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She wondered whether her grand- did n't see his face, and in a moment mother had told him that if her flight she was out of the house. Aunt Julia, were not prevented she would forfeit who was sure to have been hovering, money. Then, vividly, it came over her had taken flight before the profanity of that this would be what he was the knock. cupied with.

“ I shall never think of Heavens, dear, where did you get you

- let me go!” she cried, with pas- your mo g?” the lady in the victosion.

ria asked of her daughter as they drove Captain Jay opened the door, but Rose away.

Henry James.

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THE SCHOOLS AT OXFORD.

of gown.

In our description of rowing as its fying its authorities in an examination characteristic sport, the training of Ox- held by them, or by showing some equivaford was presented on its physical side; lent. Once past the gate of matriculawe now turn to the intellectual curricu- tion, he necessarily assumes the status of lum, and particularly that part of it em- either scholar or commoner. The scholar braced by the classical school. It must and exhibitioner is assisted by his college not be supposed, because they are not generally to the amount of about sixty or dealt with here, that mathematics and eighty pounds a year.

He has usually all kinds of science, modern history, law, won his scholarship or exhibition in open and theology are not included in our or more or less limited competition, and studies. The classical school is justly he has several privileges not enjoyed by that of which Oxford is most proud, and the commoner, from whom he is disat the same time serves admirably as a tinguished outwardly by a different cut type of all the others.

The fellows and scholars A university career is generally un- form the real nucleus of a college, and, derstood to last four years, and the de supported by its endowments, they feel gree is obtained after two examinations. themselves bound to maintain by serious It is possible to obtain it by taking a study its character for learning. Compass in both, honors in either with a moners, though ordinarily more numerpass in the other, or honors in both. In ous, are practically a sort of appendage. by far the greater number of cases one They receive no monetary assistance, honor school at least is attempted, and and as a rule they are inferior to the scholars and exhibitioners as a matter of scholars in ability and attainments. The course take honors in both examinations. lives of the average commoner and scholLet us begin with the boy fresh from ar differ considerably. The wealthier school, the “Fresher,” — and follow commoner has for his first object the him through his career. To gain admit- social and athletic advantages of the unitance to the university, an examination versity, while the scholar makes these of some sort, either the Oxford and subservient to his endeavor to win intelCambridge local, or the “Smalls” held lectual distinction for himself and his at Oxford, must be passed. But the college. How the careers diverge may colleges and the university are distinct. best be seen by taking a typical day in Our schoolboy has still to justify his en

The scholar rises at 7.30, trance to his particular college by satis- and perhaps he commits something to

both cases.

suits ;

memory before his breakfast at 8.30; university, and consequently our remarks after which he glances over his news henceforth will have reference more parpaper, and is ready for lectures at ten ticularly to the career of the scholar. o'clock. His less strenuous friend rises On arriving at the university in Octolater, and thinks he has done well if ber the Fresher sets his thoughts five he gets to work at eleven, and attends terms ahead on his first public examione or sometimes two lectures, to the nation, called " Moderations,” in short scholar's three. Both may be found “ Mods." He is in residence for three lunching at one, and spending the after- terms of eight weeks each in the year, noon till five in athletic and other pur- and the remaining twenty-eight he is his

but here again the roads divide. own master. To a stranger the time After a cup of tea the scholar keeps actually spent in college appears far too his room from five till seven, and buries small, but in practice this division of himself in “his books and his devotion ; time is found to answer very well. In while society claims the commoner, and term-time as much guidance as possible long talk and much smoke and many

is obtained from tutors and lecturers, calls to be paid bring him to seven

while the lectures taken down are exo'clock and dinner in college hall. It is panded and digested in the leisurely one of the reading man's sorest trials, quiet of the vacations. The short term amidst all the social attractions of uni- is such a busy time that it is nearly imversity life, to regard the mean, as Aris- possible to keep pace with lecturers and totle advises, in the matter of friends. tutors: large masses of text can best be In his words, “perhaps then it is well read at home, where athletics and male not to endeavor to have very many society make fewer demands upon

one's friends:” the student must be unte energies. Mods. is a continuation of To velvos uñt' aĚeLvos, and must culti- school work, and provides an excellent vate the Emersonian ideal of using his foundation in the study of language and friends, like his books, only when he literature for “ Greats.” It is calculated wants them. Again, after dinner, the at once to impart a wide and accurate conviviality of the commoner is apt to knowledge of classical literature, and to be more protracted, and his hour for stimulate "pure scholarship ” by critiretiring somewhat later, than suits the cism of style and text. Free reading for scholar, who wraps himself in studious the sake of both style and matter and a silence from nine till eleven.

