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"And the young city, round whose virgin zone
The rivers like two mighty arms were thrown,
Marked by the smoke of evening fires alone,

"Lay in the distance, lovely even then.
With its fair women and its stately men,
Gracing the forest court of William Penn."

Pennsylvania Pilgrim—WHITT1ER.

PREFACE

Many volumes have been written on William Penn, but they are mostly the work of bygone years. The twentieth century still waits for a biography which will not only deal with Penn the Quaker and politician, but Penn the man.

As one of his direct descendants, I venture to put forward this volume, thinking that, notwithstanding all the works that have gone before, this record of his life may interest the present generation.

It was Benjamin Franklin who said satirically, "William Penn united the subtlety of the serpent with the innocence of the dove." His religious views doubtless offended many, but the sincerity of them was such, that none could fail to respect them, even if they could not approve. There is no doubt that he was a Liberal Reformer before his age, and can receive fairer judgment at this distance of time, than at the moment, when he came in contact with so many opponents, and when his zeal at times outran his discretion. It has been said that the relations between William Penn and the Indian tribes form one of the brightest chapters in the history viii PREFACE

of America; while in England, by persistent endeavours, he obtained from the four sovereigns in whose reigns he lived, and who all accorded him their friendship, the right of liberty of conscience.

These pages will, I trust, give some idea of the great Quaker, and tell what manner of man he was.

I have gathered my information from many sources—among others, Clarkson's Life of Penn, Watson and Hazard's Annals, Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, Fiske's Dutch and Quaker Colonies, Mackintosh's History of England, etc., besides Penn's own journal and letters, the memorial of him by Granville Penn, and other authorities on the subject.

My thanks are due to the Earl of Ranfurly, for permission to make use of some hitherto unpublished letters; to Dugald Stuart, Esq., for allowing me to reproduce his interesting original portrait of William Penn; to Robert Barclay, Esq., of Bury Hill, Dorking, for letters from his ancestor, Robert Barclay, to William Penn; to Canon R. D. Swallow, for the loan of an engraving of Governor Penn, and of an old print of Chigwell Grammar School; and to the Lady Elisabeth Knox, for many suggestions and old stories—traditions in the family.

C. G.

DlNARD, I907.

GENEALOGICAL TABLE I.

Captain GILES PENN, = MARGARET GlI.FiERT.

Royal Navy. \

1643. Admiral Sir William Penn, Knight, = Margaret, daughter of John Jasper, bom 1621 ;died 1670. of Rotterdam.

WILLIAM PENN,

of Minety, Gloucestershire,

buried before the Altar, Minety Church, 1592.

William Penn. = Margaret, daughter of
John Rastall,

j of Gloucestershire.

_ (0 1672. I 1699. (2)

Gulielma, daughter of == WILLIAM PENN, Founder of Pennsylvania, — HANNAH, daughter and sole
Sir William Spnngett, born 1644; died 1718. heiress of

of Darling, Sussex. Thomas Callow-hill, of Bristol.

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