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région extending between the Alleghany the general law deduced by Hummountains on the east, and the Rocky boldt, that the western side of large mountains on the west. Its average continents has always a higher tema breadth is about 1400 miles ; its length as perature than the eastern. much, and its whole superficies nearly a The agricultural productions of the million and three quarters of square miles. United States afford a curious scale If peopled to one-third of the density of of the gradations of climate in the England, it would contain a hundred mil. Lions of inhabitants. Its most remarkable country. At the northern extremity

the cold is too severe to allow wheat feature is the great regularity of its surface, which is scarcely any where broken

to come to perfection, and at the by considerable hills, except at its extre- southern, sugar, a tropical production, mities, descending from each side to the is raised. The culture of tobacco, our bed of the Mississippi, with a declivity so author informs us, begins about the uniform and gradual, that nearly all the latitude of 39° or 40°; of cotton and rivers which water this immense area are rice about 37° ; of sugar about 33°; navigable almost to their sources. These but the climate well adapted for surivers constitute, in fact, a vast system of gar does not extend farther north inland navigation, of which the Mississippi than 314... The vine grows spontais the central trunk, and they bestow upon neously in the southern and western this country a capacity of improvement beyond what is enjoyed by any other re

states, and can be raised as far north

as Pennsylvania. The mulberry, also, gion on the face of the globe. The whole extent of these natural canals cannot yet is abundant in the natural state. be exactly known, but it may be estimated With the most useful minerals in round numbers at 40,000 miles. They America appears to be very abundantare so regularly distributed over the sur. ly suppliel; and, as our author obface, that there is seldom a tract of consi- serves, the distribution of these proderable extent without its navigable stream ; ductions is singularly adapted to the and many of these streams approach so situation of the country. Salt, for innear to each other laterally, and are sepa- stance, an article indispensable to hurated by ground of such a description, as

man 'life, is even more abundant in to admit readily of cross cuts so that, the interior than on the sea coast. when the resources of a civilized popula- Salt springs are so numerous on the tion are applied to the improvement of this

western side of the Alleghany mounterritory, its most distant parts will possess an unparalleled facility of intercourse ; tains, that a great natural bed of this and we may anticipate the time when the mineral is believed to extend over both whole of its extensive surface will be locke sides of the great central valley; and ed together by a system of water commu- it is thought, that the coal formation nications like the most level parts of Holaccompanies it over the same space. land. New Orleans will, no doubt, re- Limestone, iron, and lead, are also main the emporium for foreign trade. But found in abundance. At a future pethe main trunk of the Mississippi must ne- riod, these mineral treasures will afcessarily be the principal scene of the in- ford great facilities to manufacturing from the course and situation of the large industry. It is rather a curious fact, tributary streams, that the focus of its that even, at present, the greatest magreatest activity will be near the mouth of nufacturing town in America, Pittsthe Ohio. Here, at some period not very burg, is situated on the western side distant, great cities may be expected to of the mountains, in the newly settled rise, filled with an industrious population, country. We suspect it is in this secthe scats of arts and manufactures, and tion of the country that manufactures, the centres of commercial intercourse. It at least those of domestic materials, is pleasing to look forward to the bound- will be found to succeed best. Beless field which this highly favoured region sides the advantages it derives from opens up to the talent, activity, and enter

an inexhaustible supply of coal, and a prize of civilized man.

more fertile soil, the enhanced price This valley is the richest and most of European articles, from the exinteresting portion of North America. pence of inland carriage, must opeIts mean temperature is higher than rate in favour of native manufactures that of the Atlantic states, and it is here, more than on the eastern side less subject to the extremes of heat of the mountains. and cold. The coast of the Pacific The population of the United States Ocean is conceived to be still warmer is diffused over such an extent of surthan this central valley, agreeably to face, that the mean density of the

