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progenitors any " joyous monarch” of made the undefended hearths of his the house of Stuart. Traditionary ac- native land reek with the blood of her counts of the cruelties of Claverhouse worthiest peasantry, merely because and Crichton, the former of whom they would not abandon the religion has been most appropriately styled the of their consciences, and present a Blondy, still form fertile subjects of worship to Heaven which they regardCORVersation at rockings, particularly ed as an abomination in His sight. in the upland wilds of Avondale, Les- Claverhouse may have been a hero ; mahagow, and Douglasdale, where the against this character we have nothing inhabitants are most stationary, un to say; but his heroism was always disa mised, and best informed ; and innu- played in support of what was wrong ; merable are the anecdotes, well au- and, in Scotland, he is known only as thenticated, of the horrid injustice and the unhesitating abettor of cruelty, tymean oppression inflicted by those a- ranny, and oppression; as the ima trocious men upon the defenceless suf- pious man, who, when he was asked ferers of that persecuting time. We by a woman how he would answer for do, indeed, hold the memory of the a foul murder, perpetrated with ago bloody Claver’se in the most cordial gravations of unfeeling insult upon detestation ; he, with the wicked and her husband, and which she was comprofligate Charles, deserved but ill of pelled to behold, blasphemingly rehis country, and their names, to use plied, “ To man I can be answera the phraseology of the Bible," stinkable, and, as for God, I will take him among the inhabitants of the land.” in my own hand.” We cannot, we It was with grief, therefore, and an dare not, pursue him beyond the ger, that we saw the accomplished grave; but his journey through this writer of the Tales employ his power- life was tracked with blood, murdere ful but misguided pen in sweetening ously shed, and his soul has already the foul character of this evil man, in been judged by that God of whom he endeavouring to varnish over the un so scoffingly spoke. effaceable blackness of his heart, by But I must desist. The persecuescribing to him a generosity which tion and the persecutors are, indeed, assuredly he never knew, and throw- subjects on which our western tongues ing around the deformities of his con- could run on for ever: and truly, duet a glittering veil of tinsel courtesy, when we and polite gallantry, which, if they really did belong to the character of That they and their's have dune us till,"

" think upon the mickle ill Grahame, but served to render its insidious possessor ten times more dan we are apt to say

with Jonah, gerous, as the beauty of its gay and do well to be angry.” My estimaspeckled folds has sometimes tempted tion of the characters of these evil men the unsuspecting and ignorant youth inay, perhaps, after all, be exaggeratto dally with the coiled snake, till, by ed, for I must confess that, from edua its deadly bite, the reptile informs cation and early associations, my feels him, when too late, of its rancorous ings are interested on the persecuted nature. We saw, with grief, this high- side. My maternal progenitor was ly gifted author, whose mind is ob- stripped of " house and hauld,and viously capable of more correctly esti- suffered all, but death itself, from the mating the value of human character, persecuting bands ; his brother was seduced by the common virtues of shot at his own threshold, in breach bravery and adventure, virtues which of promises most solemnly given, and thousands of the vilest wretches have, my paternal forefather shed his blood in all ages, and in every nation, pos- for the civil and religious liberties of sessed in a degree as eminent as Cla- Scotland. verhouse, to palliate oppression of the In endeavouring to localize the basest and most atrocious kind, to en scenes of the Tale of Old Mortality, deavour to screen from the execrations we shall set out from Lanerk, as from of posterity the ruthless man who, a station determined, and carry our armed with authority from the govern- incursions into the surrounding counment of Scotland, and at the head of try, according as the notices in the a numerous and well appointed sol- varying story may direct. diery, became the hangman-general of That Lanerk is the place near which the Privy Council, and heroically the wappen-shaw was held, will ap

we

VOL. IV.

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pear evident, if we consider that this forces its way through a deep ravine, feudal muster of the Upper Ward of formed on the one side by the high Clydesdale is represented as having and perpendicular craigs of Blair, taken place

on a haugh or level composed of strata of freestone and a plain near to a royal borough," and tilly

