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Now there came, o'er the perturbed waves, Dinanzi polveroso va superbo.
Loud crashing, terrible, a sound that made
Either shore tremble, as if of a wind

The appearance of the spirits flying Impetuous, from conflicting vapours sprung,

before the angelic vision, is no less viThat 'gainst some forest driving all its vidly described in one of those origimight,

nal similies for which this poet is so rePlucks off the branches, beats them down, markable; and the calım conscious power and hurls

of the angel, and the painful feeling Afar; then, onward passing, proudly which he seems to have, of some highsweeps

er office interrupted, probably, by this Its whirlwind rage, while beasts and shep- opposition of the internal spirits to

herds fiy Mine eyes he loosed, and spake,~“ And before us in a few words, and painted

the will of the Deity, are all brou ht now direct Thy visual nerve along that ancient foam,

at once to the eye and to the minil. There thickest where the smoke ascends."

Within the city, the first circle As frogs

is that of the heretics, who are Before their foe, the serpent, through the laid in open coffins, surrounded by

flame. The poet has some livePly swiftly all, till at the ground each one ly dialogues with several of these Lies on a heap; more than a thousand personages, who had been very emispirits

nent in their day; but we must proDestroyed, so saw I fleeing before one

ceed more rapidly than our inclination Who pass'd with unwet feet the Stygian would lead us to do. On the verge

sound. He, from his face removing the gross air,

of a high bank, which descended to Oft his left hand forth stretched, and seem

the next circle, he is instructed by his ed alone

master in the various gradations of By that annoyance wearied. I perceived

punishment which were next to enThat he was sent from heaven, and to my sue; but a violent fetid smell arising guide

from the abyss below, they took shelTurn'a me, who signal made that I should ter, we are told, while they were constand

versing, behind the lid of one of Quiet, and bend to him. Ah me! how the coffins. Minute circumstances of full

this kind, which Dante so often introOf noble anger seemed he! To the gate duces, add much to the air of truth He eame, and with his hand touched it, which pervades his poem. The puwhereat

nishments which follow are, first, of Open without impediment it flew.

those who do violence to others, to The departure of the angel is equals themselves, or to God and nature

. ly grand.

Fraud, however, is, in the poet's view,

still worse than violence, so that the He turn'd back o'er the filthy way, whole variety of frauds, ending with And syllable to us spoke none, but wore treachery, forms the next classofcrimes, The semblance of a man by other care

and these are punished to the very botBeset and keenly pressed, than thought of tom of the pit. The poets are conveyed

him Who in his presence stands. Then we our

down the precipice on the back of a

Centaur, where they find, in a pool of steps Toward that territory mov'd, &c.

boiling blood, all those who have used

violence on the persons of their felWe have made this long quotation, low creatures. The pool is very probecause it is a fair specimen of Dante's perly of different depths, and tyrants peculiar cast of conception and pictur- are consigned with much justice to the ing. His pictures, in general, consist deepest place, where the blood bubof only one or two figures. Here it bles up to their brows. The Centaur is an angel moving through the dark- carries his companions across the lake ness of Hell, over a pitchy lake ; at where it is shallowest,—they then first distinguished only by the sound find themselves in a thick woord, the which precedes him, and which is trees of which are peopled by the spie strongly brought to our imagination rits of self-murderers; and, to make in the fine simile of the whirlwind. the scene more horrible, the slaugliThere is in the original here one very tered bodies appear hanging from the expressive line, the force of which Mr branches. This wood skirted a barfary has not been able to reach ren plain,

There, on the very edge, sources of his materials, are shewn in Our steps we stayed. It was an area wide the ingenious criticism now alluded to Of arid sand, and thick, resembling most

to have very little foundation. It is The soil that erst by Cato's foot was trod.

a matter of no consequence, indeed, Vengeance of Heaven! Oh! how shouldst whether the idea of Dante's vision is

thou be feared By all, who read what here my eyes bem to be found elsewhere, or no. His ori. held.

ginality does not consist in the general Of naked spirits, many a flock I saw,

notion of visiting Hell, Purgatory, All weeping piteously, to different laws

and Paradise, which most likely may Subjected ; for on the earth some lay su. have occurred to thousands of crazy pine,

monks in their cells; nor is there any Some crouching close were seated, others great merit in the invention of the paced

incirlents. His merit lies mainly in Incessantly around ; the latter tribe, his forcible and picturesque descripMore numerous, those fewer who beneath tions, in which, we will venture to The torment lay, but louder in their grief. say, he cannot bụt be quite original, O'er all the sand fell slowly wafting down

as it is impossible they could be exDilated flakes of fire, as flakes of snow On Alpine summit, when the wind is ecuted in the same way by any two hushed.

different minds. Michael Angelo and As in the torrid Indian clime, the son

Raphael would both be perfectly oriOr Ammon saw upon his warrior band ginal in their manner of representing Descending, solid Aames,

the same subject in painting. Dante So fell the eternal fiery flood, wlierewith is the Michael Angelo of poetry. The marle gloved underneath.

