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& punishment, or a lad of spirit to truant as yet smarting from the consubmit to it, is one of the things that sequences of his idleness and folly; could not have been believed, if they nor does it proceed from the overhad not actually taken place. This weening affections of a mother enraga mode of punishment has long dis- ed at the chastisement of a son spoilgraced the statute-books of the ed by her own false indulgences, but great schools of England, otherwise of a grave, respectable, dispassionate so respectable, and there is reason to man, coolly relating a fact long after fear, that the law is not yet a dead the event. The times have not long letter. We shall rejoice, however, gone by when it was no uncommon to hear, that our apprehensions are thing to see a schoolmaster inflict two groundless, and that we ought to have hundred stripes in one forenoon, often spoken in the past tense.

for small fault, or what any where We think it may be easy to prove, else would have been considered none. not only from the general principles Was it surprising, at the conclusion of our nature, but also from expe- of such a scene, to hear boys whisper rience, that the practice in all its forms to each other, “ He likes it?” These is not only degrading, but inefficient. emphatic words, we know, were often What are we to think of the happi- repeated, and what horrors do they ness of that man who spends six or not imply! But woe be to the man seven hours a-day for eleven months who indulges in such practices, for, in the year, frettin and storming, as the young are kind, and generous, and whipping; or of the soundness of and forgiving, so are they, when justhis principles, who is so little skilled ly provoked, ingenious in the art of in human nature as to expect equally tormenting, and will find a thousand to reform the vicious and to excite ways of making reprisals, and renderthe good to exertion, by the infliction of ing the life of the tyrant as unhappy torture,—who punishes a moral delin- as possible. quency and the slightest neglect in the Within our own time, it was no preparation or repetition of a task in the uncommon thing for a master, even of same manner? Isamomentary thought the first respectability, when the malessness to be classed, in moral turpi- jority of a class had neglected a task, tude and in punishment, with false or were otherwise faulty, to begin at hood, or treachery, or dishonesty, or the head of it, and whip downwards, cruelty, or hardness of heart? for, if the till he was no longer able to proceed one is visited with the most severe from sheer fatigue, while the lower punishment that can be inflicted on boys chuckled over his discomfiture à boy, what is left for the others, and their own escape. We have which indicate a fundamental base- heard of one gentleman who was a ness of character? This is to confound flogger by anticipation, and every all our ideas of the nature of actions Monday morning made it a matter of and of justice.

conscience to whip his whole school; But the frequent and intemperate for he averred that it was impossible use of the lash is not only a source of to keep the dogs in order for the week misery to him who employs it, but it without it. It is with feelings of no is a lowering of his dignity and a con common satisfaction that we have oba fession of weakness. It begun in served a great reformation in our Scotimbecility, and almost universally tish schools for the last twelve or fourends in the loss of authority. Like teen years, from the majority of which the gallows, it seems to aggravate the we believe that the rod is either baevil which it intends to correct, and nished or hangs almost idly on the disorders increase in exact proportion wall ; yet we have not heard that they to its employment, till the master, are falling off either in learning or who ought to be the object of the love good order. We are convinced, inand the veneration of his scholars, de- deed, that the reverse is the case. servedly incurs universal and unming Notwithstanding the opinion of led hatred and contempt. Honest certain politicians, we do not think it Old Evelyn informs us, in his Me- necessary for the man who exposes the moirs, that he received from his abuses of one system to substitute anschoolmaster fourscore stripes for small other in its place; yet, if the foregofault or none. We must remembering statements be accurate, almost that this is not the complaint of a any change must be an improvement.

The great

Instead, then, of offering any theory blows without shrinking is the hero of of our own, which might be faulty the school, and will be amply remuand defective from our inexperience, nerated for the pain he may have sufwe shall simply state some of the im- fered by the honours and caresses proved practices which we understand which he will receive from his fellows. at present prevail in the most respect- This is ruinous of all discipline. able of our seininaries,

