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a half of dollars had been taken on boaid, that there was a Strang swell of lire. He went below to discover if possible, whence it proceeded, and finding the people at work in the main hatchway, inquired whether they perceived

into masses of from two to ten thousand dollars weight. Suspicion of misconduct or carelessness at first fell upon the people; but it was afterwards ascertained that the loas of the Albion, was occasioned by some paper umbrellas, recei

■ny smelt of fire, to which they replied ved on board as cargo, packed up, but

not thoroughly dry, having spontaneous!/ caught tire in the hold.

AMERICA. Accounts from Brazil state that the vaccine inoculation, first practiced in St. Salvador, towards the close of 180*, h»3 since been spread through all the provinces, by the orilers of the Princeregent. His royui highness appointed Dr. J. A. Barboaa to superintend and promote the new practice, and so beneficial have been its effects, ihat the smallpox, formerly very destructive there, has almost totally disappeared.

Hi tue negative. The captain then went to the fore hatchway, uucovered it, and removed the hatches, when the flume burst forth with g'eat furv as hi'ih as the main stay. lie ordered the hatches to be put on again, and u-ed every endearour to extinguish the flames, but wittiest effect. At three A.M. on the 5th, the ebb tide having made, she went over on her broad-side. The decks by this time were so much heated, as to oblige the people to quit her. At four P.M. she was completely burned to the water's exlge. Such was the furv of the (bums, thai the treasure between decks was run

REPORT OF DISEASES,

Winder the care of the late senior ¥ht/sician nf the Finsbury Dispensary, from the 20th of December, 1808, to the 20th of January, 1809.

pHTHYSIS , 5 that a man whose body and mind have

* Asihin* .' S been well educated, may be able to coun

Febria 1 teract the original tin of his consitution.

Cephalati.... •••• 1 \ye (Jepend mure upon what occurs after,

H*u»°Fly«!? > than previously to our birth. What out

*-|»l°«»'i *••. » ofstif-compla'cency we are apt to atlri

AJITrca 3 bme t° our fathers or our mothers, moch

w"rbirCutane'i'.■.".■.'.■'.'.*!.* ".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.*.','.' 6 morc frequently arises from a feebleness

Asthenia 9 of volition, a weakness ot the will, trotn

Cat-«rrh...V. 16 a careless indiscretion, or a too luiurious

Five thousand four hundred deaths indulgence, from consumption are recorded as having As for any farther particulars than have rtcurred within the bills of mortality du- already bean mentioned in these Reports, ring the last year:—a melancholy anil de- with regard to the cure or rather care of cisive proof of the fatality and frequency phthysis, for the latter is always nccesof this encroaching disease, tis well as its snry, although the former may be often annua] growth and endless ramifications, impracticable, nothing on this occasion In spite of all other circumstances of can be said without committingthe crime^ fashion or atmosphere, which are calcu- of an idle and tiresome tautology. It lated to urge on the propensity to phthy- the cunsumptively disposed are not sufsical complaints; in consequence of its ficiently on their gunrd, they cannot be hereditary nature, it cannot fail to be- excused upon the ground of not having come more prolific in every succeeding ge- been sufficiently admonished. Deration. Every phthysical parent com- Asthma is a complaint in consequence m'uiucates the danger at least, of disease of its connection with the lungs, that apse his offspring. Phthysis is often the pears to indicate a consanguinity with, only patrimony that is bequeathed :—an pulmonary disense; but in fact they are unenviable possession which may possi- essentially dissimilar. Besides many other bly be entailed upou perhaps an indefi- features of variety, the one is for the nite series of posteriiy. At 'he same most part connected with an undue hope time it oueht to be known and pr«cti- and hectic vivacity, whilst the other is eally considered, that it is only tendnirict in general accompanied with an hypothat are inherited, not actual malsdy; w cuoudnuuii despondence, or an unreasonable sooaMc dejection. How can we wonder Cachectics, native or artificially manutiiat ooe under the actual agonies, or un- factured debilities of the constitution, der the dreadful prospect, of an approach- although they hold no specific rank in a tag paroxysm of asthma, should not be medical nomenclature, occupy the largest clieirlul, or even be composed. Asthma- sp»ce in the field of a physician's prolesties are often, perhaps more generally sioual observation. Diseases that have thin others, men of mind and of manly acquired no name, and are incapable of energies. But there are feelings of pain any precise or discriminating definition, which must get the better, for a time, constitute the majority in the melancholy of the sturdiest fortitude, and no man group of maladies.

can be blamed for not enduring with Dropsy, alas! has fallen in several in

(nuiuuillity sufferings wliich are almost stances under the Reporter's care within

beyond the limit of hotrran toleration.* the last few weeks. Dropsy is nearly

Bleeding, or the vein-evacuating sys- allied to despair, and may be considered

tern, as being too indiscriminate and pro- as the last step before the threshold of

tuse, the Itepoiler hat frequently had death.