The poets are conveyed down a deep Unceasing was the play of wretched hands descent, into the circles of Fraud, ou Now this, now that way glancing, to shake the back of the winged monster Geroff

yon. The description of this aërial The heat still falling fresh. 1

voyage affords another fineexemplificaIn this manner were punished those tion of the little circumstances which, in whose pride carried them even to de- the hands of this great master, add so spise the Deity. The chief figure in much to the vividness of his pictures. the picture is Capaneus, one of the seven chiefs who warred against Thebes. As a small vessel, back’ning out from land Dante then meets among an obscure Her station quits, so thence the monster set of men, who were scarcely to be And when he felt himself at large, turn'd seen wandering along the margin of

round a streain that divided this plain, and There where his breast had been, his forkto recognize any of whom he was o ed tail. bliged to use his own very singular Thus like an eel, outstretched, at length he yet picturesque simile) to look at them steer'd, with the same anxious sharpened Gath’ring the air up with retractile claws. sight with which an old tailor looks Not greater was the dread, when Phaeton at the eye of a needle when he is The reins let drop at random, whence high threading it; he meets among these

heaven, his master in letters, Brunetto. Not- Whereof signs yet appear, was wrapt in withstanding the disgraceful crime Than was my dread, when round me on for which this man was suffering punishment, our poet, as it is remarked The air I view'd, and other object none by the very learned critic in the Edin- Save the fell beast. He slowly sailing burgh Review, treats him with a re wheels spectful deference, shewn in the very His downward motion, unobserved of me, form of his address, which is entirely But that the wind arising to my face, lost in the translation, and which no Breathes on me from below. Now on our one but an extremely accurate critic right could have discovered.. There is no

I heard the cataract beneath us leap great poet, indeed, 60 attentive as

With hideous crash ; whence bending down Dante to the slightest and most minute New terror I conceived at the steep plunge,

to explore, shades of things. The Tesoretto of this For flames I saw, and wailings smote mine Brunetto has been supposed, by some critics, to have given Dante the idea So that all trembling close, I crouched my of his own poem ; but this supposi limbs, tion, as well as many other alleged And then distinguished, unperceived before,

each part



sa ve

By the dread torments that on every side were immersed in ice, in a vast lake, Drew nearer, how our downward course bounded by rocks, upon which enorwe wound.

mous giants (Nimrod among the rest) We cannot follow the various crimes were stationed. The approach to these and punishments comprehended un- giants is marvellously sublime. der the general head of Fraud. Some Turning our back upon the vale of woc, sinners, guilty of simony, appear with We crossed th’ encircled mound in silence. their teet sticking upwards, while There their heads are concealed, with flames Was twilight dim, that far along the dancing upon the soles; diviners and gloom,

but I heard a witches, with their heads turned the Mine eye advanced not :

horn wrong way; public defrauders boil

Sounded aloud. ing in pitch ;-and in his way among

The peal it blew had

made these last, the poet has a strange ad- The thunder feeble. Following its course venture with a set of devils, who are

The adverse way, my strained eyes were employed in tossing in, with pitch

bent forks, the souls that endeavour to es

On that one spot. So terrible a blast cape from their torment. We must

Orlando blew not, when that dismal rout give a little specimen of this scene. O'erthrew the host of Charlemain, and Still earnest on the pitch I gazed, to mark


His saintly warfare. Thitherward, not All things whate'er the chasm contain'd,

long, and those

My head was raised, when many lofty Who burn'd within. As dolphins that in sign

Methought I spied. To mariners, heave high their arched backs, "That thence forewarn'd they may advise to

We can conceive nothing more drea

ry than this sound of this solitary horn Their threaten'd vessel ; so at intervals, pealing through that vast and melanTo ease the pain, his back sone sinner choly region. The towers turn out shew'd,

to be giants. One of them hands the Then hid more nimbly than the lightning two poets down to the base of the glance.

rock. We give the description of the E'en as the frogs, that of a wat’ry moat Stand at the brink, with the jaws only out,

icy lake, in a rhyme translation of Their feet, and of the trunk all else con

this passage, which we have somecealed,

where seen, and which seems, to us, Thus on each part the sinners stood, but to retain the character of Dante's com

position still more accurately, pera As Barbariccia was at hand, so they

haps, than Mr Cary's blank verse. Drew back under the wave.

