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sideration deserves especially the at- portion of the heat is hence dissipated tention of travellers, who can seldom, before accumulation. A. correspondat one place, mark the temperature of ing effect has been remarked with rethe air for any length of time, with- spect to the impressions of cold. out which, any observations at all are Thus, in the neighbourhood of Edincomparatively of little moment, but burgh, after a long tract of rigorous who might, nevertheless, add greatly weather, the frost was found to have to our information, by a few judicious penetrated 13 inches into the ground experiments on the temperature of the in a ploughed field, but only 8 inches ground. It is on this account, that in one piece of pasture ground, and 4 observations of the temperature of inches in another. But, in some of springs are so valuable, -of those the streets of that city, the frost had springs particularly, whose waters descended even below two feet, so as flowing from a considerable depth, to begin to affect the water pipes. carry the temperature of the interior The greater density and solidity of the along with them to the surface; and pavement had, no doubt, conducted there affect the thermometer exactly, the frigorific impressions more coas if itself had been sunk in the piously downwards, while the loose ground. On many springs of this and spongy blades of grass had mostly kind, accordingly, the vicissitudes of scattered and wasted those impressions the seasons have scarcely any influ- in the open field. This consideration,

We have frequently noted the it is obvious, might lead to very imtemperature of a spring near the top portant practical results.” of the Lammermuir hills in Hadding The above experiments, while they tonshire. It scarcely varies 1° through- show clearly the progress of the sun's out the year, and the celebrated foun- heat downwards, afford, so far as they tain of Vaucluse only varies 22.1, ris- go, no indication of any permanent ing to its highest tenperature 560.3 increase as we descend, or of any perin the beginning of September, and manent heat rising from below,—no falling to the lowest 54o.1 at the be- sign of the supposed existence of a ginning of April.

central fire; but a very considerable The nature of the ground, and even heat might, no doubt, exist at the of the mere surface, bas, it appears, a centre of the earth, and yet be quite sensible influence on the thermome- insensible at so sinall a depth below ters that are sunk in it, and a know- the surface, and for so short a period ledge of this circumstance might often as any experiments have been conbe of practical utility. In the laying ducted. It would be extremely inteof water pipes, for example, or store resting, therefore, to obtain observaing up of vegetables, it would indicate tions at greater depths at the bottom, how far they should be sunk to be for example, of the deepest mines. quite beyond the reach of frost. By It is certainly most natural to regard measuring the difference between the the sun as the only original source temperature of the air, and that of the of heat; that which appears in the ground, at the same time, Mr Leslie phenomena of volcanoes and boiling finds, that " while fresh ploughed springs, being only what the earth has land, for instance, indicates an increa- already received from this source, resed temperature (above that of the developed, and this too but very parair) of 8°, a grass plot, close beside it, tially, by processes as yet unknown, will scarcely show a difference of 3o. but similar probably in principle to Nor is this distinction owing to any those with which we are familiar. greater absorption of light by the More decisive experiments, therefore, black mould ; the reflection from the at great depths, would probably throw surface, in both cases, being extreme- light on this curious subject. The ly small. A thin layer of hay, whe- theory in which the earth is supposed ther spread on the naked soil, or on to receive all its heat from the sun, the green turf, will betray the same and to retain all that it receives, it it diminished effect. The fibres of the were established, would lead to imgrass exposing a multiplied surface to portant results. If heat be gradually the contact of the air, the greater accumulating on the earth, then must

it have been increasing for ages, and * See Edinburgh Review, Vol. XXX. Art. Polar Ice.

Encycl. Brit. Suppl. Art. Climate.


there may even have been a time when air, have turned, at the same time, the its intensity was very feeble, or when more fixed ingredients into earth, and the cold was severe beyond any thing thus deposited those regular and cry. we at present experience, or can even stalline masses that we observe? Such conceive. Would not this circum- are the speculations which this vies stance, then, point more than any of the system of nature would sug. other to the origin of these extraordi- gest. But on so obscure a subject nary revolutions which have taken though knowledge is undoubtedly on place on the earth's surface? The ma- the advance, we shall yet probably terials which at present compose this remain long in ignorance, if, insurface have evidently not been deed, it be at all given to human thrown together at random. They genius ever to solve so hidden 2 are arranged in regular masses or mystery, —