occasion to reprobate; by the energy and In the presence of the Reporter, a

decision of his remarks he hns incurred plebeian illiterate patient of this class,

some reprnnch, although not that of his conscious of his vicinity to the grave,

»wn conscience. Kvery new day throws breathed a confession, that he was

new lyht, and gives an additional flash of ashamed of feeling "so much attached

cmrriction upon the subject. Among the to this last rag of life." J

asthmatics more especially, any rietrac- Distempers of every, and more remark

tiun of blood is inevitably followed by a ably of this kind, originate in a great

diminution of strength, and too frequent- measure from'excess in the luxuries of

It by an entire dissolution of the faculties eating or of drinking, and perhaps quite

of vitality. This remark peculiarly applies in those who are far gone in life. To tap the sanguiferous system when the cask is well nigh exhausted, is a cruel sod wasteful expenditure of that which is accessary to support even a feeble perpetuity of existence. Dr. Flower, who lias concentrated in his little treatise almost all that can be usefully said on the subject of asthma, moic than a hundred jearj ago, gate an opinion which barmoo3a[Withand of conrse confirms my own. "Bleeding,'' he says, "though never so dijntpCatod, will not core the asthmatic,

ibstalittte for the present relieve the ■frailness and suffocation. It is agreet^Wtoyaang persons, bat very prejudimJittM.habituated asthmas, who at MM! Jfttvjaot njachj relieved thereby, trims^they become ca

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as frequently from the' former as from the latter. The former is the most frequent cause of abrupt dissolution, but they are both rival candidates for executing the rapid and premature destruo tion of the human frame. Hippocrates, one of our venerable fathers in medicine, tells us, that '• he who eats and drinks little will have no disease." This axiom, perhaps contains in itself more of the rashness of youth than the reason of age. But at any rate it must be confessed that inordinate gratification of every species must be followed by grievous calamity, and that to the inhabitants at least of this island, the fluid incentives to exhilaration is mure dangerous than the effects which may arise fiotn a more solid and substantial epicurism. Wine is perhaps more corrosive in its operation, and more perilous in its ultimate consequence, than any other superabundance of dietetical oppression. r -n/n.-iV\'X- i »t

Alchohol is bad aliment; and the more fearful diseases arise from spirituous excess. Dropsy, hypochondriasis,1 asthinn, paralysis, and aS&enia, are all members

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oftTie same family, children of the same cordials. The last scene of these maladies is often a partial or general dropsy, which, after having passed the tedious and fitful purgatory of puin, must inevitably lend to the calamitous conclusion Of lift.

"Nothing could be better adapted to apartments in which the orgies of Bacchus are celebrated, nothing more like to preserve those who unwittingly join in the celebfation.than bloated dropsical figures, Some overwhelmed by death-like languor,

some starting out of their sleep under those horrors which water in the chest brings on, and others in one of those gasping fits which come on with greater and greater violence till the lungs are entirely overwhelmed by the increasing inundation." §

J. Ri ID. Grenville-strcet, tirutnairk-tquare, January 26, 1809.

§ Dr. Beddocs's Hygei'a.

STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS IN JANUARY.

Containing official Papers and authentic Documents.

PBUSSIA.

THE King of Prussia transmitted the following letter on theV4thof December, 1808, to the Magistrates of Be; lin:— ,c Worthy, beloved, and faithful subjects, my provinces being evacuated by the French, my attention is now directed to (he accomplishment of my heartfelt wish of returning to my capital of Berlin, with the Queen my spouse, and ray family—an' object which I have by all possible means endeavoured to ittain since the conclusion of peace. 1 have given orders that the Constituted Authorities shall leave this place for Berlin, as soon as the districts on the other side of the Vistula have begun to breathe a little from the effect of the heavy burthens they have sustained in furnishing carriages and supplies, bo'h before and during the evacuation of the country. This short interval I shall employ in a journey to St. Petersburgh, is consequence of the repeated friendly and urgent invitations, both verbally and by letter, of his Majesty the Emperor of Russia. I shall expedite my journey, and hope within a few weeks, to revisit my provinces on the other

'side of the Vistula, to which I owe so many proofs of exemplary fidelity; and 1 shall in

- particular hasten my return to Berlin, to testify to my subjects of that city my gratitude for their firmness and good conduct, and to assure them of my attachment and satisfaction. 1 inform yuu hereof, and command >ou to notify the same to my loving anil faithful citizens of that city , and I am your loving Sovereign.

"r«itiiIrWitiiAM." SI'a IN. Tk.'temth Bmllitia •/ tbt trout .1r»?r~ St. Martin,, ntar Madrid, Ar. (•.—-On the K)rh uit. tire head quarters of the Rmp-ior

'were removed to the village of fio-t. aullas. On the jOtli, at break of day, the Duke of Belluna presented himself at the loot of S=moslerra. A division of 13,1)00 mrn of the fiDsnjah army of reserve defended the passage

of the mountains. The enemy thought themselves unattackahle. They had entrenched themselves in the narrow passage called Puerto, with 16 pieces of cannon. The 9th light infantry marched upon the right, the 96th upon the causeway, and the SMth followed, by the side of the heights on the left. Gen. Senarmont, with six pieces of artillery, advanced by the causeway.

