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to honor, splendor, and wealth, so as between the Flaminian and Salarian to cast into shade families whose ori- roads, may have formed one immense gin was far more ancient and histori- estate of the Acilii, embracing within cal than theirs. When Pertinax was its boundaries the villas Telfener, Borelected Emperor by the unanimous vote ghese, Medici, and the public promeof the senate, he stepped toward Ma- nade of the Pincio. nius Acilius Glabrio, who had been Of the members of the family who consul for the second time in A. D. obtained a prominent place in the his196, took him by the hand, showed tory of the Roman Empire during the him to the imperial throne, and begged first century after Christ, the best the assembly to name him in his place, known is Manius Acilius Glabrio, conas the noblest amongst the noble, eủye- sul with Trajan in 91. He was put to νέστατος πάντων ευπατριδών (Herodianus, death by Domitian in 95, as related by 2, 3).

Suetonius in the tenth chapter of the Toward the end of the republic we Life of that Emperor. “He caused find the Glabriones established on the several senators, even ex-consuls, to be Pincian hill, where they had built a executed, on the charge of their compalace, and laid out gardens which plotting against the empire (quasi moextended at least from the Trinità dei litores rerum novarum] ; among these, Monti to the northern end of the Villa Civica Cerealis, governor of Asia, SalBorghese. This fact was ascertained vidienus Orfitus, and Acilius Glabrio, for the first time in 1868, in conse- who had already been banished from quence of the discovery of a marble Rome.” tablet inscribed with the following de- The expression molitores rerum dication : "Tychicus, freedman of (Ma- novarum,

novarum,used by the biographer, nius Acilius) Glabrio and intendant (or may have a religious as well as a pokeeper) of his gardens, has dedicated litical meaning. In the present case it (this shrine) to Sylvanus.” This tab- seems to express both ideas ; that is

; let, found near the Trinitá dei Monti to say, a political action against Ceregate, is of delicate workmanship, with alis and Orfitus, who were stanch paedges cut sharply in the shape of a gans, and a religious and political one swallow's tail; and, as these edges against Glabrio, who is known, from were found in good condition, it is evi

other sources,

to have adopted the dent that the tablet must have come Christian faith, technically called nova to light not far from its original place. superstitio by Suetonius and Tacitus. Another inscription, found in July, The additional details concerning Gla1742, on the opposite side of the Tri- brio's fate are given by Dion Cassius, nitá dei Monti, proves that the gardens by Juvenal, and by Fronto. of the Acilian family extended south as told by these authors that, during his far as those of Sallust and Lucullus. consulship, A. D. 91, and before his The discovery of the tomb of the same exile, he was compelled by Domitian family on the borders of the Via Sala- to fight against a lion and two bears in ria shows that the ground above in the amphitheatre adjoining the Emwhich the remains of a farmhouse peror's villa at Albanum. This exvilla rustica — have just been excavat- traordinary event created such an imed) was also their property. It is pos- pression in Rome, and its memory sible, therefore, that the whole stretch lasted so long, that, half a century of land which we call Monti Parioli, later, we find it given by Fronto to his

1 The amphitheatre is still in existence. It by applying to the local inspector of antiquiwas purchased and partially excavated by the ties, Cavaliere Mariano Salustri. Italian government in 1887. It can be visited - NO, 405,



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imperial pupil Marcus Aurelius as a not known. His noble end helped, subject for a rhetorical composition. without doubt, the propagation of the

