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the gore,

'Ωμοφάγου, τοϊσίν τε περί φρεσίν άσπετος mild and humane, and our admiration αλκή,

of his generous qualities, whether real Οιτ' έλαφον κεραόν μεγαν όρεσι δηώσαν- or supposed, has probably been the ass

Dr

cause of his present elevation. Δαπλεσιν. πάσιν δε παρήίον αίματι φαινον.

Aikin asks, may not the works of Ho

mer have been the chief means of in. Και τ' αγεληδόν ιάσιν, από κρήνης μελα- troducing him to such general fa

vour? Αάψουλες γλώσσησιν αραιήσιν μέλαν The finest description of the lion, Cowg

in Hoiner, is that in the Iliad, B. XX. 'Ακρον, έρευγομενοι φίνον αίματος εν δε when Achilles is described as about to τε θυμός

engage Æneas. Στήθεσιν άτρoμός εςι, περιςένεται δε τε

Such the lion's rage

Who viewing first his foes with scornful yashg.

eyes, Il. xvi. 156.

Tho' all in arms the peopled city rise,

Stalks careless on, with unregarding pride ; Grim as voracious wolves that seek the Till at the length by some brave youth

springs When scalding thirst their burning bowels To his bold spear the savage turns alone,

defy'd, wrings,

He murmurs fury with a hollow groan ; (When some tall stag, fresh slaughtered in

He grins, he foams, he rolls his eyes the wood,

around; Has drench'd their wide insatiate throats Lash'd by his tail his heaving sides re. with blood,)

sound; To the black fount they rush, a hideous He calls up all his rage ; he grinds his throng,

teeth, With paunch distended, and with lolling Resolv'd on vengeance or resolv'd on death.

tongue, Fire fills their eye, their black jaws belch We quote this passage chiefly on ac

count of the coincidence which has And gorg'd with slaughter still they thirst been observed between it, and the de for more

scription of the same animal by Pliny.

solo In this translation the zoologist Spernens tela diu se perceives the

omission of a part of the tuetur, ac velut cogi testatur : cooridescription, very characteristic of the turque non tanquam periculo coactus,

" Scorngeaus to which the wolf belongs.

sed tanquam amentiæ iratus. This is their mode of drinking, and ing the hunter's darts, he long defends the particular shape of their tongues,

himself by the terror alone which he which Homer so well describes by the inspires, and, as it were, testifies that words,

he is forced to engage, and he at length

rouses, not as if impelled by danger, A1 Vales y hugongur aquiñouvén.avvòng but maddened by fury.” Vulneratus "Anges.

observatione mira percussorum novit,

et in quantalibet multitudine adpetit. “ Lapping the surface of the water with

“ When wounded, he marks his astheir slender tongues.

sailant with wonderful attention, and

singles him out in the midst of the The lion is, with Homer, a fa- greatest throng." The naturalist of rourite object of comparison, and he Verona seems not unfrequently to is usually treated and described with have borrowed both from Homer and a majesty becoming the royal beast. Virgil. His description of the bee He is, at one time or other, typical of greatly resembles that given by the almost every hero of the Iliad. It Mantuan Bard, and the agreement behas been remarked as rather a singu tween the twoshort extracts, just quotlar circumstance, that although the ed, renders it probable that the one lion was never an inhabitant of Eu was borrowed from, or, at least, suge rope, or, at least, only of a very small gested by the other. The

prose wripart of it, he possesses a superior and ter, however, adds one circumstance, more frequent place in the armorial which is, perhaps, in all respects, the bearings of the European nations than more legitimate property of the poet. other animals. Equally, courageous Speaking of the lion, he observes, that with the tiger, he is said to be more upon open ground, and in full view,

terrore

though urged by the warmest onset As when a vulture on Imaus bred, of dogs and men, he retrcats slowly, Whose snowy ridge the roving Tartar and in a fighting posture ; but when

bounds, his disgrace is concealed among woods Dislodging from a region scarce of prey, and thickets, he flies with the utmost To gorge the flesh of lambs or yeanling

kids, precipitation.