real grasp of the spirit are encouraged by Thus the two lives are contrasted, each the setting of the whole of Homer, Virgil, perhaps attaining a legitimate end. It Demosthenes, and Cicero as compulsory might be supposed that the commoner subjects. Besides these a candidate will element would do by far the most for offer three plays of Sophocles, Euripides, their colleges and university in athletics ; or Æschylus, three books of Thucydides but this is not the case. The scholar's or some historian, and perhaps Lucretius day is more methodically divided : it or Propertius and Catullus, and of these has its regular times for reading, physi- he will have a detailed and accurate cal exercise, and social intercourse, and knowledge both as to text and literary so he is to the fore in exercises like row matter. Composition papers in Latin ing which admit of regularity. Only and Greek, both in prose and verse, and here again he must carefully observe the passages for translation at sight, together mean, if his evening's reading is nototo with a general paper (largely grammatidegenerate into a dull and lethargic per- cal), help further to test the real scholar, formance. If it is the mind that makes while the principles of literary criticism a man, it is the scholar who makes his are instilled by a study of the Poetics

of Aristotle or some portion of Quintil- The feeling at the end of one's career ian. As a preparation for the final school often is that, were the time given him the elements of deductive and inductive again, he would go to far fewer lectures, logic are also required.

keep up to date with those he did take, It will thus be seen that, however and try to arrange his matter more for well a boy may have been trained at himself. school, his time may be amply occupied Besides these lectures there are others in preparing for Mods. during his first of a more public character given by the year and a half of residence at Oxford. various university professors. It has been The help he receives in this prepara- the complaint that, do what they will to tion is, briefly, as follows: A fellow of popularize their necessarily special subhis college is assigned to each man per- jects, the professors constantly get small sonally, to supervise his work, control his audiences and receive little encouragereading, and advise him generally. This ment. But the reason is partly that tutor will perhaps take his pupil in com their lectures are as a rule placed in the position and allow him one hour a week, afternoons, the recognized time for gym

as a rule not more, for tutors at Ox- nastic rather than mental work, and ford are busy men. For his logic and partly that the raison d'être of profesthe necessary help with his texts the sors is not so much lecturing to others scholar is probably sent to public lectures as themselves doing original work and on stated subjects, and a list is drawn up representing the university before the at the beginning of each term and posted world. Moreover, the proportion of unin public places, with lectures arranged dergraduate specialists is infinitesimal. to suit the candidates for the various Wherever intellectual work is going on schools. Each college contributes a num examinations are not far off, and from ber of lecturers. The choice of those to time to time the different colleges, with be attended devolves upon the tutor; a view to making a respectable display and this is a matter of no small impor- in the class lists, stimulate their men tance, for when time is short and the with examinations and even donatives amount of work to be done large, a good of books. The examination is held in lecturer can give much help, and a bad the large public schools, each man at his one do much harm. It is difficult to own little table, with examiners watching guide without actually doing the work closely. This process lasts about eight to stimulate without falling into one of days, during which time candidates wear the extremes of cramming or overbur- white ties, which effectively elicit the dening the pupil with irrelevant matter. sympathies of all non-combatants. The The merits of the lecturing system seem Mods. list as a rule contains some forty to be little called in question. In fact, names in the first class, about sixty in the mornings in term are spent in taking the second, and the same number in the down at a good speed, almost verbatim, third. Below this is a division called all the lecturer says. In a few cases the “gulf,” and still lower, like the the notes are copied out afresh the same frozen lake in Dante's Inferno, is the reday, so that the general drift can be gion of “ploughs: " dejecti fundo volcaught and emphatic points duly noted ; vuntur in imo. but it is found to be hard to get through The scholar, having obtained his first, other work set for the week if this plan and received our congratulations, sets to is pursued, and in the majority of cases work with good heart for the second and the notes are left in the rough, and per- more serious portion of his course,

but haps not consulted for two or three or with a dash of sour competitive feeling even four terms after they are taken. when he considers that out of the forty

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firsts in Mods. about twenty will fall The student follows the stream of logic into the second in Greats. However, the through Aristotle, Bacon, Kant, and Mill, examination is yet far off, and the first and of metaphysical speculation through year's reading for Greats is very invig- Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, orating, for he finds himself able to Hume, and Kant down to James and give his time to subject matter, exercis- John Stuart Mill, Huxley, and Spencer. ing his own judgment and intelligence Lastly he sits at the feet of Aristotle without being arrested at every step by for political philosophy, and imbibes the nice points of grammatical or textual wisdom of Maine and Mill, Bagehot and criticism: largior hic æther. What is Bryce, Austin and Walker. It needs no more calculated to excite curiosity and competition here to make a man feel imagination than the first reading of that it would be sin to waste a single Herodotus ? Reading, analyzing, and hour: the field is vast, the subjects are essay-writing are now the scholar's whole absorbing, and, in whatever class a man's employment; the pen is seldom out of name finally appears, he recognizes that his hand. The spirit of research and he has acquired a system and a method systematization gradually grows upon of thinking which are the most valuhim, and he is constantly coming upon able equipment for life. How much vistas of possible specialization. But he in earnest undergraduates are may be must resist their Circean fascinations, seen from the fact that, apart from their and, like Æneas in Hades, toil up the ordinary formal work, they expend imhill to get a broad comparative view mense labor and research upon essays of all the great dead who have been on philosophical, literary, and economic pioneers in thought.