Xyphilinus, the abridger of Dion gospel among his relatives and descenCassius, relates that in the year 95 dants, as well as among the servants and some members of the imperial family freedmen of his house. To this humwere condemned by Domitian on the bler class belonged the parents of Attacharge of atheism, together with other lus, Acilius Quintianus and Acilia ..., leading personages who had adopted mentioned above. In the direct descent the customs and persuasion of the from the martyr are, first: Acilius Jews,” an expression which means the Glabrio, buried in the first sarcophagus, Christian faith. Now, immediately who is thought to have been the conafter this passage, Xyphilinus pro- sul of 186, and the husband of Plaria ceeds to describe how Manius Acilius Vera Priscilla, a noble lady from OsGlabrio, the ex-consul of 91, had been tia; secondly, Manius Acilius V(erus) implicated in the same trial and con- and his sister Acilia Priscilla, son and demned on the same charge with the daughter of the consul of 186; thirdothers. Among these others he men- ly, Claudius Acilius Valerius, son or tions Clemens and Domitilla, who were grandson of Claudius Acilius Cleoboles, manifestly Christians. Still, if the who lived in the first half of the third testimony of the pagan writer as re- century; and, lastly, Acilius Rufinus, a gards the Christianity of Clemens and descendant of Acilius Rufus, consul in Domitilla was confirmed by actual dis- 105 and 106. coveries made in the subterranean cem- All these noble Christians were bureteries of the Via Ardeatina, no trace ied in the l'appa crypt; the chapel and had been left of the conversion of its altar tomb seem to have been exGlabrio and of his family, either in clusively consecrated to the memory of history, tradition, or monuments. The the first hero, the consul of 91. The evidence is now at hand, and so com- date and the circumstances connected prehensive and powerful that no room with the translation of his relics from is left for a doubt.

the place of exile to Rome are not A particular of the case, related by known. Juvenal, confirms indirectly the account

There has been a prejudice among of Xyphilinus. He says that, in order modern writers on the history of relito mitigate the wrath of the tyrant gion, to the effect that during the first and avoid a catastrophe, Acilius Gla- three centuries the gospel spread in brio, after fighting in the amphithe- Rome only among the lowest classes of atre, feigned an air of stupidity. In society. The theory may be true in a this pretended stupidity, alluded to by certain sense, but the exceptions to the the satirist, it is easy to recognize the rule are frequent; for, setting aside prejudice so common among the pa- the Acilii, of whose conversion I have gans, to whom the retirement from spoken at length, the annals of the the joys of the world, the contempt of early church boast many names illuspublic honors, and the humble behavior trious in social as well as in political of the Christians appeared as contemp- or military life. I may mention, in tissima inertia. This is the very phrase the first place, Flavius Sabinus and his usel by Suetonius in speaking of Fla- sister Flavia Titiana. Their tombvius Clemens, murdered by Domitian stone, seen and copied by Marangoni ex tenuissima suspicione of his faith. in 1741, in the catacombs of Domitilla,

Glabrio was put to death in the place was rediscovered in 1871 by Comto which he had been alreadly banished, mendatore de Rossi, who thinks the the name and situation of which are persons named were grandchildren or descendants of Flavius Sabinus, brother Jews the way to the highest honors, of Vespasian. Sabinus was prefect of making it optional for them to perform Rome during the persecution of the or not such ceremonies as might not be Christians by Nero ; but Tacitus de- in accordance with the principles of scribes him as a gentle man, who hated their faith. What was granted to the violence, mitem virum abhorrentem a Jews by law of the empire may also sanguine et cædibus (Hist. iii. 65, 75). have been granted to the Christians by His second son, T. Flavius Clemens, personal benevolence of the Emperor, consul A. D. 82, was murdered in 95 especially at a time in which the pafor the Christian faith, and Flavia gans saw or made no difference between Domitilla, his daughter-in-law, ban- the followers of the Old and those of ished for the same cause to the island the New Testament. Eusebius praises Pandataria. There is a record of the the kindness of the Emperors who enbanishment of another Flavia Domi- trusted the governorship of important tilla to the island of Pontia, but her provinces to Christians, excusing them genealogy and relationship with the from the duty of taking a share in idolformer have not been yet clearly estab- atrous performances. Still, we cannot lished. The small island where she be blind to the fact that, for a Chrisspent many years in solitary confine- tian nobleman wishing to take part in ment is described by S. Jerome as one public life, the position was extremely of the leading places of pilgrimage in compromising. Hence very often we the fourth century of our era.