On hills where flocks are fed, flies towards But it is in the works of Thomson,

the springs whom Pennant used to call the Na- of Ganges or Hydaspes, Indian streams; turalist's poet, that we may find the But in his way lights on the barren plains most ample harvest. This delightful Of Sericana, where Chineses drive writer has been accused of plagiarism With sails and wind their cany waggons from Virgil; and it cannot be denied light: that his prognostics of the weather, So, on this windy sea of land, the fiend and several other interesting passages,

Walkd up and down alone, bent on his are almost literal translations from the prey. Latin author. Independent of these, however, there remain abundant And the same evil being is elsewhere proofs of his originality, as well as

and otherwise characterized with accuracy, in the description of animal equal power. life, to warrant the appellation bestowed on him by the first British Then as a tiger who by chance hath spied

A lion now he stalks with fiery glare ; zoologist. There is not in any part In some purlieu two gentle fawns at play, of the Seasous a more dignified pasa Straight couches close, then rising, changes sage than the following one, descrip oft tive of “ the feathered king.”

His couchant watch, as one who chose his

ground, High from the summit of a craggy cliff Whence rushing he might surest seize Hung o'er the deep, such as amazing them both, frowns

Grip'd in each paw. On utmost Kilda's shore, whose lonely race Resign the setting sun to distant worlds, I have somewhere seen it objected The royal eagle draws his vigorous young, as an inaccuracy in Milton, where he Strong pounc'd, and ardent with paternal describes Satan in the Garden of Pafire.

radise, and adds, Now fit to raise a kingdom of their own, He drives them from his fort, the towering Thence up he flew, and on the tree of life,

seat, For ages of his empire ; which in peace

The middle tree, and highest there that Unstain'd he holds, while many a league sat like a cormorant;

grew, He wings his course, and preys in distant in as far as this bird, being webfooted, isles.

never perched either on trees or else The circumstance alluded to, of the where. Now, it is a fact worthy of obold eagle driving its young to a dis- servation on its own account, and as tance from its ancient eyrie, whether showing the attention of the author even it is as true as Thomson has rendered

to the most ininute particulars, that it poetical, is consistent with early the cormorant does roost on trees, and observation. It is related by Pliny: is, perhaps, the only individual of the “ Adultos persequitur parens, et longé palinated tribe which does so. fugat, æmulos scilicet rapine. Et a

What a beautiful description is prelioqui unum par aquilarum magno

sented in the fourth book, of that u- í ad populandum tractu, ut satietur, niversal peace and harmony which indiget."-" The parent bird pursues

reigned in Nature before the Fall, its adult young, and drives thein afar, and how delightfully varied is the as rivals in rapine; for a single pair picture! What a skilful combinations of eagles requires a large tract for of the liveliness of action, and the preying in, to provide a sufficiency of stillness of repose ! food."

About them frisking played What a fine addition is made to the All beasts of the earth, since wild, and of description of Satan's first visitation, all chase when Milton makes use of this most In wood or wilderness, forest or glen. Matural image!

Sporting the lion rainp'd, and in his paw

at sea

A

Dandled the kid; bears, tigers, ounces, of Nature's works to him expung'd and pards,

raz'd, Gamboll'd before them ; the unwieldy ele- And wisdom at one entrance quite shut phant,

out, To make them mirth, used all his might, is a thousand times more striking and

and wreath'd His lithe proboscis ; close the serpent sly' cently orelained, that the celestial

It was, however, benefi

pathetic. Insinuating, wove with Gordian twine His braided train, and of his fatal guile

light" for which he prayed was granto Gare proof unheeded; others on the grassed, and he was enabled to penetrate a Couch'd, and now filled with pasture gaz. region where, perhaps, only one had ing sat,

gone before him, where few will folOr bedward ruminating ; for the sun low, and beyond which, it is to be Declined was hasting now with prone ca- feared, none will advance. To the ocean isles, and in the ascending Still as it rose, impossible to climb.

The rest was craggy cliff, that overhung scale Of heaven the stars that usher evening

reer

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A CURIOUS INSTANCE OF FANCY DIC

TATING TO PHILOSOPHY.

On the other hand, by how simple an image is the existence of guilt, and its

MR EDITOR, consequent violence and rapine, pour

The following illustration of Matrayed !

dame de Stael's ingenious remark, that Nature first gave signs, impressed

the mind of Homer was very similar. On bird, beast, air ; air suddenly eclipsed, in its powers to that of Newton, (De: After short blush of morn; nigh in her l'Allemagne, I. 2. ch. 18.) may amuse sight

such of your readers who think fancy The bird of Jove stoop'd from his airy and philosophy so incompatible with tour,

cach other, as to be unfit to dwell toTwo birds of gayest plume before him gether in the same breast. In readDown from a hill the beast that reigns in ing Ariosto the other day, I came to

the following passage: Foods, First hunter then, pursued a gentle brace, “ Altri fiumi, altri laghi, altre campagne Goodliest of all the forest, hart and hind. Sono la su, che non son qui tra noi ;