-ever to develope, as it has rocks, each of them distinguished by already done in the heavens, the great very peculiar properties, and the revolutions which are proceeding, perwhole system bearing evident marks haps, with equal regularity on the of design, and of the operation of a earth. “ About such ultimate attaingreat cause at once over the whole ments,” in the language of a very ceglobe. The more studiously, in short, lebrated philosopher, when speaking these singular masses are examined, the of the discovery of a principle yet more clearly do they evince, on the more general than gravitation, “ about whole, a slow, regular, and successive such ultimate attainments it were unformation. What power in nature then wise to be sanguine, and unphilosoare we acquainted with, so likely to phical to despair.” have operated on this vast scale, and formed these universal depositions as that of heat, the living principle of the organised world ? not, indeed, by any sudden and violent efforts, but by

No. III. Ť its slow, regular, and continued accumulation. From what we already

II. Order. know of this active fluid, some idea

GLIRES. (Gnawers.) may be formed of the changes which would arise on the earth, if we should The animals of this order are dis, conceive it gradually to be withdrawn. tinguished from those of the precedThe ocean would become a solid rock, ing, termed Ferp, by the absence of -the present race of animals would disa tusks. Their incisors, limited to two appear,--the atmosphere itself might in cach jaw, are remarkable on acbecome liquid, and, together with count of their great length and sharpother fluids now aerial, mnight form ness. In some, these incisors are the ocean of this imaginary world. simple, but in others, behind each inIf these bodies, in their present gase- cisor in the upper jaw, there is a subous form, are many of them distin- sidiary one, smaller in size and not so guished by their highly solvent power, long. Between the incisors and the with what augmented energy would grinders there is a vacant space. The they not operate in this state of con- grinders differ in their form according centration ; and as the present ocean to the genera, having the top either flat dissolves salts and other bodies, might with transverse ridges, or uneven and not this new element render fluid tuberculated. The food of the quamany of the hardest rocks? If the drupeds of this order consists chiefly diminution of heat, therefore, would of vegetable matter, as grain, roots, thus change the face of the globe, and even wood, which they speedily might not, on the other land, its gra- reduce by cutting with their incidual accumulation produce the reverse sors. In the following arrangement changes, as they appear, from exist- of the genera, the divisions appear to ing records, really to have taken place? us more natural and definite than Crystallization seems to have been those which Cuvier has adopted. the immediate agent in the formation of the present rocks, and might not, * Playfair's Outlines of Natural Philotherefore, the gradual increase of heat, sophy. while it dissipated the more volatile: + The second of these Essays appeared principles of the fluid element into in our Number for May 1818.



In those which we have examined, Incisors in each jaw simple. The the males were smaller than the fea quadrupeds of this family have the males, and of a darker colour, being bones of the clavicle more completely nearly greyish black. The females developed than in those of the se were yellowish brown, with scattered cond, so that their fore-legs are ca- black hairs. Tail in both covered pable of executing a greater variety with short hair and ending in a small of motions, as climbing and seizing pencil. objects. They have four toes, with a

25. A. agrestis. Field campagnol. subsidiary claw or knob in place of a Body three inches and a half in length; thumb, on the fore feet, and five toes the tail one inch and a half. Weight on the hind feet.

236 grains. Fur reddish brown 1. Tribe. Summits of the grind- above; grey beneath. E. Shorters flat, and inarked with transverse tuiled field-mouse. S. Vole-mouse. ridges of enamel.

Ray, Syn. Quad. p. 218. Mus XIV. Genus.--ARVICOLA. Cam

agrestis. pignol.

Linnæus, Syst. Nat. p. 82. M. Grinders three in each jaw, truncat

terrestris. ed at both ends, grooved on the sides,

Walk. r, Mam. Scot. p. 496. and nearly of equal thickness through

Bewick's Quadrupeds, p. 389.

Short-tailed field-inouse. The species of this genus are like

This species is found in fields, old wise characterized by the size of the walls, and gardens. It feeds on roots head, the shortness of the ears and and seeds, and is very destructive to tail in proportion to the dimensions early crops, especially peas. It is dusily of the body, and the coarseness of the taken by the simple trap, called by

gardeners the fourth figure. fur.

Doubts have been entertained as to 24. A. aquatica. Water Campagnol. the propriety of considering this as Body sevin inches in length, and the distinct from the forner. It is protail three inches.