It is of great consequence that the object in the discipline of a school is, master should have the school on his to resist the beginnings of evil, and, side in all the punishments which he if punishment must be inflicted, to inflicts, and in all the reprimands employ such as shall be prompt and which he deems it necessary to give, undeviating in its operation, yet re and that every means should be taken mote from all kinds of cruelty. It is to make the culprit himself sensible not the severity of chastisement, but of the justice of both. The maxim, the certainty of it, and the shame that that the only safe foundation of the should always accompany it, that de- authority of rulers is in the opinion ters from the commission of crimes. of the governed, holds no where in a This may be laid down as an axiom; fuller extent than in schools. It is and we must likewise remember, that impossible that the master shoul! the faults that require to be checked succeed in his aim, unless the scholar in a school are generally of such a na

is convinced that he has no object in ture as would hardly come under that view but his good, and, averse as madenomination any where else. For ny boys are to study, that impression instance, it is, morally speaking, an may be made on the mind of the most offence of no very deep die for a boy inconsiderate by a skilful and an afto whisper to his neighbour during fectionate mode of reasoning. Freschool hours; yet it must be suppressed, quent well-timed and kindly appeals for silence is absolutely necessary to

to a boy's generosity and ambition, wards the important business of educa- will generally prevail, and if they tion being conducted with any degree of should fail, he may be given up as comfort to the teacher or advantage to hopeless. It ought, likewise, to be the scholar. But, to correct an error of carefully inculcated, that no offence this nature, which seldom or never can be committed against the master, proceeds from malice, it is not surely but that every delinquency which it necessary to proceed to the infliction is necessary to punish is destructive of the torture, and to subject the un- of that discipline which the offender fortunate delinquent to severe bodily himself is as much interested in uppain, and thus to confound all his holding as any other, for without it ideas of justice. In seminaries into no improvement whatever can be which liberal practices have been in- made in any useful acquirement. It troducerl, we understand that the on has been falsely concluded, that boys, ly punishinent inflicted for such of- from the immaturity of their underfences as restlessness, or noise, or ne- standing, are not fit subjects of reaglect of tasks, is the loss of station, soning, and that they must be kept which is found to be quite effectual. in order by mere force. This is a fa. In the case of obstinate and continued tal error. The infant man reasons on idleness, a solemn, yet a kindly admo- all he sees, and hears, and feels, and nition, or, as a last resource, solitary if he cannot be made to distinguish confinement, or a full disclosure of the truth froin error, it is from want of offender's conduct to his parents, sel- skill in the reasoner, rather than from dom fail. The joyful voices of his any deficiency of penetration and acompanions at play, while he sits in cuteness in himself. durance, and in solitary tears, will Boyhood is, besides, the age of work a reformation on the most hard- kindness and generosity, and unsusened if any thing will, and he will peeting openness of heart, and these soon begin to find that even the ba can seldom be appealed to in vain; and lance of amusement is against him. the tears of the delinquent are, in geThe most cruel part of the punish- neral, unquestionable testimony of his inent is, that in his confinement he penitence, and of his purposes of aobtains no sympathy, but is rather mendment. Even its vices are tinged the object of ridicule, while the boy with a spirit of adventure, and a dewho can suffer the greatest number of fiance of danger, and a fearlessness of

OF

HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS

SHAKESPEARE.

sey, &c.

consequences, that may make us hesi-
tate whether we should not rather de-
nominate them embryo virtues. But
we spoil the beautiful handiwork of MR EDITOR,
nature, and then we complain of her

I DARE say you will agree with me deføcts. Instead of cherishing and in thinking, that whatever throws fostering the gentler and the nobler light on the dramatic productions of qualities of the mind, we do all that Shakespeare, deserves to be made in us lies to eradicate them, and to known to the public. I have already, implant in their place the seeds of the in the volume called Characters of bad passions ; for it is quite certain Shakespeare's Plays, shewn, by a rethat the indiscriminate and severe ference to the passages in North's application of corporal punishment for translation of Piutarch, his obligations all offences, without much regard to to the historian in his Coriolanus, and the degree or quality of their demerit, the noble way in which he availed confounds in the young mind all its himself of the lights of antiquity in ideas of justice; and for love, and composing that piece. I shall, with friendship, and generosity, and truth, your permission, pursue this subject and sincerity, it is calculated to en

in the present and some future articles. gender hatred, and animosities, and The parallel is even more striking selfishness, and falsehood, and dupli- between the celebrated trial-scene in city. It makes even the excellence of Henry VIII., and the following narraa boy the virtue of a slave, and pre- tive of that event, as it actually took parts himn in manhood, in his turn, place, which is to be found in Cavento act the tyrant. We are far from dish's Negociations of Cardinal Wolsaying that every boy that has been bred where terror is the sole incite