Altri piani, altre valli, altre montagne, It might be said of Milton what Ch' ha le citadi, hanno i castelli suoi, his great representative of the present Con case, delle quai mai le piu magne day has so well written on another Non vide Paladin prima, nè poi ; subject, that

E vi son' ampie e solitarie selve,

Dove le Ninfe ognor caccian le belve." He could be sportive as a fawn That wild with glee across the lawn, Os up the mountain springs,

This, you perceive, is something And his could be the breathing balm,

like the celebrated philosophic hypoAnd his the silence and the calm

thesis, which maintains the moon and Oi mate insensate things.

the planets to be inhabited. The coThe mind of this inspired poet I began to examine whether it was

incidence struck me so forcibly, that peculiar pleasure in the contempla- original to Ariosto, or borrowed from tion of the distinctive forms and ha

some earlier writer, and my research

was rewarded by finding a similar bits of animals; and there is generally so much of the picturesque, as

opinion in Lucian's True History, well as of the beautiful, in his repre- all antiquity, not excepting even the

the most extravagant work of fancy of sentations, that one rarely reflects on those misfortunes of his sight, to indeed, it is of Gulliver, Baron Muna,

Metamorphoses,--the ground-work, which he sometimes so mournfully chausen, and other wild modern ficand so touchingly alludes. From him there is “no voice of weeping date, I found the opinion broached in

tions of the same class. Still of earlier heard, or loud lament,” but the ma- the Orphic verses preserved in Projestic calmness of his sorrow while be« clus and the Stromata of Clemens Failing

Alexandrinus, in the fragment beginthe universal blank

ning,

ORLANDO FURIOSO.

« Mησατο δ' άλλην γάιαν άπειριτον.

and your very respectable correspon.

dent, in his translation, instead of %. 7. 2

named after Nervana, should have That is, “ He (the Deity) formed said, named Nervana, or named after another earth of great extent, called the Emperor Nerva. Nervana was Selene and Mene, which contains the name of the cohort, and there is many mountains, cities, and houses.” certainly a manifest impropriety in What was once a wild fancy then, saying that a cohort is named after its has now become legitimate philoso- own name. This oversight is, howphy-- Dr Chalmers has even tried to , ever, probably a mere lapsus calami, embody it with theology; and I have and as the ineaning of your corresponlittle doubt that some of your more dent is, notwithstanding this venial learned correspondents may find and impropriety of diction, sufficiently obfavour you with similar notices of the vious, I rather regret that I have adno less singular opinion of Sir W. verted to it. Herschel, that the work of creation is The only material point of differstill going on in the heavens, where ence is his rendering the letters 00 he thinks he can see with his power- in the inscription, one thousand. It is ful telescopes, new worlds in every true, as he states, that in old books, stage of formation, and adding every (I suppose he means Roman manaday to the countless orbs which roll scripts,), the Arabic figure 8 prothrough space, affording a country and strated thus, o denotes a thousand, a dwelling-place to a population more This is not, however, the Arabic finumerous than ever entered into the gure 8, (though it nearly resembles dreams of imagination.

it,) but the Roman numerals Clɔ, deThis wonderful hypothesis of the noting a thousand, constructed into present actual progress of creation in one thus, ojo, and latterly written with the universe, is stated and maintained one effort of the pen, and without the by him in a paper on the Sidereal medial distinction thus co. Heavens. (Philos. Trans. for 1814, Having perused a considerable nump. 248.) Some curious information ber of Roman inscriptions, and have on these topics, your readers will also ing never, in any one instance, discofind in an Italian work, entitled, vered numeral letters pointing out the Considerazioni intorno Poesia, number of men engaged in the erec&c. di B. Garofalo, 4to, Roma.” tion or dedication of the tablets on

-A. which these inscriptions are found, I Cambridge, Jan. 5, 1819.

was not a little surprised at the new

theory advanced by your corresponREMARKS ON A MISTAKEN ROMAN dent, and the more so, as he not only

adheres to it in the present instance,

but endeavours to corroborate it, by MR EDITOR,

informing us that he is inclined to On looking over your Miscellany of believe that the letters CL found on July 1817, I observe an account of a the altar of Minerva at Burnfoot refer Roman inscription transmitted to you also to the number of men who joined by the Rev. Dr Cririe of Dalton, which in erecting it. This inscription on runs thus: 1.0M-COH.I.-NER- the altar of Minerva I have not seen, VANA GERMANOR:- 00. EQ and it would, therefore, be premature CVI-RAIEST.L·FAINIVS.FE- to hazard an opinion respecting it ; LIX TRIB

but as to that at presentunder considerOf this inscription he gives two ation, there appears to be no manner translations, which do not materially of doubt that your correspondent is differ, and I shall, therefore, content mistaken. myself with the first, which is as fol Had it been intended to express tho lows : “ To Jupiter, the most holy number of German horsemen engaged and the most high, the first Cohort of in the erection of this stone, and had the Legion named after Nervana, con that number been a thousand, the Rosisting of a thousand German cavalry, man numerical letters CIɔ would uncommanded by Lucius Fænius Felix, doubtedly have been used. But the its Tribune.”