see baptism deferred until mature or I may also cite the names of Liberalis, old age, and strange situations created a consul suffectus and a martyr, whose by mixed marriages, and by the bringremains were buried in one of the cat- ing up of children in one or the other acombs of the Via Salaria ; of Urania, persuasion, and even acts of decided daughter of Herodes Atticus, sophist apostasy. and preceptor of Marcus Aurelius, and A curious monument connected with of his second wife, Vibullia Aleia. Her early Christian life in Rome, and ilepitaph was discovered in 1850 in the lustrating a much-debated point, catacombs of Prætextatus, which are that of mixed marriages,

was diswithin or very near the border line of covered in 1877, under the following the villa of Herodes, between the Via circumstances : Appia and the Via Latina.1

The Porta del Popolo was, at that A difficulty may arise here in the time, flanked by two square towers, mind of the reader, namely, how was built about 1480 by Pope Francesco it possible for these magistrates, gen- della Rovere (Sixtus IV.).

The muerals, consuls, to attends to their offi- nicipality of Rome, having decided to cial duties without performing acts of open an additional archway on each idolatry? As regards the consulship side of the gate, to improve the conand other high functions of a Roman ditions of traffic, the consent of the magistrate, we may recall the constitu- archæological commission was asked tion of Septimius Severus and Caracal- for the demolition of the towers, which la, described by Ulpianus, De Officio stood across the way. Consent was Proconsulis, 1. iii., which opened to the willingly given, because Sixtus IV.

1 The remains of this noble estate cover many hundred acres of the farm of La Caffarella, and the adjoining vineyards, Grandi and Vidaschi. The graceful temple, now called S. Urbano alla Caffarella, was dedicated by Herodes to the memory of his first wife, An

nia Regilla, A. D. 175. The nymphæum, miscalled of the Ægerian nymph, the cluster of trees called the bosco sacro, the porticoes and halls visible in the Vigna Grandi, and the circus of Maxentius are included.

was known to have built them with injury to the structure, or to disturb the spoils of a mausoleum which stood otherwise the peace of the one who is close by, on the site of the modern buried inside, because she (my daughchurch of S. Maria dei Miracoli; and ter) has been (or has appeared to be) there was some probability of recover a pagan among the pagans, and a Chrising a portion of that noble edifice. tian among the Christians ..."

Here The hopes of the commission were followed the specification of the penalfully realized. It was ascertained, by ties which the violator of the rules a careful examination of each marble would have incurred. block, that Pope Sixtus had ransacked It was thought, at first, by some and put to use not only the mausoleum learned men, that the curious phrase of S. Maria dei Miracoli, but many quod inter fedeles fidelis fuit inter other tombs, the remains of which still alienos pagana fuit had been dictated lined the Flaminian road. One of by the father as a jocose hint to the them belonged to Lucius Nonius As- religious inconsistency of the deceased; prenas, consul A. D. 29; another to a but such an explanation can hardly be wealthy freedman, Numerius Valerius accepted. Commendatore de Rossi, by Nicias; a third to Quintus Marcius recalling what Tertullian has written Turbo, governor of Pannonia, Dacia, in connection with mixed marriages, and Mauritania, and prefect of the has led us to the true understanding Prætorium under Hadrian; a fourth to of that singular epitaph. Ælius Gutta Calpurnianus, the circus In his second book, Ad Uxorem, in rider, and so forth. The best fragment trying to dissuade Christian girls from recovered from the foundations of the contracting marriages with Gentiles, towers is a block of travertine belong. Tertullian describes, with eloquent and ing to the pedestal of a tomb, and con grave words, the state of habitual

apostaining four lines of a Latin inscription. tasy to which they willingly exposed or This inscription must have been very submitted themselves, especially when prolix, and must have occupied a con the husband was kept in ignorance as siderable surface on the front of the regarded the Christianity of the bride. tomb, not only above and below, but He mentions the risk they would inalso on each side of the remaining four cur of betraying their religion and their lines. The shape of the letters and the conscience by accompanying their husquality of the stone on which they are bands to state and civil ceremonies and engraved made us believe, at first, that celebrations, thus sanctioning by the we had to deal with a tomb belong- simple fact of their presence acts of ing to the pre-Augustan period; but, idolatry. In the book De Corona Teron a closer examination, the following tullian concludes his argument with the strange and enigmatic words were read: following words: “These are the rea

sons why we do not marry. infidels, (Si quis) ALIQVIT VOLVERIT

because such marriages lead us back IN SE... QVOD FILIA MEA INTER FE

to superstition and idolatry.” The DELES FIDELIS FVIT INTER ALienos PA

same considerations are expressed by GANA FVIT QVOD SI QVIS VOLUERIT OSSA

other early Christian writers.