“ The court being thus ordered, ment to duty, is so far degradeel, but the judges commanded the crier to we insist that such is its tendency. proclaim silence, whilst the commis, Boyhood is, besides, a sweet and a sion was both read to the court and short bour of sunshine before a day to the people there assembled : That of clouds and storms, and it is cruel, done, and silence being again prowe had alınost said unjust, to over- claimed, the scribes commanded the shadow it before the time. It is a crier to call King Henry of England; brief excursion of pleasure before man whereunto the king answered and sets out on a long and dreary pilgrim- said, Here; then called he again the age of care, and suffering, and sorrow, Queen of England, by the naine of and it is inhuman to interrupt its in- Catherine, Qucen of England, come Docent joys, and the delightful flow into the court, &c. Who made no of its gay spirits, by unnecessary se answer thereunto, but rose immediverities. But, if corporal punishment ately out of the chair where she sat; is not only an infliction of needless and because she could not come to pain, and quenches the happiness, and the king directly, by reason of the checks the growth of the virtues pe- distance, therefore she came round culiar to youth, but degrades the mas about the court to the king, and kneelter, and renders him odious and mi- ed down at his feet, saying these words serable, and is inefficient in accom in broken English, as followeth: plishing the purposes of discipline, Sir,' quoih she, I beseech you confirming rather than correcting ha- to do mé justice and riglıt, and take bits of insubordination and idleness, some pity on me, for I am a poor woand is more likely to foster the growth man and a stranger, born out of your of the vicious than of the virtuous dominions, having here no indifferent propensities, it is certainly time that council, and less assurance of friendit were totally abolished, having too ship. Alas! Sir, how have I offendlong disgraced those places that should eil you? what offence have I given you, be the inviolable sanetuaries of moral intending to abridge me of life in this culture, and useful knowledge. sort? I take God to witness I have

These desultory remarks are rather been to you a true and loyal wife, intended to introduce the subject to

ever conformable to your will and the notice of our readers, than to dis- pleasure ; never did I contrary or cuss it. Hereafter we may enter in- gainsay your mind, but always subto it more fully, and with better pre- mitted myself in all things, wherein paration.

you had any delight or dalliance, whe

same.

ther it were little or much, without different court for me, therefore I will grudging or any sign of discontent. not tarry ; go on your way; and so I have loved for your sake all men they departed, without any further whom you have loved, whether I had answer at that time, or any appearcause or not, were they friends or foes! ance in any other court after that. I have been your wife these twenty “ The king, seeing she was departed years, by whom you had mmy chil- thus, and considering her words, said dren : And, when I first came to to the audience these few words in your bed, I take God to witness I was

effect : a virgin ; whether it were true or no, “ Forasmuch,' quoth he, ' as the I put it to your conscience. If there queen is gone, I will in her absence can be any cause that you can allege, declare unto you all ;-she hath been either of dishonestyor of any other mat- unto me a true obedient wife, and as ter, lawful to put me from you, I am comfortable as I could wish or desire; willing to depart with shame and re she hath all the virtues and good quabuke, but if there be none, then I lities that belong to a woman of her pray you let me have justice at your dignity, or in any of meaner estate; hands.

her conditions will well declare the " " The king your father was a man of such excellent wit in his time, “Then,' quoth the cardinal, 'I that he was accounted a second Solo- humbly beseech your highness to demon; and the King of Spain, my fac clare unto this audience, whether I ther Ferdinanri, was taken for one of have been the first and chief mover the wisest kings that reigned in Spain of this matter unto your highness, or these many years. So they were both no; for I am much suspected of all wise men and noble princes, and it is men. no question but they had wise coun My lord cardinal, quoth the sellors of either realm, as be now at king, ‘ you have rather advised me to this day, who thought not, at the the contrary, than been any mover of inarriage of you and me, to hear what the same. The special cause that new devices are now invented against moved me in this matter, is a certain me, to cause me to stand to the order scruple that pricked my conscience, of this court. And I conceive you do upon certain words spoken by the me much wrong, nay, you condemn Bishop of Bayonne, the French amme for not answering, having no coun- bassador, who came hither to consult cil but such as you have assigned me, of a marriage between the princess you must consider that they cannot our daughter, the Lady Mary, and be indifferent on my part, being your the Duke of Orleans, second son to own subjects, and "such as you have the King of France ; and

upon

resolumade choice of out of your own coun- tion, and determination, he desired cil whereunto they are privy, and dare respite to advertise the king his masnot disclose your pleasure.

ter thereof, whether our daughter "Therefore, I must humbly be- Mary should be legitimate, in respect seech you to spare me, until I know of my marriage with this woman, how my friends in Spain will advise being sometime my brother's wife ; me; but if you will not, then let your which words, I pondering, begot such pleasure be done.'

