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product in these waste forms, but they alone do not make silk growing profitable.

The lecturer also described briefly other textile fibres, such as wool, cotton, jute, flax, ramie, etc., and showed on the screen magnified images of dyed silk with particles of iron appearing like knots on the fibre. These add weight to the goods, but reduce its wearing qualities and value. They are used to a great extent in some silks, the pound of silk sent to the dyer coming back weighing from 17 to 18 ounces, the additional weight being due to iron, tin or chemicals used in dyeing.

Mr. Orr said that he thought that flax had been ascertained to have a definite fibre of known diameter. It was an old homely fibre, but very good, and he was glad to say that the State of New Jersey had offered a premium of $5.00 per ton for flax straw grown in that State, in order to encourage that important industry.

The Secretary's report included the Servoss Gas Regulator, which was shown and explained. It contains no diaphragms of rubber or leather, liable to become clogged and stiff, but is made entirely of brass. It is attached to the discharge side of the meter, the house pipes being then screwed to the regulator instead of to the meter. The pressure of gas in the street mains is greater, in parts of a district at least, than is required to furnish full light without waste, this being made necessary by the length of the mains and the variable number of jets in use at different times. The regulator is intended to reduce the pressure in the pipes to which it is attached, so that no more gas shall pass than can be economically burned. In the Servoss Regulator there are two brass valves, one of which can be fixed and locked to limit the passage of gas for a fixed number of lights, while the other moves automatically and accommodates itself to the number of burners in use, the weight of this valve being gauged to the average gas pressure in the place at which it is to be employed. It has been in use for five years, and the patentee claims that it will save 15 per cent. of gas in this city without decreasing the illumination.

Amesbury's band saw filing machine was exhibited. It is designed not only to expedite the work of sharpening band saws, but to secure the even cutting of the points. It is said that an ordinary band saw contains from 500 to 1800 teeth, and that it takes an expert filer from 30 to 90 minutes to sharpen one, while a boy, who simply turns a crank, can with the machine do the same work better in from 10 to 15 minutes. Two special files are used, one for sharpening the face of

the teeth and gumming out the throat, and the other for sharpening the back of the teeth. The machine is adjustable for any size of teeth, and by the use of springs giving a variable pressure to high and low teeth irregularities are reduced, and the teeth brought to a level. The machines may be run by power or by hand.

G. W. Amesbury & Co. also exhibited improved solid bit expansion matcher heads, for tongueing and grooving, the heads being adjustable so as to give any thickness of tongue or groove desired.

A model of a section of Woodruff's new sleeping car was shown. The peculiarity about it is an arrangement of mattresses and supports, which does away with all boxes, leaving the upper part of the car entirely open in the daytime. The car, when used as an ordinary day car, does not show that it can be arranged as a sleeper, and when the berths are opened the upper and lower ones are substantially alike. The supports for the mattresses are made of wire, and can be compressed into one-half the space they occupy when extended.

Pole's differential car starter is different from all other devices, of which there are a great number. This starter works on the principle of changing the centre of gravity of the weight of the body to be moved or started, and consists in placing under a car or other vehicle a system of smaller wheels, to which the car body is attached, bearing upon

the inner side of the rim of the wheels, which rest upon the track. The applied power is made to draw a suitable bar, which pulls on the axle of the larger wheels, and thereby throws the centre line of the large and small wheel out from the vehicle, and by the law of gravitation the small wheel, on which rests the vehicle, runs down the incline, and every time the horses pull they have the advantage of the differential leverage.

Thomas' adjustable table weighs but 15 pounds, and by a simple jointed arrangement, like lazy tongs, can be quickly adjusted at different heights, and maintained there; braces attached to a horizontal slotted bar with thumb screws, giving the table the necessary steadiness.

The Secretary read a letter from Gen. Hazen, in charge of the Signal Office at Washington, inviting college graduates to the opening which the Signal Bureau presents to young men of decided talent and scientific tastes.

There being no further business, on motion the Institute adjourned until the September meeting.

ISAAC NORRIS, M.D., Secretary.

USEFUL BOOKS.

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Mechanical, Military and Naval. The original work having been now some years before the public without addition or revision, there are many subjects of importance, which, of necessity, are either not included in its pages, or have heen treated somewhat less fully than their present importance demands. With The object, therefore, of remedying these omissions, this Supplement has been prepared. Each subject will in it be treated in a thoroughly comprehensive way; but, of course, without repeating the information already included in the body of the work. Sold only by subscription. Parts 1 to 13, price 75 cents each, are now ready. Also Divisions 1 and 2, uniform with the original work,

price $5 00 each. The above or any book sent free by mail on receipt of published price. Catalogues and circulars forwarded promptly on application.

