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fall, had God continued to love him, he would have continued to love God also. For the true reason, and the only reason, why Adam could not love God after the fall, was because, as he thought, God was become his irreconcileable enemy. As soon as he found out his mistake, and perceived that God was ready to be reconciled, he returned to the love of his Maker, without any“ new principle of grace.' Before the fall, that principle of self-love, which, according to Mr. M. was essential to him as a moral agent naturally inclined him to love God with all his heart as his greatest good. And after the fall, this same principle did as naturally incline him to hate God with all his heart, as his greatest evil. p. 9. His love and his hatred arose from the very, same principle. And his different affections were entirely owing to his different external circumstances. As soon, therefore, as his external circumstances were altered, and God became friendly again, he immediately returned to the love of God, without any new principle of grace ; there was nothing in his fallen circumstances to prevent it,' (according to Mr. M.) Adam therefore, on this scheme, had no more grace before the fall than after. It is true, the fall made an alteration in his external circumstances, which different external circumstances occasioned different affections; even as it was with the Israelites at the Red sea, when Pharaoh and his hosts were drowned, and their expectations of a prosperous journey to the land of Canaan were raised very high, they were full of love, and joy, and praise : but three days after, when they came to the waters of Marah, they murmured : and that from the same principle from which they before rejoiced. It is true, they had different affections toward God at these different times ; but the true and only reason,' was their different external circumstances, for they had no more grace at the one time, than at the other. And thus it was with Adam, on Mr. M.'s scheme.-Yea,
8. On this scheme, there is no essential difference between ile nature of satan, and the nature of Gabriel ; but their different affections, and different conduct, arise merely from the different external circumstances which they are in. For "there is no higher principle than self-love in either. The one
looks on God as an enemy, and so hates him merely in that view. And the other looks upon God as a friend, and so loves him merely in that view. And thus their natures are exactly alike, and their different affections and conduct arise merely from the different external circumstances which they are under. And thus satan stands justified in his enmity against God; and thus the holy angels are degraded to a level with devils. For satan might say, 'to love God in my circumstances would be to love my own misery : but to take delight in misery, to take pleasure in pain, is a contradiction; and is in its own nature impossible. Therefore, I am not to blame. And as to the angels, who dwell in heaven, do they fear God for naught, in the paradise above, surrounded with every blessing? Far from it. But let God put forth his hund now, and touch all that they have, and they will curse him to his face, just as we do.'
Thus much in answer to the first question : and to prepare the way for the second, we may observe, that Mr. M. says, speaking of Adam after the fall, (p. 9.) ' In every view, it must appear to him that God could deal no otherwise with him, but to execute the curse, unless he should act contrary to bis divine and glorious perfections.' And, p.'10. “To delight in God, in this case, was the same thing as to delight in his own misery.' And, p. 12. This was the true reason, and the only reason, why Adam could not love God after the fall.' But Adam soon found he was mistaken; for it soon appeared that God knew how to open a way to pardon sinners, 'consistent with his divine and glorious perfections.'Therefore,
Question II. Are we, as fallen creaturts, enemies only to false and mistaken ideas of the Deity ?
Answer. If we are enemies only to false and mistaken ideas of the Deity, then it will follow, that we have no enmity against God's true and real character, even none at all; but rather are in a disposition to love it as soon as known. Nor sball we need any inward influence of the Holy Spirit at all, to dispose us to the knowledge of it; for we shall not be averse to the knowledge of it, as not being at all prejudiced against it. In this case we shall not hate the light, but love
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and receive it with all our hearts, of our own accord. And therefore, if the external manifestations of God's true character are sufficiently clear, we shall know it, and we shall love it. And, on this hypothesis, had God given mankind, from the beginning of the world, an external exhibition of his true character, sufficiently full and plain, all mankind would have known and loved him from the beginning of the world. So that the great and general depravity of mankind, and the wickedness which hath overspread the earth, in all ages, have been entirely owing to God's not giving a sufficient external revelation of his true and real character to the children of
But they are not to blame for this. If there be any blame at all, it lies at his door, who hath neglected to let his true and real character be known. For had he but revealed it to mankind, they having no prejudice against it, but being naturally disposed to love it, would of course have attended to the revelation with good and honest hearts, and would have understood it, and have brought forth fruit accordingly.How to justify the divine conduct, in this view of things, I do not know. Nor can I tell how to justify the conduct of Moses and the prophets, of Christ Jesus and his apostles, who were commissioned to reveal God's true character to men, in suffering both God, and themselves for his sake, to be hated, when things, if this scheme is true, were so circumstanced, that if they had but plainly told the truth, all would have understood it, believed it, loved and obeyed it, and they would have been the most universally beloved of any persons in the world. If mankind, with respect to God's true and real character, stand affected as Mr. Sandeman represents, even as the inhabitants of an island perishing with hunger do, with respect to a large importation of corn, the news of which would spread like lightning from end to end of the island, and give hope and joy to all the inhabitants at ance, then had Jesus of Nazareth and his apostles plainly revealeil the Father's character to mankind, the news would have spread over the earıh, and would liave filled the world with joy; and these bringers of good tidings had been the delight of all nations. Why then did they suffer themselves to be hated, persecuted, murdered, for nothing! Yea, for worse
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than nothing ! even for secreting the true and real character of God, which they were sent expressly to reveal.