a scruple in my conscience, that I was And with that she arose, making & much troubled at it; whereby I courtesy to the king, and departed thought myself in danger of God's from thence, all the people thinking heavy displeasure and indignation; she would have returned again to her and the rather, because he has sent former seat; but she went presently us no issue-male, for all the issue-male out of court, leaning upon the arm of that I have had by my wife died inone of her servants, who was her ge- continently after they came into the neral receiver, one Mir Griffith. world, which caused me to fear God's

“ The king, seeing that she was ready displeasure in that particular. Thus, to go out of the court, commanded my conscience being tossed in that the crier to call her again by these wave of troublesome doubts, and partwords, Catherine, Queen of England, ly in despair to have any other issue come into court. Lo, quoth Mr than I had already by this lady, my Griffith, you are called again. Go on, now wife; it behored me to consider quoth she, it is no matter; it is no in- the estate of this realm, and the dan

ger it stands in, for lack of a prince with many other words to that purto succeed me; I thought it therefore pose. You say truth,' quoth the good, in release of this mighty bur- Bishop of Canterbury, such words then on my conscience, as also for the you used; but you fully resolved at the quiet estate of this realm, to attempt last that I should subscribe your a trial in the law herein, whether I name, and put to your seal, and you mnight lawfully take another wife, would allow of the same. • All without stain of carnal concupiscence, which,' quoth the Bishop of Rochesby which God may send more issue, ter, under correction, my lord, is in case this my first copulation was untrue.' . Well,' quoth the king, not good ? I not having any displea we will not stand in argument with sure in the person or age of the queen, you, you are but one;' and so the with whom I could be well contented king arose up, and the court was adto continue, if our marriage may stand journed until the next day, at which with the law of God, as with any wo time the cardinals sat again, and the man alive; in which point consisteth council on both sides were there preall the doubt we go about, now to sent to answer. know by the learned wisdom of you " The king's council alledged the our prelates and pastors, of this realm matrimony not good nor lawful at and dominion now here assembled for the beginning, because of the carnal that purpose, to whose consciences and copulation that Prince Arthur had learning. I have committed the care with the queen. This matter was very and judgment, according to which I narrowly scanned on that side, and to will, God be willing, be well content prove the carnal copulation, they had ed to submit myself, and obey the many reasons and similitudes of truth; same. And, when my conscience and being answered negatively again was so troubled, I moved it to you, on the other side, it seemed that all my Lord of Lincoln, in confession, their former allegations were doubtful then being my ghostly father; and, to be tried, and that no man knew, forasmuch as you were then in 'Yes,' quoth the Bishop of Rochester, some doubt, you moved me to ask I know the truth.'

• How can you counsel of the rest of the bishops; know the truth,' quoth the cardinal, whereupon I moved it to you, my more than any other person?' Yes, lord cardinal, to have your licence, forsooth, my lord,' quoth he, 'I know furasinuch as you are metropolitan, to that God is the truth itself, and never put this matter in question, and so I saith but truth, and he saith thus : did to all you, my lords, to which Quos Deus conjunxit, homo non sepayou all granted under your seals, ret; and forasmuch as this marriage which is here to shew.' " That is was joined and made by God for a truth,' quoth the Bishop of Canter- good intent, therefore I said I knew bury, and, I doubt not but my bro. the truth, and that man cannot break thers will acknowledge the same. upon any wilful action which God 'No, Sir, not so, under correction,' hath made and constituted.' So quoth the Bishop of Rochester, for much do all faithful men know,' you have not my hand and seal. quoth my Lord Cardinal, as well as 'No,' quoth the king, is this not you, therefore this reason is not sufyour hand and seal ?' and shewed it ficient in this case ; for the king's to him in the instrument with seals. council do alledge many presumptions

No, forsooth,' quoth the bishop. to prove that it was not lawful at the How say you to that?' quoth the beginning; ergo, it was not ordained king to the Bishop of Canterbury. by God, for God doth nothing with'Sir, it is his hand and seal, quoth out a good end; therefore, it is not the Bishop of Canterbury. No, my to be doubted, but, if the presumplord, quoth the Bishop of Rochester; tions be true, which they alledge to • indeed you were in hand with me, be most true, then the conjunction to have both my hand and seal, as o- neither was nor could be of God; thers of the lords had done ; but I therefore I say unto you, my Lord of answered, that I would never consent Rochester, you know not the truth, to any such act, for it was much a- unless you can avoid their presumpa gainst my conscience; and therefore tions upon just reasons.' my hand and seal shall never be set “' Then,' quoth Dr Ridley, “it is to such an instrument, God willing ;' a great shame, and dishonour to this

VOL. IV.

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