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our own times. Such characters, af never looked on any fellow creature, ter all, are truly the salt of the earth. however sunk or degraded, as unwor. It is they, above all others, who bind thy of his attention. That he may man to man in the bonds of charity; yet be an object of divine mercy, is and who remove bitterness and ha- enough to secure for him the commitred, while they sow the seeds of seration of all who truly believe what kindness, peace, and virtue. We very few venture openly to deny. would not much quarrel with any one And it is this religious principle ob who should affirm that the present is viously which has chiefly
actuated and the age in Britain of political debase- sustained the most useful of our phis ment; but we would answer him by lanthropists. It is this principle, also, asserting, that it is also the age of which should ensure to them the moral and political renovation. Have countenance and support of all their not we, at present, a Clarkson, a Christian brethren. But although it BROUGHAM, a BENNET, a Buxton, should be true that many profess to a Fry, and a GUILVEY, all actively believe what has little influence on employed in great works of cuARITY their conduct, the cause of Prison and BENEVOLENCE? This List, to reform does not rest on religious prina which many names might be added, ciple. It is equally called for on should be enough to stop the mouth every principle of expediency. The of any gainsayer, and put to shame increase of crimes within the last any one who would despair of the for- twenty years has carried alarm to al. tunes of the human race. We are, most every bosom in the empire. And in many respects, in the high road to the number of prisoners has increased improvement; and all men should to such a degree, that their proper all good men will, unite in promoting treatment is no longer a matter of those great interests of humanity to barren principle. Men may disregard which so many distinguished charac- the moral and future interests of theit ters of the present day are so entire- fellow men; they may utterly disre ly, creditably, and honourably de- gard the sufferings of unfortunate
soners; but selfishness calls on them This little and accessible work of not to neglect the security of their own Mr GURNEY does not perhaps display persons and property. Now, the se80 much intellectual energy as its pre- curity of both is deeply implicated cursor by Mr BUXTON, but it does in the treatment of prisoners; nay, not fall short of it in practical good in the very structure as well as in the
It is unpretending, perspi- discipline of our juils ! cuous, well digested; and the infor The Parliamentary returns of com mation it contains, as well as the mitinents and executions prove, in whole cast of its sentiments, is calcu- the most decisive manner, that, for lated in an eminent degree to forward many years, the latter bear almost no the great work of reform in our pri- proportion to the former. The numsons, and, by that means, to lessen the ber of criminals deprived of life is alpresent frightful amount of crime and most nothing compared with those misery. After the pains which have who are imprisoned for limited pebeen taken to disseminate information riods --whose punishment is impris on this important subject, by putting sonment solely, or imprisonment coinMr Buxton's book within the reach bined with hard labour, and some other of almost every individual,--for which species of punishment, and who, in the purpose, liberality was not wanting end, are consequently liberated from on the part of the bookseller, nor any prison. Now, it is of mighty consen other person concerned, -we cannot quence that this shoal of persons who suppose our readers ignorant of the are again set loose upon society, shall reforms which have been recently ac- not have become worse, instead of beta complished in many jails, and espe- ter, by their imprisonment. But nos cially of the wonders, we might al- thing has ever been more completely most say the miracles, which have established than the fact, that the been wrought in Newgate, through JAILS, till very recently, in all our the exertions of Mrs Fry, and a few large towns, and even still in most of other benevolent characters, by means them, were and are NURSERIES OF of kindness and attention to criminals. CRIME. The old offendere- became The pious and enlightened Christian more hardened within their walls;
the juvenile delinquent was there let no fetters be used in your prison; let perfected in almost every art of wick- all its apartments be frequently whiteedness; and the whole exhibited a washed and kept in a state of thorough mass of bloated corruption, vice, and cleanliness and decency ; let your prisoners misery. The object of Mrs Fry, be bathed when they enter the prison ; let Mr Buxton, Mr BENNET, and Mr hair be kept short, and let them be obliged
them have weekly changes of linen, let their GURNEY, is to convert prisons into
to wash themselves daily. Select for your Schools of REFORM. And what governor a man of kind heart and enight. has been already accomplished at ened principles; and let your turnkeys be Ghent in Flanders, at Philadelphia in persons who will set the prisoners an exAmerica, and in Newgate, and the ample of steadiness, gentleness, and soMilbunk Penitentiary, London, at briety: let the women be superintended by Bury, Ilchester, and more partially a matron and other officers of their own in several other places of our own
sex; and let every company of prisoners, country, establishes as clearly, that whether male or female, be under the conreform is pructicable and certain, as
stant care of some responsible individual: that the need for it is great and ur
let the tricd be separated from the untried,
grown up persons from juvenile offendere, gent. Now, the means of accomplishing of a hopefiel character from those who are
misdemeanants from felons, and prisoners such incalculable good are neither
more completely depraved : let public worremote nor difficult. They are nearly ship take place twice on the Sabbath-day, all comprehended in these four words, and let the rest of that day be devoted, as CLASSIFICATION,-EMPLOYMENT, much as possible, to the perusal of reli. CLEANLINESS, INSPECTION. A good gious books, and other means of spiritual deal, no doubt, is implied in these edification ; let a portion of the scriptures terms; and to shew in the simplest be read to the prisoners (not by one of mamer what is implied, we shall their own body, but by some judicious suquote a paragraph from the work be- and let time be set apart daily for the in
perintendent) every morning and evening, fore us.
