connest discourse concerning the thoughts solation. But the stab was too deep for which are suggested by many an elo- such easy methods. ., . Perchance you quent passage of Holy Writ. Mean may marvel at me, and say that grief of while, until God suffers me to join you, this kind was not meant to endure forI beseech you to be mindful of that ever, as if it were in the mourner's power universal lot which sinful humanity has to set limits to that whose beginnings he deservedly incurred, and to endure your could neither foresee nor control. ... calamity in a brave and collected spirit. Nay, nay; my belief is, and your arguDo not you cower before misfortune, ments will not shake it, that my anguish who presented so steadfast a front to for the death of my best beloved will the insidious temptations of prosperity. last until the appointed end of that space Rally that manly fortitude to which you of time which God has allotted me in would incite any one you truly loved this sad and transitory world. . . . It who might be stricken by a like mis cannot be, methinks, that I shall long fortune, and call upon the name of the survive, and yet I do not at all know Lord. And may all good be with you.” how long. But this one thing is sure: Eginhard's answer is long and affect a babe


die soon; an old man caning. He appreciates his young friend's not last long.'” sympathy, and is far from resenting that It will be perceived that the learned clarion call to heroic endurance which abbot has again fallen — unconsciously, he finds himself too old and too broken as it would seem - into quotation. This to obey.

time it is the rather stinging reply of “Eginhard to his Lupus, greeting. St. Jerome's friend Marcella to her im

“My overwhelming sorrow for the loss portunate old suitor which he wrests to of her who was once my most faithful his own sorry comfort. wife, and afterward for long my dear Lupus wrote Eginhard another long est sister and companion, has well-nigh letter upon the same subject, but the killed in me all interest and care whether reader will hardly need to be informed for my own affairs or those of my friends. that he found nothing new to say. He ... I have by me the writings of noble also arranged to pay the sad old man a and learned men, teachers never to be visit on his way back from Fulda to despised, but worthy of all attention and Ferrières, and apparently carried out his obedience, - such as the glorious martyr 1 He is quoting Pliny's beautiful remark on Cyprian, and those most illustrious ex the death of his old friend Virginius Rufus. VOL. LXVIII. NO. 410.


purpose early in 836. This was the pupils, yet others have come to take year, also, of his first appearance at the their places who are either full of early Frankish court, for in 837 we find him promise, or who, “ being already profiwriting to his brother Reginbert: cient, desire still further to increase their

"Last year, through the influence of attainments.” friends, I was presented to the emperor, There is also a curious letter of the and also to the queen, by whom I was time immediately succeeding Lupus's remost graciously received ; . . . and now, turn to Ferrières addressed to one Immo, on the 22d of September, I am about Bishop of Noyon, who was afterward starting for the palace, the queen herself murdered by the Norman pirates. Immo having earnestly pressed me to come; so would seem to have cautioned Lupus that many think some special honor will against intellectual pride, and perhaps soon be conferred upon me.”

even hinted at the ungodly nature of The royal pair with whom Lupus thus some of his literary pursuits, for the latmade acquaintance were Louis the De ter replies with a suspicion of warmth : bonair, more properly the Pious, "I do not quite understand why you the son of Charlemagne, and his second should be so anxious to know what wife, Judith, “whom,” says Eginhard, books I read or wrote in Germany, un“ he chose after an inspection of al- less you wish to make an example of me most all the maidens of the realm who by proposing a difficult dilemma, and so were of noble birth.” Louis must have convicting me either of ostentation or of been attracted, one would think, in this youthful rashness. I can only say quite high-spirited and unscrupulous woman, simply that I passed my time there by qualities the very reverse of his own. chiefly in reading, and in the preparaShe schemed boldly and successfully, tion of certain small textbooks which against tremendous odds, to secure the might serve as aids to learning and succession of her own son, Charles the remedies for oblivion ; and it was by no Bald, to that portion of the vast empire means for love of the German tongue, of his grandfather which corresponds as has been ridiculously suggested, that most nearly to the France of to-day; I underwent the burden of so severe a but she did not at this time fulfill the daily labor. pleasant dreams of Lupus, who had some “However,” he adds with his worted years yet to wait for his preferment. sweetness, “I thank you for reminding

He carried back with him, however, me, on divine authority, that I ought to to the forest solitude of Ferrières a re be watchful and preserve my humility putation for learning which caused him of mind." to be received with deep respect by Odo, Singularly enough, we have the means the abbot, and he was immediately made of judging for ourselves how far Lupus rector of the convent school. He thought was justified in this disrespectful menhe discerned among the denizens of his tion of the nascent German tongue, for old monastery a reviving interest in the the date of the letter in question corthings of the mind which bade fair to responds almost exactly with that of a lighten his labors as an instructor, and very important philological monument, there is a very interesting fragment ex one which has often been taken as a tant of a sort of report which Lupus ap- point of departure for histories of the pears to have addressed some years later modern European dialects, — the famous to the members of a synod convened in oath of Strasburg. the diocese of Sens, in which he says Certain expressions in the beginning that though he has had to deplore the of the letter to Immo refer it concluuntimely death of some of his brightest sively to the autumn of 841. Now Louis

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