Cartographic Relief Presentation

Cover
Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 24.07.2015 - 407 Seiten
Eduard Imhof's classic book Cartographic Relief Presentation is once again available. Within the discipline of cartography, few works are considered classics in the sense of retaining their interest, relevance, and inspiration with the passage of time. One such work is Imhof's masterpiece on relief representation, As a unique display of analysis and portrayal, this is an outstanding example of the need for cartography to combine intellect and graphics in solving map design problems. The range, detail, and scientific artistry of his solutions are presented in a teaching context that puts this work in a class by itself, with universal significance. The English-language version perserves Professor Imhof's forthright commentary and style analysis and presents his incomparable illustrations. This is a must have for anyone who makes maps.

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Inhalt

3 Photography of models
207
4 Advantages and disadvantages of shading by photography
208
I Oblique hill shading with computer
209
3 The experiments of Hügli
210
Chapter 10 Hachures and Other Related Techniques
213
B Slope hachures
214
2 Some details of formation
221
4 The misrepresentation of form by slope hachures
222

4 Types of errors in contour lines
26
5 Koppes empirical test formula
28
6 Some additional methods of examining contour lines
31
7 The zone of mean positional error in contour lines
32
8 Contour accuracy in modern surveys
35
C Status and quality of the topographic mapping of the earths surface
38
D General or derived maps at smaller scales as working bases
40
2 Stylized representation of land forms
41
Chapter 3 Further Basic Principles and Guidance
43
B On landscape drawing
44
C The aerial photograph and its interpretation
48
2 Completion through field reconnaissance and identification
49
3 Rectification and photomaps
50
D Binocular viewing of stereopairs
52
E Knowledge of geography and geomorphology
55
Chapter 4 The Theory of Colors
57
2 Chemical theory of color
58
4 Psychological theory of color
59
5 The classification of colors
62
6 Observations on color reproduction
65
7 On the harmony of colors and their compositions
69
8 On the symbolism of colors
73
9 Selection of colors from physiological points of view
74
Chapter 5 The Problem and its Characteristics
75
3 The use of terrain models
76
5 Basic factors affecting the ability to see spatial depth and solidity
78
6 Which of the spatial depth of solidity effects can be used in map design?
79
8 The forms and their dimensions should be capable of comprehension and measurement The fiction of the contour blanket
80
10 An experiment
81
11 Conflict and interplay between both approaches to representation The progress of the direct technique
83
12 Dualism and individuality of cartographic representation
84
13 The generalization and the interplay of the graphic elements
85
14 Different circumstances Different forms The achievements to be sought after
86
Chapter 6 Spot Heights and Soundings
87
2 The cartographic significance of spot heights
88
4 Datum Levels
89
5 The nature of spot height accuracies
92
6 The number and density of spot heights
93
7 Selection of spot heights general
94
8 Some special cases
95
9 Graphic problems
97
10 Combination of the various height and depth data and the style of their symbols
101
Chapter 7 Skeletal Lines
105
2 The skeletal line as a constructional aid in terrain representation
107
4 The skeletal line as an independent form of terrain representation
108
Chapter 8 Contour Lines
111
B The vertical intervals between contour lines
113
2 Combined interval systems
122
3 Intermediate contours
123
C Generalization of contours
126
5000 and larger
127
10000 to 1100000
128
100000
130
D Relationships between survey accuracy and generalization
134
E Relationships between contour structure and contour interval
136
F Graphic conventions and forms
137
2 Intermediate contours
140
6 Line weights the form of broken lines
143
G Clarity of contours and the untenable theory of vertical lighting
145
H Variations of line weight and threedimensionally shaded contours
148
1 Increasing the line weight as elevation increases
149
3 Local increases of line weight
150
I The employment of contours for elevations and depressions
154
Chapter 9 Shading and Shadows
159
B Slope shading
162
2 Graphic procedure
164
C Oblique hill shading or shadow depiction under oblique light
166
2 Geometric and topographic models
168
3 The drawing of forms
169
4 Shadow tones in flat areas
171
7 Highlights
172
9 The direction of the light and its local adjustment
173
10 Untenable theories
177
11 South lighting
178
The Master
185
13 Four difficult cases Illustrating the importance of impression
186
15 Small details in the land surface
187
17 Generalization of threedimensionally shaded land forms