I saw, and

Were my rude rlıymes as rugged, rough, yet

and harsh, My heart doth stagger, one, that waited

As the o'erhanging rocks, whose horror thus,

stood As it befalls, that oft one frog remains While the next springs away: and Graf- Then might I chew, in hope, bright fan

Around the margin of that murky marsh, fiacan, Who of the fiends was nearest, grappling But, since my purpose cannot be made

cy's food; seized His clotted locks, and dragged him sprawl. With tear and trembling each weak verse


I frame ! That he appeared to me an otter.

O can it be that one of human blood, We must pass over the hypocrites, Whose tongue first stammer'd out a pawhose heads are loaded with leaden

rent's name, caps; the impostors of various kinds, Should of that black abyss the secrets whose limbs were hacked and dismem

strange proclaim ? bered: those who go about clothed in Assist me, then, ye ladies of the lyre ; fire, (Ulysses was aipong this num

Give to my verse your own dread energy, ber, who tells a story of his voyage and

E'en as Amphion's ye could once inspire, its termination, quite different from

Which girded Thebes with towers and tur

rets high? Homer's,) and, when they speak, So shall my song with its great subject vie ! the tip of whose flame moves like a Ah! wretched race! in that infernal den, tongue: and we must go on to the (For which, in vain, appropriate terms. I concluding scene of the traitors, who try,)


ing up,




That next I met; much happier had ye says, that it is his humour. At this been

point is the termination of Hell, and Made sheep or goats at first-or any thing Virgil conducts Dante out of it by a but men!

very singular contrivance,--they let When we had reach'd the low and gloomy themselves down Lucifer's shaggy pond

sides, for the head and shoulders of that Bencath the giant sentinels, whose seat Was on the fencing rock, which still I that appear sticking out of the central

great worm," as he is called, are all conn'd With up-turn'd eyes,-I heard a voice re

hole, and his limbs reach to where

there is an opening into the repeat Beside me,—Take care where you set your gions of day. In the course of this feet,

descent, too, Dante is astonished at Lest you should crush some wretched bro- seeing Virgil turn round and ascend, ther's head,

and he thinks that he is to appear And, with hard heels, his face all rudely again under Lucifer's mouth, but this beat !

revolution was made exactly at the 1 turn'd, and saw before me, where was centre of the world, so that their asspread

cending course brings them out at the A mighty frozen lake, that seem'd like arch-fiend's feet. This is all abun. glass or lead.

dantly ridiculous, and it is a pity that Never as yet did winter's ruffian force

so grand a poem should have soludicrous Wrap Sustrian Danaw in such mantle

a conclusion. Take it on the whole, bleak,

however, it is, perhaps, an unequalled Nor so enchain the Tanais in its course : Not , on that lake were massy Tabernique imperfect view that we have given of

exhibition of genius; and even the To fall, or vast Pietrapapa's peak, Would from the margin of its icy floor,

it may have opened glimpses, we One running rent be heard to growl and trust, into its dark vistas and windcreak :

ings, which may suffice to incline our And, (in the season, when, their little readers to search them more thorough

ly for themselves. Its great excelTo heap, the female gleaners o'er the corn lence, indeed, cannot be described in

any general view of its contents, E’en in that season, as a group of frogs, which, on the contrary, when stripFrom green and slimy pool, push forth the ped of the divine poetry which en

circles them, may often appear extraWhile ceaseless croaking murmurs o'er the vagant and absurd ; and it can only be

bogs: So, with dull livid cheeks, were sticking

thoroughly felt when we surrender

our spirits with a devout submission out, Above the glassy surface, all about,

to the spell of the mighty magician. Sad faces of the damn'd. Their teeth they It is impossible, too, we suspect, to regnash'd

tain this spell in any translation whatLike to the stork's bill clattering, as they Many translations of great lout

poets give us fine poems, if they do With downcast looks :--the cold their lips not give us exactly the poem. There had gashid,

is no making any thing of Dante, if And from their weeping eyes despair's we have not him as he is himself. The black ensigns flash'd.

mixture of any other mind with his, The story of Count Ugolino, wit) at once reduces him to the race of which every one is familiar, follows mortals. There must be no water this horrible description; and the close mingled with his wine-no alloy with of the whole drama is the appearance his fine gold.