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whole is but about fourteen persons the revolution, the period of doubling
to the square mile; and it is remark- has been eighteen years.
able, that the most populous district, No circumstance, the author ob-
New England, is, at the same time, serves, connected with the United
the most barren. This last circum- States, has attracted so much atten-
stance is the consequence of the great tion as the rapid growth of the popu-
number of persons, in the district in lation. This is an advantage with
question, who are engaged in com- which there is no contending. How-
merce. Our author shows, that the ever far America may be behind any
population naturally spreads itself over of her neighbours, or rivals, in riches
a great surface, in order to occupy the or power, at a given period, allow her
best soils, because so long as there are but time, and she will outstrip them
such soils at a little distance, inferior all. The mean rate of increase for
land, though nearer the market, will the whole states is about three per
not bear the expence of cultivation. cent. per annum, so that the popula-
One consequence of the facility with tion doubles every twenty-three years.
which good land can be procured is, The author thinks the ratio may have
that rent scarcely exists in America'; been nearly uniform from the founda-
and the aristocracy of landholders, tion of the colonies. It is, however,
the most important class in all old very unequal in the different states,
countries, is entirely unknown. An- but this arises, not from any material
other consequence of using only good variation in the proportion of births,
soils is, that the returns are large, or, but from the number who emigrate
in other words, profits are high, and from the one state to another. Pro-
the rate of accumulation is extremely ceeding at this rate, it is computed,
rapid. From valuations, made for the that in one hundred years from the
purpose of taxation, in 1799 and 1814, present period, North America will
it appeared that the capital of the have two hundred millions of inhabita
country was doubling every eleven ants; and this number will people
years, –a rate of increase certainly un- the whole region claimed by the Unit-
precedented in any other country. ed States to the Pacific Ocean, to the

The chapter on Commerce is parti, same density as Massachusetts, the cularly full and satisfactory. It not most populous state in the Union. One only contains tables of the quantity curious consequence of this progresand value of each commodity export- sive state of the population is, that ed, but also an account of the ship- the number of young persons bears a ping and tommage, the duties, dues of much greater proportion to the old, entry, terms of credit, the dimensions than in countries where population is and prices of boats used in inland na- nearly stationary. In the middle and vigation, &c. It is foreign to our southern states, it appears that perpresent purpose to enter into these sons under sixteen years of age form details. We must content ourselves one-half of the population, or 502 in with noticing some of the general re- the 1000, whereas in Europe, they sults. The trade of the United States are only 331 in the 1000. This exwas nourished to an extraordinary plains the scarcity of old men in Amemagnitude by long wars in ope. rica, often remarked by travellers ; In 1807, their exports amounted to a person seventy years of age, the au108,000,000 dollars, but after Mr Jef- thor observes, belongs, by his birth, ferson's non-intercourse act, they fell to a society eight times less than that to 22,000,000. In the last year of in which he lives, or the present getheir war with Britain, so efféctually neration will furnish eight times as was their commercial activity restrain- many old men as that in which he ed, that the exports were reduced to was born. 7,000,000. Since the peace, they have The average price of labour in the again risen to 87,000,000, and the United States is estimated at 80 cents United States are now the second com- per day; that of wheat at 1 dollar 50 inercial nation in the world. From cents per bushel; beef, mutton, and data, which appear entitled to confi- veal, at cents per pound. The dence, the author concludes, that from wages of an English labourer he the year 1700 to the Revolution, the states at Is. 10d. per day, which is commerce of the colonies had doubled about one-half of the former. Flourevery thirty-five years; and that since ishing as America is, however, with

1

VOL. IV.

these high wages, she is not without known that the influence of the crown paupers. Their number, which we has always been most anxiously emnever saw estimated before, is stated ployed to better the condition of the by our author at 1 to 230 inhabitants slaves; and one reason why the numon the Atlantic coast, and 1 to 350 in ber of slaves in these colonies is so the interior. But he adds, that a small may be, that the regulations great proportion of these are foreign- established for their protection had ers and worn-out negroes. The exe rendered it less profitable to employ pence of maintaining these paupers them. is about 45 dollars per annum each. We shall conclude our extracts The sum paid by each individual, for with the author's remarks on the intaxes of all kinds, he estimates at portant subject of a national religion ; three dollars per annum. But these and we select these the rather beare paid indirectly in the shape of du cause this is one of the points on ties on foreign articles, excepting a which the sentiments of an American trifling sum for state taxes. The a- may naturally be expected to differ mount of taxation, however, to which most widely from those that prevail the people of any country are subject, in this country. is a very fallacious criterion for estimating the degree of comfort they

" There is no national church in the enjoy. So far as taxes are raised for United States, but the support of religion the ordinary purposes of government, dividuals. This is a singular contrast to

is left to the voluntary contributions of in. the principle might be reversed. One the policy of the European states, and main object of government is to pro- yet religion is by no means neglected among tect and encourage private industry, us. It is true, the rural population is jn and the greater the sum raised for this general ill supplied with places of worship; purpose, if faithfully applied, the but it ought to be recollected, that this pomore effectually will the object be at- pulation is thinly scattered over a new coun. tained. In Turkey, where the taxes try, and that Europe owes her amply en are very small, the people are more

dowed churches not to the religious zeal of poor and wretched than in any other an enlightened age, but to the superstiEuropean state; and generally it will tion and bigotry of an age of ignorance. be found, that the countries where it will be found, however, that in the great taxes are lowest, are the worst govern- outgrown the original church funds, the

cities of Europe, where the population has ed.

