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yellow sky was perceptible, and the it a most remarkable instance of the accutemperature of the water began to de- racy of that able navigator." crease, but nothing was finally de

We shall not follow them farther in cided at the setting of the sun. At four o'clock the next morning, the

their examination of this coast. They

entered land was seen at the bottom of the

many sounds and inlets, but

no where found any indication of a inlet by the officers of the watch, but before Captain Ross could get on

passage ; there was no appearance of deck, the greater part was obscured by the north-west. In the whole range

a current, no driftwood, no swell from the fog; the land which he then saw was a high ridge of mountains extend- reached Cumberland's Strait, in lat.

of coast from Smith's Sound till they ing directly across the bottom of the 62, 51, N. long. 51, 12, when a curinlet ;-although a passage in this di

rent, for the first time, was observed. rection now appeared hopeless, he was determined completely to explore it. Captain Ross, however, did not enter The weather was very variable, being zardous an attempt at that season of

this strait, which he thought too hacloudy and clear at intervals ;-at the year, not having reached its entwelve, Mr Beverly, who was the most

trance till the 1st October. We quote sanguine, reported to the Captain that his own expressions. he had seen from the topmast the land across the bay, except for a very

“ As the 1st of October was the latest short space. He still, however, per- period which, by my instructions, I was revered in standing up higher, and we

allowed to continue on this service, I was shall quote the result in his own

not authorized to proceed up this strait to exwords.

plore it, which, perhaps, at the advanced sea

son of the year, might be too hazardous an at. " At half past two (when I went off deck tempt, the nights being now long, and the to dinner) there were some hopes of its little daylight we had being generally obclearing, and I left orders to be called on scured by fogs or snow, and the rigging of the appearance of land or ice ahead. At the ship covered with ice. I thought it, howthree, the officer of the watch, who was ever, advisable to finish our operations relieved by Mr Lewis, reported, on his for this season by making Resolution coming into the cabin, that there was some

Island, the exact situation of which had appearance of its clearing at the bottom of been laid down by Mr Wales. I, there. the Bay. I immediately, therefore, went fore, determined on steering for the southon deck, and soon after it completely clear ernmost land in sight; we, therefore, crosed for about ten minutes, and I distinctly sed the entrance of Cumberland Strait, and saw the land, round the bottom of the bay, making an allowance for indraft, steered forming a connected chain of mountains about S. S. E. It will appear, that, on with those that extended along the north tracing the land from Cape Walsingham, and south sides. This land appeared to be

no doubt could be entertained of its conat the distance of eight leagues, and Mr tinuity until the place where we found Lewis the master, and James Haig, lead. Cumberland Strait, which is much farther ing man, being sent for, they took its south than it was laid down from the latest bearings, which were inserted in the log; authorities the Admiralty were in possesthe water on the surface was at temperature sion of; but it is very near the place where of 31° At this moment I also saw a con Davis placed it in his chart, which has been tinuity of ice, at the distance of seven

found since our return. From the cirmiles, extending from one side of the bay cumstance of a current being found at the to the other, between the nearest cape to entrance of this Strait, there is no doubt a the north, which I named after Sir George much better chance of a passage there than Warrender, and that to the south, which in any other place; and it was a subject of was named after Viscount Castlereagh. much regret to us, that we had not been The mountains which occupied the centre,

able to reach its entrance sooner."-p. 221, in a north to south direction, were named 222. Croker's Mountains, after the Secretary of We have no intention of imputing the Admiralty. The south-west corner, which formed a spacious bay, completely determination, but it certainly is ex

any blame to Captain Ross for this Occupied by ice, was named Barrow's Bay, and is bounded on the north by Cape Rở ceedingly to be regretted that the onsamond, and on the south by Cape Castle offered any prospect of a passage should

ly opening which he himself thought last I had made out, was a deep iniet, and have been left unexplored. He took as it answered exactly to the latitude given his departure for Resolution Island on by Baffin of Lancaster Sound, I have no the 3d of October, and arrived at doubt that it was the same, and consider Shetland on the 30th after an absence

NONUMENT FOR THOMSON.

of exactly six months, and concludes poetry is not in our hands or in our the account of his proceedings, ad, hearts. In more senses than one they dressed to the Secretary of the Admi- are laid upon the shelf. ralty, in the following words :