188
18 Shading color and shading strength
190
19 Shading tones on glaciers and permanent snowfields
192
D Combined shading
194
2 Graphic representation
195
E Drawing material and drawing techniques
196
5 Working with drawing pencil watercolor brush or airbrush
198
adding light to flat surfaces
199
7 Shading originals on greytone film
200
9 Transfer to the printing plates
201
the advantages and disadvantages of shading and shadow tones
202
2 Combined shading
203
3 Oblique hill shading
204
G Oblique hill shading of the ocean floor
205
C The shadow hachure
224
E The colors of hachures
226
F Graphic techniques used in production
227
G Deficiencies and advantages combinations with other elements
228
2 Advantages and applicability
229
H Horizontal hachures
230
I Plan views of oblique parallel planes intersecting the terrain
232
K Eckerts dot method
234
Chapter 11 Rock Drawing
235
B Geomorphological examination of some rock formations
236
2 The importance of geological structure on the forms produced by weathering
238
3 Erosion gullies and depressions
243
4 Some other distinctive features
246
5 The debris mantle
247
6 Chemical weathering of rocks and karst forms
248
7 Wind Erosion
250
C Form analysis
251
4 Skeletal line structure of erosional features and at large
252
2 Skeletal lines
257
4 Rock shading under socalled vertical illumination
258
5 Shaded rock hachuring
259
6 Rock hachures following the principle the steeper the darker
266
particular design problems
270
11 Portrayal of rocks in smaller scale maps
272
12 What training is required for cartographic rock drawing?
273
2 Ink drawing on transparent film Astralon Kodatrace Mylar etc
274
G Critical examination and application of the different methods of rock drawing
279
5000 and larger
281
100000
282
Chapter 12 Symbols for Small Landforms and Other Supplementary Elements
283
1 Artificial slopes
285
2 Clay pits gravel pits and quarries
289
4 Dolines and other karst forms sink holes etc
291
6 Landslide mounds
292
9 Dunes
293
Chapter 13 Area Colors
295
B Natural and conventional colors
296
C Colors for hypsometric tinting
299
The contrasting color sequence
300
Gradation based on the principle the higher the lighter
301
Gradation based on the principle the higher the darker
302
Modified spectral scale with omission of the yellow step
303
Modified spectral scale with grey or violet steps for the highest regions
304
Further variations and extensions of spectral color scales
305
Color gradations with optimum elevation modelling effects
306
Elevation color gradation for relief maps at large and medium scales with hill shading
307
Softened modified spectral color sequence
308
Color sequences for threedimensional hill shaded relief maps at small scales
309
Color sequences for spectral hypsometric maps
310
Depressions
311
E Heights of hypsometric steps on land
312
3 Steps of equal area
314
5 Steps based on an arithmetical progression or additive steps
316
6 Steps based on a geometric progression
317
F The depths of bathymetric steps
318
G Adjusting the color tones to the steps
320
H Further remarks on the representation of elevation steps
321
2 Graphic design and generalization
322
4 Legends for layertinted maps
323
Chapter 14 Interplay of Elements
325
2 Conceptual graphic and technical aspects of interplay
326
3 Consistent generalization and good standardization
327
4 Careful emphasis and restraint Mutual relationships between things
328
5 Overlapping discontinuities substitution
329
6 Displacement narrow passes
331
7 Changes in tint value resulting from combination
332
8 Terrain representation and textual matter
333
1 Contours and slope or shadinghachures
334
2 Rock depiction by means of contours skeletal lines and hachures
335
5 Rock drawing and oblique hill shading
336
8 Shaded and colored maps of medium and large scales without contours
337
9 Contours and rock portrayal combined with hill shading and color tones
340
10 Slope hachures produced according to the principle the steeper the darker and hypsometric tints
342
11 Shaded hachures and hypsometric tints
343
14 Oblique hill shading combined with hypsometric tints in small scale maps
344
16 Contours with equal vertical intervals hachures and hypsometric tints
345
Chapter 15 Observations on Map Reproduction Techniques
347
2 Cartographic reproduction by photomechanical or electronic color separation of multicolored originals
348
3 Some observations on drawing technique
350
5 Considerations of inaccuracies in register
351
6 The printing sequence
353
Chapter 16 Future Developments
355
3 Is the map production technology of today equal to such requirements?
356
6 On the nature of cartographic representation
357
7 On art in cartography
359
9 Good maps are not always more expensive than bad maps
360
10 The key to progress
361
Bibliography
363
Supplementary Bibliography
375
Index
381
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