places of worship do not bear a greater In the chapter on Virginia we have proportion to the population than in those an interesting account of the laws re of the United States. In 1817, Boston, gulating the condition of negro slaves, with a population of 40,000, had 23 places from which we should have been glad of worship ; New York, with a population to make an extract, had our limits of 120,000, had 53; Philadelphia, with permitted. These laws show the state 120,000 inhabitants, had 48; and Cincinof insecurity and apprehension in nati

, in Ohio, a town with 8000 inhabitwhich the white inhabitants of the ants, though scarcely of seven years standslave states live. They exhibit also ing, had five places of worship, and two more

building. It is only between the large a feeble attempt to introduce a sem

towns of America and Europe that a comblance of humanity and justice into parison can be fairly instituted. And if the slave system, -an attempt which, the supply of churches is considered as a from the nature of things, must be criterion of religious zeal, we should take illusory, since the execution of the into account, that new churches in Europe laws in favour of negroes is left en are built by compulsory assessments, where tirely in the hands of those whose in- as, in America, they are built by voluntary terest it is to disregard them. It is contributions. Even in country districts, highly probable that th: democratic ill provided with churches, no impartial institutions of the United States have observer will say that the moral duties are rendered the condition of slaves worse, truth is, church establishments were found

less attended to than in Europe. The since there is no superior power to in- ed in a dark and barbarous age, when the terfere between thein and the tyran- interests of religion were little u derstood, ny and caprice of their masters. , We and they have since been supported as inhave no doubt that a Virginian plant- struments of state policy. It has no doubt er considers the right of treating his an imposing appearance, to set apart : slaves as he pleases, as his birthright. large proportion of the fruits of the earth In the Sanish colonies, it is well to furnish all classes with religious instruco

tion. Something of this kind may have and oppressions that spring from an exclua been necessary in the rude times, when sive religious system. On this, as on other i Christianity was first established in western points, their experience affords a useful Europe. But religion is one of the natu- lesson to the world, and confirms the teas. ral wants of the human mind, and, in an sonings of Dr Smith, who pointed out the enlightened age, requires no aid from the pernicious effects of such establishments civil magistrate. His presumptuons at more than 40 years ago." tempts to promote its interests have been the means of corrupting and debasing it; they have lessened its infhience over the tuation of the United States has bee

It is but of late that the political sihearts and conduct of men,undermined its authority, and filled the world with

come an object of attention in Eu contention and bloodshed in its name.

rope. The powers of this quarter of Chureh establishments, connected as they

the world were, for a long period, so commonly are with exclusive creeds, have completely occupied with the conbeen the most effectual engines ever con. tests among themselves, that the protrived to fetter the human mind. They gress of these small states, placed bem shut up religion from the influence of new yond the Atlantic, escaped their nolights and increasing knowledge, give an tice. When the troubles of the French unnatural stability to error, inipose the Revolution began, the latter had been dogmas and the prejudices of rude and ig, but lately raised from the condition norant times upon ages of knowledge and of a dependent colony; had no histo refinement, and check the genuine influence rical existence, no navy, no army, no of religion by associating it with absurd thing to make their alliance courted, practices and impious impostures. connecting the church with the state, they or their enmity dreaded. But, while degrade religion into an instrument of ci- the European nations were exhaustvil tyranny : by pampering the pride of a ing themselves in bloody and expenparticular sect, and putting the sword into sive wars, the United States, cultivata, its hands, they render it indolent, intoleing in profound peace their vast 1arant, cruel, and spread jealousy and irrita- tural resources, were advancing silenttion through all the others. By violating ly, but rapidly, to extraordinary the right of private judgment in their en wealth and power ; and, when peace deavours to enforce uniformity of belief, restored things to their natural state, they multiply hypocrites. To what can we attribute the monstrous tyranny of no- and brought the internal condition of dem Rome, from which it cost so much to society mure into view, it was found emancipate the human mind ? Not to any

that they had gained prodigiously upthing peculiar in its tenets, but to the cor on their competitors and rivals. The rupting influence of power associated with collision with Britain brought their religious functions. The Church of Rome strength to the proof, and gave a strike , was an established church of the most com- ing presage of their future greatplete kind, and had in the highest degree ness as a inaritime power. Though all the vices that naturally belong to such America gained none of the objects a body. But experience will not warrant for which she took up arms, the issue us in saying, that any other great sect; of the contest, as Mr Warden observes, have acted with