subjects which they read before their “Unde omnes longo ordine possit own literary societies. These societies Adversos legere.”

consist chiefly of undergraduates, but History, Greek and Roman, moral and tutors and fellows freely attend, either mental philosophy, logic and the main as members or guests, at the fortnightly outlines of its development from an- or weekly meetings. A paper is read, cient to modern times, political philoso- a long debate follows, and in some cases phy and scholarship, — all these give a it is made compulsory to speak at not splendid comprehensive training. Mem- less than half the meetings in each term. ory, method, diligence, and enthusiasm These institutions tend to make the inmust all be brought to the task, or the tercourse between seniors and juniors student would better not start at all on free ; and though there exists no formal his seven-term undertaking. Herodotus, school of English and general literature, Thucydides, Xenophon, and Plutarch in private and individual effort produces as the original are a centre for the read- much good work in that field as would ing of Greek history, and from this ra- result from any system of examinations. diate studies in Grote, Curtius, Schö- A cry has recently been raised that such mann, and others. In Roman history, a school should be instituted, but it is to Plutarch, Sallust, Cicero's letters, Sue- be hoped that we shall not hand over to tonius, and the Annals of Tacitus form authority what can be more satisfactothe ground ; Mommsen, Ihne, Boissier, rily done by private enterprise. and Merivale the superstructure.

In Greats is held at the end of the summoral philosophy, a thorough study of mer term, early in June, beginning on Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Ethics Monday and ending on Saturday ; but is the pivot on which his learning in the though in point of time a shorter examsystems of Hobbes, Butler, Hume, Kant, ination, owing to the nature of the subBentham, Mill, and Spencer is to turn. jects, it is a severer strain than Mods., NO. 409.

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VOL. LXVIII.

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and the paper work is not the end. Each career, as in the fierce struggle of procandidate in turn is subjected to a thor- fessional life he can ill afford to waste a ough viva voce examination, so that if year. Compared with Cambridge, where his written work has left the examiners the degree is taken in three years,

after in doubt as to his class he may turn the one examination, Oxford is at a disadscale to his own advantage or disadvan- vantage in the competition for Indian tage. Thus perhaps the scholar is kept civil service appointments: it sends in in suspense till the end of July; then, its men fagged and jaded by Greats summoned to Oxford, he undergoes the and with no particular preparation. The final ordeal, and in a few days is de- second head

second head — the popularization of the

lighted to find his name placed in the education

education - speaks for itself. But it first class of the final school of Literæ rested with those who wished to curtail Humaniores. At some convenient op- the course to suggest some manner in portunity he pays his fees, takes his which it could be done without lowerdegree of B. A. before the vice-chancel- ing the present standard. Two methods lor, and brings his undergraduate days to were possible: one to retain the two a close. To what “ fresh woods and pas- examinations as at present, making the tures new ” he now betakes himself con- first earlier; the other, to return to cerns us not. He may stay at Oxford, the old system of one examination, to as a fellow of his college and lecturer be held after three years instead of in his university; he may go to teach in four. It was thought possible to shorten a public school, or to rise at the bar, in the time of preparation for Mods., bepolitics, or in the church. But, in what

cause many said that the year and a half ever sphere, he carries with him through was generally spent in idleness or a mere life the indelible stamp of his under repetition of work done at school ; and, graduate days at Oxford. So short his by means of the improved teaching of four

years seemed that he would be lit- public schools and the increase of applitle inclined to sympathize with any such ances, Literæ Humaniores could be read attempt to shorten the honors course as in three

years without the sacrifice of its was made during the past year, in re- generality or any of its valuable elements. gard to which a few paragraphs here If, it was said, there is to be an intermewill not be out of place.

diate school, let it be more directly inThe advisability of granting the de- troductory to Greats. The Moderations gree after three years was based on two school of scholarship is unnecessary. main grounds: the demand for a fourth A university certificate of a working year devoted to special work, and a demo- knowledge of Greek and Latin sufficient cratic desire to lessen the cost of univer- to teach a form in a school could be sity education. Under the first head it given in the first term. Of first classes was urged that specialization inevitably in Mods., only the brilliant men are fit to increases, and that special knowledge and be specialists; all others would do well to

; research have real claims upon us, though drop their linguistic studies. The inter" the Englishman is not by nature a re- est of the teacher, which is ultimately searcher ;” that therefore, in view of also that of the candidate, is adverse to the facts of the time, it would be in the Mods., because in lecturing he is coninterest of Greats itself to make this stantly compelled to confine himself to concession of one year to specialization, the requirements of a school more eleand thereby divert attack from the char- mentary than the final one. The tenacteristic Oxford school. Besides, there dency is therefore to prevent him from is an increasing desire to use the fourth being a genuine student. year in preparing for a man's particular The conservative answers to these pro

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