struction of the ignorant; let the utmost “ Did any promoter of prison discipline ing, and other excesses ; lei a temporary
care be taken to prevent all gaming, swear(says our author) venture to give his advice solitary confinement, under the direction of as to the objects to be aimed at, he might a visiting mugistruté, be the punishment of say, Choose an airy and healthy situation those prisoners who are refraetory; and, on for your jail, and one which will insure a constant and abundant supply of fresh huviour be encouraged by a system of reo
the other hand, let obedience and good be. water : if your criminals are numerous, let wards : ABOVE ALL, LET EVERY CLASS: + entirely separate buildings be erected for OF YOUR PRISONERS BE EMPLOYED ; : male and female prisoners ; let these build- let them work in coinpanies under inspec. ings be tire proof, and in all their parts un- tion, and, as much as possible, in silence; doubtedly secure ; let there be inspection and let such a proportion of their earnings from the rooms of the governor in the one
be allowed them, us will afford a sufficient Cise, and of the matron in the other, over
inducement to the habits of order, sobriety, all the subdivisions of the respective build.
and industry. ings; let those subdivisions be sufficiently numerous ; let your courts for exercise, would indeed fulfil the ends designed by it:
“ A prison so built, and so regulated, your mess-rooms, work-rooms, and sleep, its almost inevitable consequences would ing-cells; be of a sufficient size, dry, and be the moral improvement of offendess, and very airy ; let your work-rooms, in parti. by means of that improvement, the decular, be extensive enough to accommodate
crease of crime,--the peace of society. large companies of prisoners, as well as the
“ I cannot but indulge the fervent hope, nedersary machinery ; and let neither the that the particulars to which I have now chapel, the infirmary, the school.room, nor
alluded will increasingly obtain the attenthe bath, be forgotten. On the subject of tion of all those persons to whose care may management, he might go on to say, Let be committed the building and manageyour prisoners be allowed such food,' cloth.
ment of new prisons. I am also fully ing, firing, and bedding, as will, on the one hand, prerent undue suffering, and be suf many of our jails, new prisons, regulated
aware, that of the evils now existing in too ficient to maintain them in health ; and, on
on a new system, are the only complete rethe other, afford them no degree of unneces.
mcdy," sary indulgence : let their meals be con. ducted with the utmost regularity ; let the
It is lamentable to be told, that different classes amongst them be distin. our new Edinburgh jail,--together guished by particular dresses ; let every with those of Perth and Glasgow prisoner have a sleeping-cell to himself; both of which have been erected with
in these few years,- is one of those disgrace to our country. Another which is materially imperfect, inas- stain upon Scotland is the treatment much as no work-rooms were contem- of destitute lunatics. A most deploplated in its erection. This is pecu- rable case of this sort was observed liarly unfortunate, when we advert to at Haddington, (now relieved through the excellence of its situation, and the the intervention of Mr Horne, the large sums which have been expended Sheriff-depute,) and two more at on it. But still this does not exclude Perth. The condition of these miimprovement; and we are glad to be serable creatures calls loudly for legisinformed through Mr GURNEY, that lative and magisterial interference, our magistrates have some measure in and, we trust, it will not be long with contemplation for remedying this great held. At Perth, too, there was still defect in the construction of the pri- another most disgracefül affair pre
We hope, also, that it is not sented to the notice of our travellers. too late to attend to this important They observed in the prison of that matter in the erection of the new town, “ several King's debtors, who debtors' jail. Mr Gurney continues, have no jail allowance whatever.” And in the chapter from which we have this, says Mr Gurney, must often already quoted,
be the occasion of extreme distress, and
very improbubly of absolute star“ I am anxious, at the same time, to vation. Will the Officers of State, remind my readers, how much may be done and Lawyers of the Crown, suffer such for the improvement of our prisons as they a ground for such remarks to exist
There are none of them which may not be kept in a state of cleanliness; permit, what was also observed in this
uny longer ? Or, will they ever again": none, in which proper allowances may not be made of food, firing, clothing, and bed- notorious jail of Perth, “ two young ding ; few in which irons may not be ren- persons committel for some trifling dard wholly unnecessary ; none rehich may offence against the revenue laws, to be not be placed under judicious and kind su.