E. & F. N. SPON,
-Publishers and Importers of Scientific Books,

No. 446 BROOME STREET, NEW YORK. jan 81-ly

THE BOYDEN PREMIUM.

URIAH A. BOYDEN, ESQ., of Boston, Mass., las deposited with the Franklin Institute the sum of one thousand dollars, to be awarded as a premium to

" Any resident of North America who shall determine by experiment
whether all rays of light, and other physical rays, are care

not transmitted with the same velocity."

l'he following conditions have been established for the award of this premium :

1. Any resident of North America, or of the West India Islands, may be a competitor for the premium; the southern boundary of Mexico being consid. ered as the southern limit of North America.

2. Each competitor must transmit to the Secretary of the Franklir. Institute a memoir, describing in detail the apparatus, the mode of experimenting, and the results; and all memoirs received by him before the first day of January ne thousand eight hundred and ei ghty-two, will, as soon as possible after this date, be transmitted to the Committee of Judges.

The Board of Managers of the Franklin Institute shall, before the first da of January, one thousand eight hundred and eighty three select three citizens of the United States, of competent scientific ability, to waom the memoir shall be referred; and the said Judges shall examine the memoirs and report to the Franklin Institute whether, in their opinion, and, if so, which of their memoirs is worthy of the premium. And, on their report, the Franklin Institute shall decide whether the premium shall be awarded as recom.ecded by the Judges.

• 4. Every memoir shall be anonymous, but shall contain some motto or sigu by which it can be recognized and designated, and shall be accompanied by a Bealed envelope, endorsed on the outside with same motto or sign, and containing the name and address of the author of the memoir. It shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Franklin Institute to keep these envelopes securely and unopened vntil the Judges shall have finished their examination ; when, should the Judges be of opinion that any one of the memoirs is worthy of the premium, the corresponding envelope shall be opened, and the name of the author communicated to the Institute.

5. Should the Judges think proper, they may require the experiments described in any of the memoirs to be repeated in their presence.

6. The memoirs presented for the premium shall become the property on the Franklin Institute, and shall be published as it may direct.

jan 81, ly

THE STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,

FOUNDED BY THE LATE EDWIN A. STEVENS, AT

HOBOKEN, N. J.

HENRY MORTON, PH.D.,

President. ALPBED M. MAYER, PHD,

Prof. Physics. Robert H. THURSTON, A...., c.e.,

Prof. Mecb. Engineering. DE VOLSON Wood, C E.,

Prof. Math. and Mechanics. C. W. McCORD, A.M..

Prof. Mecb. Drawing. ALBERT R. LEEDS, A.M.,

Prof. Chemistry. CHARLES F. KROEH, A.M.,

Prof. Languages. Res. EDWARD Wall, A.M.,

Prof. Belles-lettres. The course of the Stevens Jostitute is of four years' duration, and covers all that appertains to the profession of a Mecbanical Engineer. By means of workshops provided with exrellent machinery, Physical Laboratories whose appointments are without an equal, and with the finest Cabinets of lostruments, every opportunity for the acquisition of thorough and practical knowledge is afforded.

For further particulars, address the President,

H. MORTON, Hoboken, N. J. jan '81, 1 yr.

JACOB NAYLOR,

Successor to HUNSWORTH & NAYLOR,

Peoples' Works,

GIRARD AVE. AND FRONT STREET

PHILADELPHIA.

STEAM ENGINES, BOILERS AND TANKS,
Shafting and Gearing, Couplings, Pulleys and Hangers.

STEAM AND HAND CRANES.
Passenger and Freight Hoisting Manhinery for Stores & Factories,

Marble Sawing and Polishing Machinery of all kinds, SPECIAL MACHINERY AND FIXTURES FOR SOAP MANUFACTURERS,

Retorts, Meters, Sulls, &c., for Chemists. Sugar Boilers, Tanks and Machinery. Castings in green sand o: Loam, and

Machinery in general. W. W. TUPPER & CO'S PATENT GRATES AND GRATE BARS. RIDER'S PATENT AUTOMATIC CUT-OFF ENGINE, either Vertical or Horizontal

lalu Elas

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