Fur above, dark bable that these have arisen, in conyellowish brown, inclining to black; beneath paler. E. luter Rut. si sequence of the description given by

Pennant of his short-tailed field-mouse, Water Mouse, or Rutten. G. Radan which, unfortunately, appears to have uisgue.

been no other than a young water camSibbald, Scot. Ill. p. 12. Mus

pagnol. aquaticus. Ray, Sin. Quad. p. 217. M. major size of the former; the fur is brown

This species never exceeds half the aquaticus.

er above, and paler beneath ; the ears Linnæus, Syst. Nat. p. 82. M.

are a little longer; and the tusks, amphibius.

which in the former are yellow, are Pennant, Brit. Zool. I. p. 118. in this nearly wliite. They do not Water Rat.

resort to the same places. Walker, Mam. Scot. p. 496. M. amphibius.

XV. Genus.-Myoxus. Dormouse. Bewick, Quadrupeds, p. 388.

Grinders four in number in each Water Rat.

jaw ; divided into roots at the base. This species frequents rivers, living

The dorinice are distinguished frona in holes in the banks. It swims and the campagnols by the superior softdives well. During the winter months ness of the fur, and the greater length it retires to a cavity formed under of the tail. They differ from all ground in a dry bank, in which it the gnawers, in being destitute of a has previously deposited a stock of cæcum. provisions. This consists in some


M. avellanurius. Common cases of potatoes, as was observed by Dormouse. Fur above tawny red ; the Reverend Mr White of Selborne, beneath white. Tail bushy at the (White's Works, I. p. 129,) and we end. E. Sleeper. have had an opportunity of repeating The dormouse frequents woods and the observation. In the end of July hedges. During the winter season it we have found the stomach of a young subsists on the stores of nuts which one filled with the leaves of red clo- it had prepared in autumn, and in

very cold weather becomes torpid.


This species is not uncommon in grees above the freezing point, it beEngland. In Scotland, however, it comes torpid, is rare, and does not appear to have

29. M. messorius. Harvest Mouse. been observed by any other naturalist

Fur chestnut brown above, white be than the late Dr Walker, who inserts neath; the colours divided by a it in his Mammalia Scotica, without specifying the place where it was straight line. Length of the body

24 inches, and of the tail 2 inches. found.

Weight one-sixth of an ounce." II. Tribe. Summits of the grind

The late Mr White of Selborne ers uneven, being covered with small discovered this species in Hampshire eminences of enamel. The animals in 1767. From his observations, Mr of this tribe feed on a greater variety Pennant appears to have drawn up his of substances than those of the pre- description in the Brit. Zool. I. p: 121, ceding.

without acknowledging the source of

his information. According to Mr XVI. Genus.-Mus. Mouse.

White," they never enter into houGrinders three in each jaw; tail ses; are carried into ricks and barns about the length of the body, annu with the sheaves; abound in harvest; lated with scales and thinly covered and build their nests amidst the straws with hair,

of the corn above the ground, and a. Mice.

sometimes in thistles. They breed as 27. M. musculus. Common Mouse. many as eight at a litter, in a little

round nest composed of the blades of Fur yellowish brown above, mixed

grass and wheat.” White's Works, with black hairs; beneath iron, grey. 1. p. 59. Body about three inches in length. G.

We are not certain that this species Luch.

has ever been found in Scotland. The mouse is common in houses, in Perhaps it is not specifically distinct all districts of the country. It is very from the field-mouse, which varies prolific, breeding several times in the considerably both with regard to size course of the year.

We have found

and colour. seventeen young ones in a nest, all nearly of the same size, and blind.

b. Rats. A beautiful variety sometimes occurs, 30. M. rattus. Black Rat. Fur with red eyes and white fur,

greyish black above, paler coloured 28. M. sylvaticus. Field Mouse, and of the tail nine inches. s. Black

beneath. Length of the body eight, Fur yellowish brown above, beneath

rotten, Roof rotten, G. Radan. white; the margin of the former cofour and a spot on the breast ferru- in houses, and devouring all sorts of

This is a voracious' animal, living ginous. Length of the body about provisions

. We have evidence of their four inches and a quarter. Weight bringing forth eleven young ones at a one ounce. Tail black above, beneath litter, and of their pulling the hair off grey, and of the same length as the the necks of cows to line their nests. i body. Sibbald refers to this species in his