thrown into a common room with eleven perintendence ; none in which the igno- offenders, one of whom, of maturer rant may not be instructed ; none in which years, was charged with a most atroPonie system may not be devised towards cious murder ?" We do not know if kuping the prisoners employed.”
it could be possible to exhibit a greater
number of outrages on humanity, and We are sorry to find it stated by offences against the well-being of soour author, that in several of the ciety, in such a small space, than was Scotch jails, irons are not only used, collected and exhibited in this Perth, but employed in the most inconve- prison. nient and cruel manner. A most dis
We have not patience-we feel too tressing example of this cruel mode of much mortified, indeed, on account felter ing was found in the jail of Hade of the indolence, and indifference, and dington. It is thus described by Mr callousness of our countrymen--to folGurney:
low our author in his account of the “This unfortunate person was fastened to various jails visited by him in Scot& long iron bar. His legs, being passed land ; but, as the work is a cheap one, through rings attached to the bar, were
our readers may, at very little exkept about two feet asunder, which distance pence, and with a trifling sacrifice of might be increased to three feet and a half time, satisfy their own curiosity, One at the pleasure of the jailer. This cruel thing more, however, we must add to and shameful mode of confinement, which this list of grievances. In England, prevented the man from undressing, or where a debtor may remain in jail, and fron resting with any confort to himself enjoy the profits of an heritable esa during the night, and which, by the con. tate, in spite of all that can be done stant separation of the legs, amounted to by his creditors, there is hardly a pripacitive torture, had been continued for several days. We earnestly entreated for his son, we believe, which has not a yard deliverance, but apparently without ef
or piece of ground in which its in. mates, debtors as well as criminals,
may have the benefit of air and exerAnother instance of the same sort cise. In Scotland, on the other hand, was observed in the jail at Aberdeen; where every species of property belongevery feature of which, indeed, as ing to and at the disposal of the debt. well as of the Haddington jail, is a or can be taken from him by legal
procedure, and a full and fair surren chair by the cultivation of poetry, is der compelled, if not voluntarily made, no derogation from the gravity of his the unfortunate debtor is confined with professional character, especially when in the walls of his prison. "He is de- it is considered, that the greater part prived entirely of the ordinary means of the poetry which he has published of obtaining air or exercise, This is of a kind well suited to the subject likewise is a stain on our country.
of his graver studies, being of that moe * There is an account given of the ral, sentimental, and rather melanreformation of some boys confined in choly cast, in which the moralist in York Castle, in a note to page 7th, verse delights to indulge. We say and a letter from a reformed female the greater part, because, we are free to Mrs Fry, (page 161,) which, had to confess, that, in the first two small our limits permitted, we would have volumes which he gave to the world, taken pleasure in laying before our there were a good many little pieces readers. There are also two chapters which rather fell under the denomie of General Observations, containing nation of what the French call Vers de remarks, information, and directions Societé, things of a lighter sort, which, respecting Food, FIRING, Sleeping, though highly pleasing to the friends Irons, CLEANLINESS, INSPECTION, or family cirele of the author, who are SUPERINTENDENCE,
CLASSIFICA- intimate with and interested in their TION, INSTRUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, subjects, have so much less interest and Visiting COMMITTEES, which with the public, as perhaps somewhat are extremely valuable, and from to lessen the respect which should which we felt strongly inclined to be attached to the teacher of morals, make extracts; but we must post- and seem not perfectly congenial to pone all this, and also the discussion that deeper turn of thought which which arises out of it, to some other should belong to lis character. opportunity. In support of the view , In the present little volume, and in given of the increase of crimes at the that which immediately preceded it, outset, we may mention, that, accord- Agnes, there is nothing to censure in ing to the reports just laid before Par- the above respect. The subjects, as liament, and which have reached us well as the manner in which they are since we commenced this article, there treated, are of that pensive and tender were, between 10th April 1818 and kind which are intimately connected 28th January 1819, a period of about with morality, and may be considered nine months, 23,104 forged notes de- as practical and beautiful illustrations tected at the Bank of England. With- of the great moral principles which in the same period one hundred and are strictly the objects of the profestwenty-three persons have been prose- sor's severer studies. They delineate cuted on account of these forgeries, and certain provinces in the map of the two hundred and seventy-three per- human mind, (if the expression may sons prosecuted by the OfficERS OF be allowed us,) in that delicate mana THE Mint for counterfeiting the le- ner which marks their nature, and gal Coin of the realm !
makes us acquainted with their properties; more intimately than mere
didactic prose could accomplish, and Emily; with other Poems. By Tho- extend, at the same time, the influ.