substance resembling coal, and have that Lanerk is the only royal borough ing the ruggedness of their extensive in the Upper Ward. Indeed, there front relieved by many a hazel, sloeare but two other boroughs in the thorn, and stunted ash, clinging to county, Rutherglen and Glasgow, to the crevices of the rocks, entwined neither of which, it is obvious, there with honeysuckle, ivy, and flowering can be any allusion in the above pas- brier, and forming the inaccessible sage. Clydesholmgreen may very na haunts of thousand of cushats, maturally be viewed as the spot on which vises, and merles. On the other side, the wappen-shaw took place. This is the braes rise in many a wavy slope a small but beautiful holm, lying near the castle, covered with flowerabout half a mile below Lanerk, and ing broom, while further down they celebrated in the annals of local su are highly cultivated, divided by perstition as the scene of the festivi- hedge-rows, and planted with fruitties of the witches and fairies on Hal trees of various kinds. At a little dislow-eve. It appears to have been for- tance below the Nethan, a moss-drawn merly a place of some note, for two stream, whose waters are a clear and mounds, "about the proper distance sparkling brown, like the hue of the from each other, seem to mark a place cairngorm pebbles,” (Vol. II. p. 276,) for exercising archery; and a little falls into the Clyde after crossing a imagination can easily conceive the beautiful haugh, where, embowered in popinjay at the memorable wappen- fruitful orchards, stands the straggling shaw, • of the 5th of May 1679," to village of Crossford. “ There” is “a have dangled on the larger hillock, narrow bridge of one steep arch across while the anxious competitors took the brook, near its mouth, over which, their aim from the smaller. Directly and along the foot of the high and opposite to Clydesholmgreen, on the broken bank, winds the public road” other bank of the river, is a more le- between Lanerk and Glasgow. "Lookvel and extensive haugh, forming the ing up the river," on which Craignegreater part of a farm called Baithill, than stands, “ the country” rapidly which, if any person choose to regard becomes hilly, waste, and unculti. as the scene of the feudal muster, I vated;" “ the trees are few, and limitshall not contest the matter.

ed to the neighbourhood of the stream, The seat of the venerable Lady and the rude moors swell, at a little Margaret Bellenden, the residence of distance, into shapeless and heavy the fair Edith, next demands our at- hills, which are again surmounted in tention ; and from the various notices their turn by a range of lofty moun. and descriptions of the tower which tains, dimly seen on the horizon." are scattered up and down the tale, there can be little doubt that the

* The lofty mountains to which the nomagnificent castle of Craignethan is

velist alludes are (if we are right in our the archetype of Tillietudlem.

In opinion that Craignethan is Tillietudlem) Vol. II. p. 275, we are informed that those which divide the counties of Laner's “ the tower of Tillietudlem stood, or and Ayr; and although now completely perhaps yet stands, upon the angle of naked of trees, appear anciently to have a very precipitous bank, formed by been covered with forests, for large trunks the junction of a considerable brook of oaks, and innumerable sticks of birch, with the Clyde.” This is extreinely hazel, &c. are found in the wet and inert near being an accurate description of moss which covers these mountains to the the situation of Craignethan. This depth of many feet; and their names, castle does stand upon the

with the exception of one or two, whose very point

designations, Auchingilloth and Auchin. of an exceedingly steep promontory, stilloch, seem derived from the Gaelic, are formed by the Nethan on the east

significative in the lowland tongue, and side, and on the west by the bed of evidently borrowed from the woods with a craggy and turbulent torrent, which which the mountains' sides were adorned. joins the larger streams at the very A conspicuous range is called the Hawk. angle whereon the fortalice stands. shaws, and in the neighbourhood we find The Nethan, after leaving the castle, the Reidshawhill, the Nutberry, and the

and had gone

The Moose, which foams among and precipices, but is a quiet, placid, the dreadful craigs of Cartlane, and and alınost stagnant stream, winding the Nethan, are the only “considere for miles among holms and haughs, able brooks” which jom the Clyde with not a craig, and scarcely a brae, between Lanerk and Avon. The first on its whole course.

The Castle of cannot be the “berry-brown stream” the Lords of Douglas is the only on which Tillietud lem stood, for it strength on its banks, and this stands falls into the river but about a quar- at the distance of three or four miles ter of a mile below the place where above the conflux of the Douglas and the wappen-shaw must have been the Clyde. Nethan must, therefore, held, so that, had the tower stood be the "berry-brown stream,” and near the disemboguement of the Craignethan must be Tillietudlem, Moose, the offer of Gibertscleugh to The village wherein Burley, when “convey her ladyship and Miss Bal- besieging Lady Margaret, established lenden home, as parties of the wild his head-quarters, appears to be DrafWhigs were abroad, and were said to fan, a hamlet at a short distance ainsult and disarm the well-affected,” bove Craignethan, and from which it could not but be regarded by Lady is sometimes called Draffan Castle. Margaret as an insult itself, and a sil- This place, though now reduced to ly attempt to frighten this high- two or three farmn-houses, once conminded dame. Neither has Avon a tained a considerable number of inbetter claim to the honour of having habitants, consisting chiefly of eottars, laved the walls of Tillietudlem, for renting a small piece of ground, but when Mause and her “winsome depending principally upon the larger bairn” were ejected from their “ free farmers for labour and support. It house, and the yaird that grew the has, as is well known, been raised by best early kail in the haill country, the ingenuity of etymologists to the

awa down to Miin- dignity of having been a principal wood, to tell Mr Harry their dis- seat or temple of the Druids, its name tress," Cuddie assures “ his Honour” having been deduced from Druidum that he would run any chance of los- fanun, though not a vestige of that ing the penny-fee, “rather than gang ancient order of priesthood was eyer down about Hamilton, or ony sic far discoverable in this place, except ancountry.” This hopeful youth's ideas tiquaries be pleased to reckon as such of distance we may learn from Vol. one or two beautiful barrows which II