letters 00 are not numerical, neither It is clear that this cohort was nam can they, as they stand at due dised Nervana, from the Emperor Nerva, tance, and unconnected, be an arbitra,

INSCRIPTION.

SION OF KNOWLEDGE UPON THE
HAPPINESS OF THE LOWER RANKS
OF SOCIETY

ry or errative effort of the chisel, in ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE DIFFUstead of CIɔ, or 0. Indeed, the theory advanced by your correspondent is so wholly destitute of truth, or even probability, that it appears to me quite

No. I. untenable.

But 00, as is well known to every MR EDITOR, classical scholar, is a common contrac The question, whether the diffution for Omnino. This is no vague sion of knowledge is calculated to inconjecture, for Calepine, an eminent crease or diminish the happiness of lexicographer, expressly says, that (in our peasantry and our mechanics, is notis antiguorum) oo is a contraction becoming, every day, more importfor Omnino. This point being settled, ant. It is closely connected with nathe inscription, divested of its contrac- tional freedom, and the dignity of the tions, will run thus, - Jovi, optimo, state, and it is impossible to speak upmarimo, cohors prima Nervana Ger

on almost any general political submanorum omnino equitum, cui præest ject, without adverting to this leading Lucius Fenius Felix Tribunus. The topic,this grand principle which translation will run thus,--" To Ju- bears upon and regulates all the movepiter, the Best and Greatest, the first ments of government, whether they Cohort Nervana (consisting ) of Ger- be lenient or despotic. Wherever we mans wholly cavalry, commanded by turn, indeed, in political speculation, the ( Roman) Tribune, Lucius Fie- the diffusion of knowledge among the nius Felix."

people meets us, and enforces attenAll that the inscription means to tion, in consequence of its influence import is, that a German cohort of on individual opinion and public sencavalry, named Nervana, and com- timent. manded by a Roman tribune, inscrib

What do you mean by knowledge ? ed this stone to Jupiter, and it was it will be asked by those who wish to certainly a proud mark of distinction have all their ideas sorted and labelthat it was dignified with the name led with methodical precision : And of the Emperor Nerva, and was com- what definition of happiness have you posed wholly of Germans, (without adopted ? Now, Sir, although I have almixture of Romans,) excepting the

no great opinion of a logical definicommanding officer, who was a Ro- tion, and think that its rules might, man tribune.

with no material loss to learning, be for It is to be regretted that antiqua- ever consigned to the same tomb with ries are generally too eager and im- Aristotle's syllogisms, yet, to preserve patient, and where a difficulty occurs, a good understanding with those preas in the present case, will, like Alex- cise and well-meaning persons, I shall ander, rather cut the Gordian knot attempt to say something in the way than take time deliberately to untie it. of explaining what I understand by Of this impatience, I, too, have had happiness and by knowledge, which, my full share, and I have made the if they be not definitions strictly ad res present communication with no view gulas, (and those terms seem but ill to detract from the celebrity of your qualified for the endurance of logical able and respectable correspondent, chains,) they inay, perhaps, turn out but solely from a wish to make our

to be intelligible descriptions. antiquities as clear and intelligible as

By happiness then, I understand, possible. I think it is pretty evident that satisfaction which a man feels ihat the inscription in question points with the rank and condition in which gut no definite or precise number of Providence has placed him. Whether Germans, and if your correspondent he be rich or poor, wise or ignorant, will favour us, through the medium if he be happy, he must feel satisfacof your miscellany, with the other in- tion and contentment, and must make scription alluded to, I will be much

a general submission and acquiescence obliged to him.-I am, Sir, &c.

to fortune, whether she choose to Rr. HUDDLESTON.

smile or to frown. I do not mean Lunan, 5th Dec. 1818.

that he should be insensible, as the old Stoics pretended to be, to all the ills of life; but a man that I should account happy, must learn to feel, and

VOL. IV.

Q

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