more moderation. It is certainly raised her character, and true that the toleration which the progress the scale of civilized nations which she

gave her a weight and importance in of philosophy has wrung from the priesthood, has stript many of the national did not possess before. The' extraorchurches of their most offensive features ; dinary principle of growth operating but much of the ancient spirit yet remains within her is now also more clearly It is still the case that men are compelled seen; and she already enjoys by an.. to pay for the support of a form of religion ticipation some share of the consethey do not approve of; that a difference quence due to the gigantic strength of belief excludes individuals from many to which she is visibly advancing. All civil offices and civil privileges; that the these circumstances have contributed established clergy are every where ready to justify the worst actions of men in power; sion, and to give an extraordinary de

to attract curiosity, and excite discus-, and if they cannot impose silence upon dissenters, they are often ready enough to gree of interest to works treating of harass and mortify them by such means as

the United States. they still possess. In nothing have the Mr Warden makes a few observa. United States more reason to congratulate tions on the question now otten agi. themselves than in their total exemption tated, Whether the United States, from the numerous dissentions, jealousies, when they reach the extraordinary

magnitude contemplated, will conti- who lived at the opposite extremities nue united, or separate into different of the small kingdom of Mercia, in communities ? and, like a true Ame- the Saxóu heptarchy. We do not see, rican, he decides in favour of the form therefore, that the extension of the mer alternative. We rather think American republic is likely to bring America is not far enough advanced many causes of misunion into action towards this ultimate state to afford which do not exist there at present, data for settling the question in a sa- and in every other country; and, on tisfactory way. But it is pretty evi- the other hand, the influence of those dent, that, in speculating on this sub- principles which bind society together ject, our judgment must proceed chief- is almost certain to increase. ly upon the following considerations : It would lead us too far were we to First, Whether the extended empire consider how the tendency to separato which America looks forward will tion is likely to be affected by the rebring into action any stronger princi- publican institutions of America ; ples of disunion than exist in commu we shall, therefore, dismiss the subnities of the size we have been aceus- ject with the single remark, that the tomed to in Europe ; and, secondly, federal form of government seems Whether the republican form of go- happily adapted to an extensive counvernment is less calculated than the try, since it combines an attention to monarchical to control these princi- local and particular interests with the ples, and keep the empire together? purposes of general government. With regard to the first, America has Upon the whole, we think Mr War. one advantage over old settled coun- den's work contains the most complete tries. Her population is more homo- body of information respecting the geneous, and, from the causes men United States that has yet been pubtioned by our author, it will proba- lished. The general chapters on bly continue so, however far it njay Quadrupeds, Forest Trees, and Disextend. She is not likely to contain eases, are valuable and curious addisuch dissimilar masses in her compo- tions, not to be found, we suppose, in sition as those united under Austria any similar work. He has very judior Prussia. How widely does the na- ciously given numerous tables of the tional character of the Scotch, Eng- prices of land and provisions; and in lish, and Irish differ? yet no person these and other particulars he has & dreads the dissolution of the triple u- vailed himself of the works of the nion. France, the largest kingdom of latest travellers, Birkbeck, Palmer, Europe, is as solidly united as Wir- Hall, &c. The only improvements temburg, the smallest. The ancient we would 'suggest, when the work Greeks might have argued that a free reaches a second edition, would be, to state could not exist of a larger size make the historical sketch more full, than an English county; but expe- and to extend it back to the year 1783, rience has enlarged our ideas on this and to make a separate chapter on the subject, and may still further enlarge emigration from Europe. A good the ideas of those who come after us. collection of facts respecting the numThere does not appear, in fact, to be bers and character of the emigrants, any natural limit to the magnitude of the countries from which they come, states so long as their parts are in con- and their general situation in the Utact. While this is the case, esch sec- nited States, would be highly curious tion will find its most valuable neigh- and interesting. bour, friend, and customer in the rest of the confeleracy; and, whatever ties may connect it with foreign states, Notes on a Visit made to some of the the strongest ties of interest must con Prisons in Scotland and the North nect it with that of which it is a mem of England, in company with Elizaber. The inventions of the post and beth Fry. By Jose PH JOHN GUKthe press, anil especially the circula

London 1819. tion of public journals, may be said to have annihilated space, and This is another invaluable product brought the most distant regions of active philanthropy. And well into contact. The inhabitants o may our country boast of the succes Caithness and Cornwall know morf sion which it has kept up of active about one another now than those philanthropists, from Howard down to

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