But it is a law of Nature, that the “ Not an instance of prishment has most prolific animals shall be the most taken place in this ship, nor has there been short-lived, and vice versa ; and, pere an officer or man on the sick list ; and it haps, there may be amongst the less is with a feeling not to be expressed, that numerous offspring of these earlier I have to conclude this letter, by reporting, poets some which, like the aged eagle, that the service has been performed, and may yet live through a succession of the expedition I had the honour to com centuries, and survive many a genemand has returned, without the loss of a

ration of the swarms of glittering inman.”

sects that now sport in the summer's sun-beam. But I ask your pardon,

Mr Editor ; I am relapsing into my MR EDITOR,

“ besetting sin” of metaphor again. Amongst the many signs of im- In plain English, I must, however, provement of the times, it is unde- be permitted to add, that, though niable that a just and generous sensi- there are many poeins of the present bility to existing genius honourably day whose existence I cannot but susdistinguishes the present age. But, pect will prove ephemeral, there are perhaps, like many other good things, others which I am convinced will live this too bas its disadvantages; per. as long as the language in which the haps the rich reward of renown and are written. It is, however, not on profit that now invariably crowns the ly of the neglect of the works of the prosperous labours of the poet has classical poets, but of the oblivion of brought forward such a crowıl of com- their memories, that I complain ;petitors, that, although, in point of that the quantity produced, this is un

Nations, to living genius rarely just, questionably the most poetical of all

To buried merit raise the tardy bust, ages, its superiority in quality may not be quite so apparent. Indeed, I is a reproach by no means applicable, will own to you, Mr Editor, that I at present, to this country. I am athink poetry herse is in no small fraid the reverse holds true,-and danger of being drowned in the ocean though I rejoice most unfeigned. of modern verse ; and it does certain- ly that the “ living genius” which at ly appear to me, that the floods which present brightens our land should rehave been of late poured through the ceive its due share of applause, I land have overwhelmed beneath their cannot but lament that apparent in. wide spreading torrent the less co- sensibility to “ buried merit” which pious streams that used to wander inscribes no tribute of gratitude or through it in their beauty and plea- admiration to the “

mighty dead.” santness, more especially since the The poets, the philosophers, the states. poetry of the Lakes has burst its men, and the heroes of England, pass bounds, and inundated us with its un- away, and no stone appears on the spot ceasing deluge ; or, in short, Mr Edi- of their birth to record their existence. tor, to leave the current of metaphor, The foreigner who comes from dislest, experiencing the apprehended tant countries, attracted by her fame, fate of fair poesy, we should be drown- may traverse her various realm, and ed in it, I do suspect, that the multi- scarcely see a single memorial to refarious rhyme of our contemporaries mind him that she ever produced one has thrown into undeserved obscurity illustrious son ; and yet, who is there the classical poetry of our land ; that has not folt, that it gives new that Byron, Scott, Campbell, Moore, charms to the loveliest scenes of Na. Crabbe, Roers, Southey, Wordsworth, ture, and an interest even to the most Wilson, Hoge, Montgomery, and a sterile, to know,--that here the poet long et cætera, have taken place of whose lays we have loved,—the hero Spenser, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Prior,, whose faine we have adwired, or the Akenside, Young, Thomson, Gray, patriot whose virtues we have worand many others, whose names, in- shipped,-first drew breath? deed, are in our mouths, and whose Perhaps there may be some who, works are in our libraries, but whose possessing such feelings, may be inte

rested by the information, that a mo- ventions of mischief, and new modes nument to the memory of Thomson of destroying each other, it could is at length to be erected in his na- hardly be thought that their efforts tive place, Ednam, in Roxburghshire. should have been less successful, After many years of unsuccessful ef- when they were turned from war to forts, a subscription has been raised, peace,- from those arts which are perchiefly by the gentlemen of the neigh- Dicious and destructive, to those of bourhood, sufficient to insure the com- which the sole and necessary tendency pletion of the undertaking on a very is to enlarge the comforts of nations, small scale. It is to be begun early and to add generally to the stock of in the ensuing summer, and it is ex social happiness. It was expected, on pected that “ the Minstrel of the grounds which were at least plausible, North” will lay the foundation-stone that, with the return of peace, the inof this humble monument to the me tercourse of nations would be renewmory of the Poet of the Seasons. ed, and the surplus produce of differ