MAS BROWN, M.D. Professor of ence of their moral lessons to classes Moral Philosophy in the Universi- of readers who would not peruse or ty of Edinburgh. 1 Vol. 12mo. listen to the less amusing moralist, Constable and Co.
who should confine his lessons to pre
ceptive truth or philosophical specuDr BROWN is well known as the lation. very able and ingenious Professor of The first and principal poem of this Moral Philosophy in the University collection, entitled Emily, is a story of Edinburgh, and it is enough to which has often been told, but never say, that he is allowed by all the stu- ceases to be affecting. It is that of dents of that class to have supported an amiable girl, the daughter of a in the fullest manner the chair so ex- doating father, seduced by a promise cellently filled by his illustrious pre- of marriage made by a man of supedecessor Dugald Stewart. That he rior wealth and station, to leave her relaxes the severer labours of that father's house and elope with her
seducer. The progress of her guilt, The gracious source of health, and, fearand its miserable consequences, are
beguild, narrated in 15 sonnets; their conse
Have watch'd life's brightening spark ;
and thou hast smild, quences are such as have been often detailed, and though they have always
Amid thy pangs, and bless'd, my tender
aid. excited compassion, have been but Now, thought'st thoug-now, when all was. too unavailing to operate as warnings.
lonely there, She has been offered pecuniary com Of her, the soother, who thy couch for. pensation for her dishonour, which sook ? she rejects with disdain ; is reduced Mine, mine that dying glatnice:-Ah! to the utmost distress and wretched do not look ness, till she finds a miserable' sub- A curse upon thy child ! No! Thy mild sistence in the wages of prostitution, prayer from which she is at last relieved by Forgave me.---sought Heaven's mercy to a premature death, after the contri forgive. tion which was natural to her errors And yet I think on all the past, and live! and her crimes, which prepared her There is a tenderness in the followfor the forgiveness of her heavenly fa- ing, mixed with a gentle reproach ather, her earthly one having early gainst the want of charity for sufferfallen a sacrifice to the grief and shame ings of this kind, which will be felt brought on his grey hairs by his illa by those humane persons (of whom fated child. The feelings of her we are happy to know there are many mind, from her first deviation from vir- among our fair countrywomen), who, tue, through the various stages of in the language of our poet, in his ad nuisery which that deviation produě dress to a lady to whom he sends this ced, are described in eleven of the son- tale of Emily, are not of that hard and nets, which are monologues of the merciless kind, who, possessing less sufferer herself, together with four virtue in themselves than aversion to which are narratives of her distresses vice in others, and death, which, as they could not
of virtue frail, be told by her, are supposed to be the in chill unmelting caution sleep! composition of the poet himself. In those of Emily, the anguish and the but of more amiable as well as more shame are described in broken solilo- unsullied minds, quies which the tongue can scarce ut* ter, while the heart is breaking under And pure in pity, dare to weep !
Can listen to the tale, ther. The abrupt and imperfect expression is such as must often leave
FRIENDLESSNESS. the reader to imagine the feeling it is tum memo! whither ? In what home meant rather to convey than to ex
obscure press; to trace that « march of
Safe may I rest in peace my weary thought," as Mrs Montague has very head ? happily expressed it, which it is the
Proud Virtue scorns to lend her hum. province of genius in the writer to
blest shed; conceive, and of imagination as well And Guilt, Guilt only, deigns her haunts as feeling in the reader to understand. impure. The following is a fair specimen of Harsh world !and ye.. harshest ! ye, the author's power of tracing this
who bind progress of thought and of feeling, and
The stranger's wound, where Want reof bringing it before his readers.
tires to grieve,
All-bounteous,---ye, where conscience FATHER'S DEATH.
burns, can leave
Unbalm'd the keener anguish of the Yet, yet I live !-Still throbs this burning mind ! heart,
o that one smile sweet-soothing, one soft Unrent with anguish ! O my first, last friend!
That speaks me not indifferent, one kind 1,-in thy very love,—who saw thee
Beam'd on my darken'd heart !- 'Tis but Thy fond embrace, I plung'd the mur to die; derous dast
And the bruis'd reed shall flourish. At one Ost, by thy bed of sickness, have I pray'd throne,