D. of Lucifer himself, who, with wings flapping about bim like the sails of a windmill, and with three vast mouths, is employing himself, very much to his satistaction, in devour As circumstances have occurred to ing three grand traitors, Judas Isca render certain changes in our meriot, Cassius, and Brutus. Why the teorological reports both expedient and illustrious patriots are placed in such necessary, we shall take this opportushabby company, Dante does not think nity of explaining to our readers the it worth his while to explain, and so cause and the nature of these altera. we must only suppose, as Shylock tions, as well as stating some of the

fields pour :)





results of our experiments on that ter the atmosphere has undergone a branch of science.

very sensible change. Neither does Since the commencement of the the cover coinpletely prevent the deyear 1918, we have regularly report- rangement of the scale alluded to ed the average state of Wilson's hy. above, and though it does no doubt grometer, but, in future, we shall delay, we suspect it will not arrest the cease to do so, partly on account of natural tendency of the bladdler to our instrument having lately given decay. way, and partly because, in our opi From these facts, it is obvious, we nion, it is radically imperfect. It was apprehend, that the invention of Mr early suggested to us, by a scientific Wilson, though both simple and ingefriend, that, from the very nature of nious, must be ranked among the mathe instrument, its indications were ny unsuccessful attempts that have not to be relied on, and our own ex- been made to discover a permanently perience has completely verifieil his accurate hygrometer. The detect unconjecture. Most of our readers, we der which it labours, is coinmon to it suppose, know that the instrument with De Luc's, Saussure's, and, inconsists of a rat's bladder, filled with deed, every other instrument of the mercury, and attached to a wide there kind that depenils on the expansion mometer tube. As the air increases and contraction of animal or vegetable in dryness, the bladder is contracted, substances; and it is impossible to reand forces the mercury up into the flect on the imperfection of all these tube, and when the atmosphere be- hygrometers, without being more forcomes more moist, the bladder expands, cibly struck with the unequalled exand the mercury again descends. We cellence of Professor Leslie's elegant have found, however, that though the and philosophical invention. It must, points of extreme moisture and dry- at the same time, be acknowledged, ness be at first fixed with the greatest however, that even the differential possible accuracy, they are soon liable thermometer, when applied to the to derangement, from the change that purposes of hygrometry, is, in some takes place in the texture of the blad- measure, an imperfect instrument. der, by being alternately wet and dry. Its indications, taken by themselves, For some time, perhaps weeks, or even do not always convey a correct idea of months, we found that the instru- the state of the atmosphere, with rement with which we observed, coin- spect to moisture or dryness; or, in cided with Leslie's very nearly, at other words, we cannot always infer the point of extreme moisture, but, that the air is either relatively or abafter the continuance of damp or wet solutely in the same state, when the weather, it soon began to sink below instrument stands at the same point. zero, and gradually continued to do so, To explain this more fully by an extill, at last, it stood eight or ten de- ample, let us suppose that Leslie's hygrees below the bottom of the scale. grometer indicates 30 degrees of dryIn our reports, we made allowance for ness, while the thermometer stanıls at this alteration, but, during the rainy 50, and that the latter rises to 55, weather in the early part of Decem- while the atmosphere suffers no absober, the bladder gave way, and, on lute increase or diminution of moisexamination, proved to be quite rot- ture, then the hygrometer, instead of ten and decayed. The instrument 30, woull be found to indicate about might, no doubt, be fitted up so as to 43. In like manner, if, on two differbe protected from the rain, and, conse ent days, the hygrometer stands at 30, quently, less liable to sudden changes but the thermometer, on the one, at from wetness to dryness. We have, 40, and on the other at 60, the absoindeed, seen them in this form, and, lute quantities of moisture, in a given from the liberality of a nobleman, portion of the air, instead of being who had a number of them con- equal, would be to one another as 75 structed by Allie, of Edinburgh, for to 115, and the relative quantities, the purpose of giving them a fair trial, supposing absolute moisture to be dewe have had a covered one for some noted by 100, and absolute dryness time in our possession. We have by 0, as 43 to 58. In all cases, and tound, however, that the instrument, at all temperatures, when the air is in this state, is exceedingly sluggish completely saturated with moistur”, in its movements, frequently remain- the hygrometer must stand at zero, ing a considerable time stationary af- but as the air, by an increase of tem

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