It is generally supposed that this Scotia Illustrata, p. 11, lib. jii. p. 12. the brown rat, which is considered as

species is now nearly extirpated by But Ray is the first British author its enemy. We, however, not oply who has described it with accuracy, want evidence of the enmity subsistin his Syn. An. p. 218, under the title ing between the species, but we know Mus Domesticus Medius. The ears are larger, the head longer, same house ; the brown rat residing

that they have lived for years in the and the eyes more prominent than in in holes in the floor, the other in the the common mouse. This species roof. We fear that the period of their never frcquents houses. It inhabits extirpation is far distant. They still the fields, and in gardens is equally infest the older houses of London and destructive as the field campagnol

. It Edinburgh, and in many districts of forms its retreat under ground. It the country they are very common. brings forth nine young ones at a lits ter. It lays up a store of seeds and 31. M. decumanus. Brown Rat. roots before winter, and in cold wed- Fur above, yellowish brown, beneath ther, when the air is about eleven de grey. Tail equal in length to the

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body, which is about nine inches. E. the most northerly, es Orkney and Norway-rat ; S. Grund-rotten. Zetland.

This species appears to have been The hare has its form on the sur. introduced into this country about the face of the ground. It breeds three middle of last century. Although not or four times in the season, goes with so nimble as the black rat, it is strong- young thirty days, and brings forth er and bolder; the nose is more ob- from one to five at a litter. The tuse, and the hair on the feet thinner. young ones have their eyes and ears It forms its holes under ground, and open, and their bodies covered with prefers being near drains of foul water. fur. The Aesh of the hare is much It swims and dives with ease. It sought after, although of a dark cobrings forth as many as nineteen at a lour. The skins form a considerable litter.

article of trade. They are collected XVII. Genus.—Scrurus. Squirrel. who sell them, sometimes to the

in the country by itinerant dealers, Grinders, four in each jaw, with a small temporary one in front in the amount of thirty thousand, in the

February market at Dumfries. upper. Incisors much compressed; tail brushy.

31. L. variabilis. Alpine Hare.

Ears shorter than the head, and hlack 32. S. vulgaris. Common Squirrel. towards the tips, the rest of the boFurabove, brownish red, beneath dy dusky in summer, and white in white; ears tufted with long hairs. winter. ' Weight about six pounds. Length of the body about eight inch- S. White hare, G. Maigheach gheal. es. G. Feoray.

This hare is confined to the high The squirrel is common in the mountains of the north of Scotland. wooded districts of the middle and It is seldom found lower than 2000 south of Scotland. It resides on trees, feet above the level of the sea. It feeding on buds, twigs and fruits. makes its retreat beneath stones, or in It heaps up a stock of provision for crevices in the rocks. the winter, securing it in the eleft of an old tree. It makes its nest in a si

35. L. cuniculus. Rabbit. Ears milar situation, and brings forth four shorter than the head, dark coloured or five young ones, which are easily towards the tips. Tail, above, nearly tamed. About thirty years ago, of the same colour as the back. E. squirrels were rare in Argyleshire, in Coney. S. Kinnen. those woods where they had abound

The rabbit is common in Scotland ed some years before.

and the islands. It lives under

ground, breeds six or seven times II. Fainily.

in the year, and brings forth six to Incisors in the upper jaw double. eight at a litter. The young are In the quadrupeds of this family, the blind, deaf, and naked at birth. The bones of the clavicle are imperfect; flesh of the rabbit is white and tenhence the motions of the fore-legs are der, the fur thick and valuable. limited, and incapable of performing

There are three varieties found in the actions of seizing or climbing. Scotland. The first is the grey-rabThey have five toes on the fore feet, bit, common in warrens. The second and four on the hind feet.

is the black-rabbit. These are found

in various warrens, but are no where XVIII. Genus.-LEPUS. Hare.

The third is the Angora Grinders in the upper jaw six, and rubbit.' This is found on the Isle of the lower five. Inside of the mouth, May in small numbers.' These do and the under side of the feet, covers not associate with the common kind, ed with hair.

but live and breed in holes apart. 33. L. timidus. Common Hare. They even refuse to procreate with Ears longer than the head, and black the common kind. The fur is of a towards the tips. Tail black above, dirty ash colour above, paler beneath, white below. Weight from six to and in some specimens three inches twelve pounds. S. Maukin, Cuttie. in length, and of a silky fineness. It G. Maigheach.

is not known at what time, or for This animal is common in all the what purpose, this variety was here cultivated districts of Sootland, except introduced.




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