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who preferred the course he had followed. To take both lines was impossible.

Wisdom becomes most conspicuous when affairs are obscure. That the majority of the ministers were in the right, future events made manifest. But the principal reason which influenced Mr. Thornton and Moore, was this,—that by the latter withdrawing himself from Sweden, he left his government at liberty to act as was judged advisable, without being embarrassed by any consideration for his personal safety: whereas, had he refused to submit to the arrest, he would probably have had a guard of soldiers immediately placed over him; as Alopæus, the Russian minister, had been confined a few months before, and all his papers seized.

Upon Moore's return to London, the reception he met with from the Duke of York was highly gratifying. He told him, the King thought it most fortunate that the army had been placed in the hands of one who had the firmness to resist the King of Swęden's importunities.

Unanimous approbation, is, however, rare; and that minister who had been persuaded of Moore's having resisted with obduracy the solicitations of the Queen of Naples, censured him also as not sufficiently compliant to his Swedish Majesty; and persevered to impugn his memory, even after his decease. Yet it became manifest, from the augmenting mental aberration of that Sovereign, that if Moore had conceded to his demands, the troops would have been consumed in frantie projects; whereas, by opposing them with constancy, and bringing back the army to England, the opportunity was acquired of employing it in a glorious enterprise.

Chapter XV.



When the army returned from Sweden, it was allowed no respite, not even to disembark, but was despatched instantly to Portsmouth, The boundless ambition of Bonaparte had impelled him to subdue every nation around. Italy and Holland were conquered ; Prussia, Austria, and Russia humbled ; at Great Britain, guarded by a matchless fleet, he looked askance; but having pushed the King of Portugal from his throne, the Spanish monarchy became the next object of his desires. And being wont to eke out his martial feats with wily stratagems, he sowed jealousies between the king of that country and his son, and beguiled both by hollow flatteries. So, by putting on the guise of an ally, he insinuated several French corps into



that kingdom. Then, under the hypocritical pretence of reconciling the father and son, he invited the Prince of Asturias and his brother Don Carlos to meet him at Bayonne. The King and Queen of Spain were also allured to the same place. But no sooner had these credulous Princes entered the dissembler's toils, than a renunciation of the right and succession to the crown of Spain was extorted from them by menaces of death ; and they were hurried to France into captivity.

These perfidious acts being perpetrated, Napoleon, triumphing in the imagined success of his plot, sent his brother Joseph to Madrid, to be proclaimed King of the Spanish monarchy, and marched numerous forces into the country to enforce the usurpation. But the Spanish nation, though betrayed into the hands of their enemies, and deprived of a government, would not submit to an ignominious subjection without resistance. National pride, and rage at the perfidy of France, roused them to arms. Tumultuous ill-formed bands strove against the disciplined French battalions with inordinate fury. This spirit spread, and animated also the Portuguese, who had been plundered and insulted by their invaders. Earnest solicitations for assistance were quickly transmitted to England ; and the British Government, faithful to their treaties with Portugal, and watchful to preserve the independence of Europe, resolved to aid the Spanish and Portuguese patriots with the whole power of the state.

Arms, ammunition, and money were immediately transmitted to Spain. Sir Arthur Wellesley, with nine thousand men, was despatched from Ireland to Portugal on the 12th of July; other disposable corps were directed to join him; and the forces from Sweden had returned opportunely for the same laudable design.

The Duke of York had not mentioned to Moore how he was to be employed, and evi. dently shunned the subject; but, in addition to the hints from the War Minister, Moore

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