. p. 157, where he says to his mo- formerly adorned this hamlet, but ther, after her " whiggery" had drawn which, having been, most unhappily, down on their heads the heavy dis- composed of excellent soil, were by pleasure of Lady Margaret,-" Weel the late tenant converted into huge awel; we'll hae to gang to a far earth middens, and carted out to the wuntry, maybe twall or fifteen miles neighbouring fields. aff,"—which, by the way, is nearly the It is more difficult to deterinine distance between Hamilton and Craig- the situation of Milnwood, than that nethan ; whereas Avon flows into of any other scene which occupies a Clyde but about two miles above that conspicuous place in the tale of Old ducal seat.

Upon no rivulet above Mortality; and sọ vague and contraLanerk could the tower have stood. dictory are the notices respecting it, Douglas water, which, indeed, may that all we can do with confidence is well claim the honours of a river, is to place it in the Middle Ward of the nearest that falls into the Clyde Clydesdale, somewhere near its upper in this direction, which it does at the confines about Dalserf. distance of several miles above the If these remarks, which have grown borough. The characteristics of this to a length disproportioned, perhaps, river also are totally dissimilar to those to their importance, be thought wors of the stream in question. It does thy of a place in your Miscellany, I not tumble and foam among rocks shall give, in some future Number, a

short account of Craignethan, and of Gude-bugs-hill. Another is called Cum. the traditions connected with it. I berbead, and is supposed to have been for

T. merly a station of the Cumbri during the Clydesdale, Jan. 25th, 1819. times of the Strathcluyd kingdom.

am, &c.

bis Dominum lancelotum militem DoLETTER PATENT OF THE DUCHESS OF minum luriaci, et guillermum monie BURGUNDY, IN 1445,

peny scutiferum suos constituerunt

commissarios et nuncios speciales DanOffering a Safe-conduct, &c. to the tes eis et eorum alteri commissionem Princess Eleonora, daughter of et mandatum speciale petendi et Rem James the First of Scotland, on the cipiendi eorum nominibus a prefato prospect of her being sent to her sis. Domino et cognato nostro Domino Jac ter, the Dauphiness of France, to be cobo scocie Rege predictam cognatam married to the Archduke of Austria. nostram Elenorem germanam suam et

eam apud eos conducendi, quam sicut [It is to be observed, that, in this letter, decet serenitatem suam tanquam 80

which is copied from the original in the rorem propriam gratissimis fauoribus Register-House of Edinburgh, this Du- tractare spoponderunt ac dictum machess is called Elizabeth, whereas, in Ry- trimoniale fedus quam cicius Deo mer, and in others of our historians Dante fieri poterit cum prefato serewhom we have consulted, she is called nissimo Romanorum Rege aut id deIsabel Her frequent appearance in public at that time, as on this occasion,

ficiente quod absit, cum alio principe seems to have been intended as a cloak sibi compare prosequi et perficere to the intrigues and unsettled politics Deo agente disponunt, Vt ex suis paof her husband.--Some interesting par- tentibus litteris cunctis intuentibus ticulars, not commonly known in this liquide constat Cum autem hec nouecountry, respecting the Princess Eleo- rimus ad honoris augmentum maxi. nora, may be expected in our next.) mumque commodum prefate Inclitis

sime domui Scocie Redundare Nos Elizabeth Regis portugalie filia ca cordiali affectioni qua plus possuDei gracia Duxissa Burgundie Lota mus Rogamus Instanter et viscerose, ringie Brabancie ec Limburgie Co- suademusque ac consulimus prefato mitissa flandrie Arthisii Burgundie Domino et cognato nostro Illustrissipalatina hanouie hollandie Zellan- mo Domino Jacobo Scocie Regi vt predie et namurci Sacri Imperii mar fatam Dominam Elenorem suam gerciona ac domina frisie salmis et mach- manam cognatam nostram predictis ljnie, Vniversis presentes litteras vi- domino lanceleto militi et guillielsuris salutem et dilectionem No mo monipeny scutifero aut eorum altum facimus ad nostram noticiam teri Juxta desiderium et votum pre pervenisse qualiter Illustrissimus fati domini mei dalphini et domine princeps et dominus meus dominus mee dalphine sue sponse tradere velit Ludovicus, primogenitus Caroli Re- et graciose expedire, quam sicut decet gis francie filius dalphinus viennen suam serenitatem, si eam per dominia sis ac Illustrissima domina mea mare domini mei aut nostra iter agere conguareta Regis scocie filia ejus contho- tingat deo permittente Juxta possibiralis ex sincerissimi et tenerrimj amo- litatem nostram honorifice Recipere, et ris zelo quibus Inclitissime domui fauere et complacere ac per dicta doscocie consanguinitatis et affinitatis minia de securo transitu providere vínculo sunt a stricti intuentes et co- Intendimus Vt hoc autem de nostra modus et augmentum honoris ipsius mente prouenisse ad cunctorum notiInclitissime domus scocie procurant ciam deueniat,, Has presentes litteras et dietim prosequi nituntur,, Idem fecimus sigilli nostri impressione co