Another difficulty against the consciThese lines contain portions of the entious practice of the faith has been lex monumenti ; that is to say, of the found in the fact that many adepts, rules and obligations set by the builder whose names or surnames (cognomina) and owner of the tomb to provide for sounded offensive to their new Chrisits preservation. The meaning of the tian brothers, would have been obliged words is this: “If any one dare to do to change them, thus making public the




secret of their conversion. This diffi- a rare exception to the rule. This culty has been investigated by Canne- being the case, how can we account gieter, Fassini, Amati, and De Rossi; for the two names, which taken sepaand the conclusion arrived at is that rately give a great probability, taken the practice of imposing a new and together give an almost absolute cerChristian-like name upon the convert, tainty, of having been adopted in reon the occasion of his baptism, seems membrance of the two Apostles? One to have been brought into practice in observation may help us to explain the the third century.

Even then, it is a case, the preference shown to the case to find names that betray name of Paul over that of Peter: the openly the religious persuasion of the former was borne by the father and initiate. In the early Christian com- the son; the latter appears only as a munity at Ostia and Portus, by the surname given to the son. This fact mouth of the Tiber, we find many is not without importance, if we recolIppolyti, Rufini, and Candidæ, which lect that the two men who show such names, although of no special signifi- partiality for the name of Paul belong cance, were dear to the faithful, be- to the family of Anneus Seneca, the cause they had been borne by the three philosopher, whose friendship with the leading martyrs of the place. The Apostle has been made famous all over name of John (Johannes) does not ap- the world by a tradition dating at pear before the fifth century. Paul is least from the beginning of the fourth very common, but, being a genuine old century. This friendship between Paul Roman cognomen, does not necessarily and Seneca is alluded to in many apoimply that it was given in recollection cryphal documents, such as the acts of the Apostle. Peter (Petrus) is a attributed to Linus, and the twelve decidedly Christian name, and Eusebius letters exchanged by the two friends; says that in his time it was very often which letters, according to S. Jerome given to children; still, it does not and S. Austin, were frequently consultappear on the tombstones in the cata

ed and quoted, as genuine documents, combs except under what seem to be by their contemporaries. Although special and local circumstances.

these deserve no credence, they prove, One of the most singular monuments at all events, that the tradition so firmly connected with this controversy was believed must rest on a foundation of discovered at Ostia in January, 1867, truth. In fact, the Apostle was tried in a tomb on the Via Severiana, a few and judged in Corinth by the proconsteps outside the Porta Laurentina. It sul, Marcus Anneus Gallio, brother of is a marble slab, inscribed with the fol- Seneca; in Rome, he was handed over lowing legend:

to Afranius Burro, prefect of the Præ

torium, and an intimate friend of SeD(iis) M(anibus). Marco) ANNEO PAV

neca, with whom he had shared the unLO PETRO, M(arcus) ANNEVS

grateful task of directing the education

of Nero. We know, also, that the pre(This tomb has been raised by Mar- sence of the Jewish prisoner, and his cus Anneus Paul to his most beloved wonderful eloquence in preaching the son, Marcus Anneus Paul Peter.) new faith, created a profound sensation

Neither the inscription, nor the tomb among the members of the Prætorium itself, nor the neighboring ones on the and of the imperial household. His Via Severiana show any suspicion of case must have been inquired into by Christianity. The invocation “Diis the philosopher himself, who happened Manibusis a purely pagan one, and

to be consul suffectus at the time. The appears in Christian epitaphs only as announcement of the new theories,



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