To him whose Muse was Nature, ent states being freely circulated as whose enchanting visions called up before, that commerce would flourish, the air-built “ Castle of Indolence,' and would again diffuse its beneficial -whose patriotic strain of “Rule effects over all those departments of Britannia” has been felt in every Bri- industry which war had laid waste. tish heart,--and whose lays are even That these expectations were very genow re-echoed in Tuscan vales, and neral, there can be no question, nor in the sweetest accents of Tuscan need we be much surprised that the song, I need not add my feeble meed pleasing visions of domestic prospeof praise. Yet I would hope, that, rity should have been readily, and amongst his countrymen, there are without much reflection, connected in many who would wish to pay this last men's minds with the return of peace. tribute of respect to his genius, and A very short experience, however, who, feeling the generous sentiment served 'effectually to banish these illuthat prompts the rude Highlander to sions. Peace, indeed, was established, throw his flinty offering upon the but it brought with it none of those mountain cairn of his chief, may take blessings which were wont to follow pleasure in adding one stone to the in its train. Commerce was reduced monument of Thomson. I am, Mr to the lowest ebb, -all the great Editor, your obedient servant, branches of industry were at a stand ;

A SCOTCHWOMAN. there seemed to be no longer any deP.S. Subscriptions for the intend- mand for the ordinary articles of hued monument of Thomson, at his na

man consumption; and the bankruptcy tive place, the village of Ednam, in of merchants, and the general idleRoxburghshire, will be received by

ness and beggary of the labouring Messrs Constable and Company, or by classes, were the natural consequences, Mr Alexander Douglas, W.s. Albany

as they were the indisputable evidences Street, Edinburgh; by Mr John Mur- of this unprosperous state of comray, Albemarle Street, or Messrs Potts

merce. From this lamentable depresand Waldie, 63, Queen Street, Cheap-sion the country had, in a good deside, London; and by Mr John Smith, gree, recovered, and commerce was Bailie of Kelso, where a complete list slowly reviving from its languid state, of the subscribers may be seen. The

when a new stagnation takes place, subscriptions at present amount to bankruptcy, that most fatal symptom L.320.

of the public distress, occurs to a great extent, spreading alarm among the

mercaníle classes, and threatening a OBSERVATIONS ON THE COMMERCIAL general subversion of credit; and the

circunstance of this convulsion happen. The successful conclusion of the ing in a season of general peace, serves late arduous and protracted war natu to heighten the general dismay. When rally gave rise to the pleasing antici we find all the usual resources of prupation of a new era in the history of dence to fail,- when we find that the country favourable to domestic peace has lost it former efficacy in improvement; and as mankind, in healing the wounds inflicted by war, the course of the last thirty years, had we are confounded, and the mind succeeded so well in devising new in- becomes a prey to dark and doubtful

VOL, IV.

EMBARRASSMENTS OF THE COUNTRY.

UU

fears of something radically unsound in want of all those articles which in the state of the country, which can they were accustomed to receive from only work its own cure by some vio- the labour of others; while, on the lent crisis. These apprehensions can

other hand, they must have a superonly be dispelled by a general view of abundant supply of such commodities the nature of our commerce, and of as were furnished by their own lathe principles on which its prosperity bour. depends, by which we shall be the bet If this would happen in the event ter enabled to judge respecting the of any interruption in the domestic causes which are at present in opera- intercourse of a country, the same eftion to retard its improvement, and fects will necessarily follow, where any to create among mercantile men such accident occurs to interrupt the interextreme embarrassment and distress. course of trading countries. In the

In every country, land and labour progress of cominercial improvement, are the two great sources of prosperity precisely the same relations take place and wealth, and a nation is thriving between nations as between indivior otherwise, exactly as it is more or duals. Different states are necessarily less industrious, and also exactly as its impelled into different lines of incluse industry is more or less skilfully ma- try from various causes, from the apnaged. In all civilized countries, the titude of soil and climate, from cirdifferent classes of inhabitants attach cumstances connected with their acthemselves to particular trades, in tual condition, such as the plenty or which, from the dexterity they ac- scarcity of capital, or from causes quire, their labour is likely to produce purely accidental. Some nations are more than if it were divided between commercial, some are agricultural, various employments, in none of and between these an exchange of which they would arrive at any de- surplus produce necessarily takes place. gree of skill. Every one, however, They could not otherwise pursue their labouring in this manner at his parti- respective plans of industry. They cular vocation, produces more of that labour in concert, and the joint proparticular article at which he works duce of their labour is afterwards ihan he can possibly consume, and the shared by an equitable process among surplus he exchanges with other all the different members of the comtraders, each of whom, in the joint mercial confederacy. As nations adlabour of the society of which he is a vance in improvement, this principle member, has his specific task assigned of mutual co-operation is constantly him. The members of every civiliz- carried to a greater extent, and pered community labour in this manner, haps in no country was it ever so thoin common, and the joint produce of roughly acted upon as in Great Britheir labour is placed as it were in a tain. The commerce and manufacgeneral stock, out of which each draws, tures of this country had been grawhen it comes to be divided, his share, dually improving for nearly a century, which is in proportion to what his la- until, by their superior cheapness and bour has contributed. This is substan- excellence, they had made their way tially the transaetion which takes place into all the markets both of America in every commercial country. The ne- and Europe. This extension of the cessaries and luxuries produced from its market naturally gave rise to new deland and labour are equitably shared vices for abridging labour, and to new among all those who have contributed methods for its improved direction, to increase the common stock, and until at length, in almost every dethis division is effected by means of partment of our industry, we manufacmoney. By this skilful direction of tured more than we could consume at its labour, a nation is richer than if home, and were consequently dependeach individual were labouring for the ent on the foreign market for an outseparate supply of his own particular let to our surplus produce. Through wants; but, at the same time, it is a long course of persevering and sucevident, that all the members of the cessful industry, our commerce had community are brought into depende been gradually moulded into this ence on each other for a supply both form by the extension of the market. of necessaries and comforts, and that We were connected with other nations if, by any accident, their mutual inter- by ties which could not be rudely toru course were interrupted, they must be asunder, without shaking to its centre