To say, that they did plainly reveal God's true and real character, but mankind did not understand them right; is to say, either the revelation was not on a level with the natural capacities of mankind, and so was not plain enough, not so plain as it ought to have been to answer the end ; and so these divine teachers were blame-worthy : or else their not understanding the revelation aright must be owing to their being at enmity against God's true and real character, which was revealed. For if the revelation was plain enough, and if they had no prejudice to blind their minds, they must have understood it.. Nothing could bave prevented a right understanding of the revelation but bad and dishonest hearts, by which they were inclined to hate the light and truth itself. For every good and honest heart would have understood the revelation, believed and loved it, and brougbt forth fruit. Luke viii. 15. We therefore proceed,
Question III. Is the carnal mind enmity against God's true and real character ; and that notwithstanding the plain and most espress revelation, which God has made of his readiness to be reconciled to us, if we repent and return to him through Jesus Christ?
Answer. If God would forgive us without repentance, we should like him. As in this, be would yield us every point in contest, and implicitly take the whole blame to bimself. Or in other words, if God would give up his law, we would give up our epmity against him ; as in this he would do as we would have him do, and implicitly become altogether such an one as we are. Or, which amounts to the same thing, if God will give up that character of himself exhibited in the moral law, and allow us to hate it, and yet love us, then we will like him; as in this he would justify us in our wickedness. But if he asserts his own dignity, abides by his law, and vindicates the honour of his character exhibited in it, and obliges us from the heart to acknowledge him to be wholly right, and ourselves to be wholly wrong, to repent and take the whole blame to ourselves, and ask forgiveness as of mere grace through Jesus Christ, then his character will not suit a carnal
mind. In a word, if God will forgive us without repentance, then we can love him without any change of nature; but otherwise our enmity will remain. For his offering pardon, in the name of Christ, upon repentance, will not pacify the heart of an impenitent, self-justifying sinner, and induce him 10 become a willing and obedient subject to the divine government.
Before the foundation of the world, the fall of man being foreseen, God had contrived a method, in which he might, consistently with his perfections, pardon and receive to favour the true penitent. And no sooner had man fallen, but he revealed his designs of mercy to our first parents, that they might inform their posterity; and instituted sacrifices as a shadow of the great atonement. So that all mankind were under sufficient external advantages from the beginning of the world, to have known that God is, and that he is a re murder of those who diligently seek him. And yet soon it came to pass, not only that Caio slew his brother, but that the whole earth was filled with violence.
After the flood, mankind in a body, soon cast off the true God, and idolatry spread over the face of the earth. For they did not like to retain God in their knowledge. At this time, that he might not leave himself without witness, God took one nation and set :hem up as a beacon on a hill, in the sight of all the nations, and to thein, in the sight of all the world around them, be exhibited his true and real character, and laid them under every possible obligation to love him, and to walk in his ways, that they might be to him for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for a glory, in the sight of all the nations; that they might yet have opportunity to return to the true God; but the nations around hated the God of Israel, and even the Israelites would not hear. Jer. xiii. 10. Yea, the Israelites cast off their God, whom they did not like, and joined with the heathen around them, in the worship of Baal, Ashtaroth, and Dagon gods, whom they did like; and this notwithstanding God himself used all external means that were proper, and the most wisely adapted, to induce them to love him, and to walk in his ways, from the day he took thein by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, always