um esse po ....... maxi- muniri apud Remin. vrbem Die vime quod nuper de consensu et bene- cesima aprilis Anno Domini milleplacito prefati domini mei francie Re- simo quadringentesimo quadragesigis matrimoniale fedus inter Illustris- mo quinto. simum dominum Romanorum Regem et dominam Elenorem cognatam nos Per Dominam Ducissam tram carissimam domini et cognati nostri scocie Regis et Domine mee

N DOMESSENT marguarete Dalphine Viennensis predicte germanam tractare et prosequi disponunt, et Deo fauente perficere sperant,, Pro cuius Rei faciliori complemento duos viros Dilectissimos no

ON CLIMATE,

form than that just mentioned, how

is this fact itself to be known or asMR EDITOR,

certained but by a series of observaIn your Magazine for April last, tions? and, though for one year it I observed an article on the subject of may be found to vary little or noclimate, accompanied by a plate illus- thing, how do we know that its varitrative of the facts there stated, re- ation will not be greater during the specting the mean temperature of the next? It will appear from the table earth at different depths below the annexed to these remarks, that water surface. The communication was raised from a depth of 25 feet, does certainly a valuable one, and I have vary in temperature from one year to frequently regretted that you or your another, and it can hardly be supposcorrespondent did not, as your readers ed that a spring, unless it issues with were led to expect, prosecute the sub- uncommon velocity from the ground, ject in

your following Number. can rise so rapidly from such a depth, There was one point, however, in the or be so little affected by the tempearticle referred to on which I propos- rature of the superincumbent strata, ed at the time to trouble you with a as water elevated by a good pump. I few remarks, but delayed doing so till apprehend, therefore, that the mean I had ascertained the result of some temperature of a place cannot be acobservations that I was then making curately ascertained even from the on the same subject. These remarks temperature of its springs, without a I now beg leave shortly to submit to series of observations continued for a your readers.

series of years; and, when we conThe point alluded to in your cor- sider the difficulty of finding springs respoudent's communication, is the at once copious and permanent, it wil great importance that he attaches to appear very doubtful whether the the method lately recommended, (cer- method recommended will at all ditainly from high authority,) of “fix- minish the labour of the meteorolo.' ing the mean temperatures of places by gist. Nor is it of so much value as the temperatures of their springs, a your correspondent seems to imagine, method," he says, " wbich, from its on the score of accuracy, for it apsuperior accuracy and facility to the pears, from the subjoined table, that tedious, incorrect, and, in most cases, the mean temperature of springs, impracticable one, by averaging the whatever be their depth, corresponds observations of a series of years, pro- very nearly with the mean of the daily • mises so much to advance our know- extreme temperatures taken in the Ledge of this most important element open air. in physical geography, and the theory For the same reasons, the method of climate." That the method recom- to which your correspondent alludes, mended is more accurate than the or- of determining the elevation of a place dinary one of averaging the observa- by comparing the temperature of its tions of a series of years I shall for the springs with

the standard temperature present admit; but that it is more of the latitude at the level of the sea, easy, and less tedious, is, I conceive, as given by Mayer's formula, appears very questionable. There are compa- to me to be liable to a strong objecratively few springs in this country tion. It is a well known fact, and, inwhose temperature does not vary at deed, may be inferred from the very leastseveral degrees in the course of the nature of springs, that the higher and year; many of them, indeed, five or six. more extensive the collecting surface, This fact I state partly from my own or, in other words, the lower the point observation, and partly on the autho- at which the spring issues, the more rity of others, who have had oppor- steady will be its temperature. In tunities of examining springs in dif- proportion, therefore, as we ascend, ferent parts of the country. The the more liable will a spring be to most uniform, indeed, of any that I greater variations, and, consequently, have yet heard of, is one on the west the more necessary will it be to mula coast of Scotland, whose temperature tiply observations in order to detervaries, in the course of the year, from mine the true mean temperature of one to two degrees. But, admitting the place. It is obvious then, that to that there are many to be found, estimate the height of a place, whose whose temperature is even more uni- elevation does not exceed 1000 feet, by

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