the whole system of our domestic makes but little impression on the prosperity. An extensive foreign de- more rapidly increasing supply. The inand was the basis on which the great evil seems to be, that the contrade of this country rested for sup- sumption has run in arrear to the port. To this principle it had a supply; and until this arrear be cleardirect reference in all its arrange- ed away,_until the stock of goods ments and most minute details, and, accumulated during the interval when once deprived of this outlet, it was British commerce was under proscripevident that it must languish for tion be reduced, our merchants must want of a market. Of this outlet, still be embarrassed for want of a however, it was deprived by means market; and it is under this malady the most violent.

We were

ex- that our trade has been continually cluded from the markets both of labouring ever since the first check Europe and of America, in the one which it experienced about the year case by the vast military power of our 1816. Its recent history, indeed, enemy, and in the other first by pro- amply demonstrates this. Since the hibitory decrees, and afterwards by period we have alluded to, wherever open war with the United States. a market has been opened, however The loss of all our accustomed mar- distant, the supply has instantly burst kets produced a stagnation of our out in such a disproportion to the detrade, until that time, unexampled. mand, as quickly to. depreciate the Manufacturers were ruined by the de- goods sent out far below their original preciation of their stock, and their cost. To what cause but the want of workmen, without employment, suffer- a market at home are we to trace the ed all the miseries of want. This, ruinous adventures of goods sent out then, was the origin of our commer- to the Brazils, and to Buenos Ayres ? cial distresses, and from this original The Indian market, Lately opened, is and fatal depression we have never also ruined from the same cause, been able to recover. Our commerce, namely, an inundation of goods far languishing under the shock of violence beyond the demand, from our glutted and war, has never revived into that life markets at home. This last fact and alacrity which it formerly possess points plainly to the true cause of the ed; and if we consider the vast extent continued depression of our trade ; for, to which it had increased, we shall see it shews that our commerce is ready at once that it was in the nature of to traverse half the globe for an outthings impossible foro a trade so ex- let, and no sooner is it found, than it

tended to recover from the derange- is choaked up by an over supply of (ment occasioned by even a temporary our manufactures.

exclusion from all its former markets. That this cause of the depression Such was the nature and extent of our of our trade will be in time removed, vast establishments, which had in there is little reason to doubt. It is creased as the market extended, and not easy, indeed, to see whence the in which the capital and skill of the demand of Europe and America for country was invested, and could not manufactures can be supplied, except be withdrawn, that, even after the from this country. We know that demand ceased, the supply still con- the manufactures of these countries, tinued. The necessity of employing established in consequence of the ex. the capital already invested in machi- clusion of British goods, have been nery, or in a stock of the raw mate- ruined since the market was re-openrial;—the desire of giving bread to ed to our merchants. They were not thousands of starving workmen,--and able to withstand the competition of the lowness of wages, operated as in- our goods, always chear, but, at that ducements to the manufacturers to time, depreciated far below their nacontinue the supply of goods far be- tural price, and they have been conyond the demand, and thus a vast sequently abandoned. The supply, stock was accumulated, which the de- therefore, must still be derived from mand has never been able to clear this country, and there appears to away. The access to our former mar- be no reason why it should diminish. kets is again opened; but we have our trade to the United States ought such facilities for increasing the sup- rather to increase. with the improveply of goods to almost any extent that ment and increased population of that the demand, though it has increased, vast country. Time will, however,

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