The action commenced by the firing of musketry and cannon. A charge made by General Montbrun, at the head of the Polish light horse, decided the affair. It was a most briU liant one, 3nd the regiment covered itself with glory, and proved it was worthy to form a part of the Imperial Guard. Cannons, flaps, muskets, soldiers, all were taken or cut to pieces. Eight Polish light horse were killed upon the cannon, and 16 have been wounded, among the litter is Captain Dcievanoski, who was dangerously wounded, and lies almost without hopes of recovery. M.jjorScgur, Marshal of the Emperor's household, charged among the Polish troops, and received nuny wounds, one of which is very severe; sixteen pieces of cannon, 10 flags, 20 covered chests, ■J''!1 waggons laden with all kind of baggage, the military chests of the regiments, arc the fruits nf this brilliant affair; among the prisoners, which a-.every numerous.are alt the Colonel;, l.icurenmt Colonels, of the corpi of the Spanish division; all the soldiers would have been tiken it they had not thrown away their arms and dispersed in the mountains.

On the 1st of December, the licad-iiuart-rs off hr Kniperor were at Saint tugustin, and on the J J, the Dukeuf Istria, with the cavalry, commanded the heights ot' Madi id.

The in'untry could nut arrive before the 3d.— The intelligence which we h>thrrto received, led us to t. ink that this town i< suffering under ul! kinds of disorders, and that the doors are banicadocd.— The weather is very is*.

Fmrtttatb Bulittm.

Madrid, Dn. 5,—The Vd at noon, hi: Majesty arrived in person on the heights

which

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A butcher's boy of Estrema'lur3,uho commanded one of the gates had the audacity to require that the Duke o! [stria should go himself into the town with his eyes blindfolded. General Montbrun rejected this presumptive demand with indignation. He was immediately surrounded, and effeerrd his escape only by drawing his swori. He narrowly escaped falling a victim to the imprudence with which he had forgot that he had not to make war with civilized enemies.

At five o'clock General Morla, one of the Members of the Military Junta, and Don Bernardo Yriarte, sent from the town, repaired to the.'ent of the Major General. They Informed him that the most intelligent persons were of opinion, that the town was- destitute of resources, and that the continuation of the defence would be the height of madness, but that the lower ordeis of the inhabitants, and the foreigners at Madrid, were determined to persevere in the defence. Believing that they could not do it with effect, they requested a pause of a few hours to inform the people of the real state of affairs. The Major-General presented the Deputies to the Emperor and King, who addressed them thus:— "You make use of the name of the people to no purpose; if you cannot restore tranquillity and appease their minds, it is because you have excited them to revolt! you have seduced them by propagating falsehoods. Assemble the clergy, the heads of the convents, the alcaides, the men of property and influence, and let the town capitulate by six o'clock in the morning, or it shall be destroyed. I will not, nor ought I to withdraw my troops. You have massacred the unfortunate French prisoners who had fallen into your hands; only a few days ago, you suffered two persons in the suite of the Russian Ambassador to be dragged along and murdered in the public-streets, because they were Frenchmen born. The incapacity and baseness of a general, had put into your power troops who surrendered on the field of battle, and the capitulation has been violated. You, Mr. Morla, what sort of an epistle did you write to that general?—It well became you, Sir, to talk of pillage, you who, on entering Roussillon, carried off all the women, and distributed them as booty among your soldiers !—What right had you to hold such language elsewhere?—The expectation ought to have induced you to pursue a different line of conduct. See what has been the conduct of the English, who are far from piquing themselves on being rigid observers of the Xaws of Nations. They have complained of the Convention of Portugal, hut they have carried it into effect. To violate mill, tary treaties, is to renounce all riviligation: it is placing ourselves on a footing with a banditti of the desarc. How dare you, then, presume to solicit a capitulation, you who violated that of Bsjrlen? See how

injustice and bad faith always recoil upon the guilty, and operate to their prejudice. 1 had a T,:et at Cadi'/; it was under the protection of >pain, yet you directed against it the mortars of the town where you commanded. I had a Spanish army in my ranks; 1 would rather have viewed them embark on board the English ships, and be obliged to precipitate it from the rocks of Espiiicsa, than to disarm it; 1 would rather prefer having 7000 more enemies to fight, than be deficient in honour and good faith. Return to MaJtid— l give you till six o'clock to morrow morning—return at that hour—you have only to inform me of the submission of the people—if not, you and your troops shall be putto the sword." This speech ot the Emperor, repeated in the midst of tbe respectable people, the certainty that he commanded in person, the losses sustained during the preceding day, had carried terror and repentance into all minds. During the night the most mutinous withdrew themselves fruui the danger by flight, and a part of the troops retired to a distance. At ten o'clock Gen. lid hard took the command of Maarid; all the posts were put into the hands of the French, and a general pardon was proclaimed.

From this moment, men, women, and children, spread themselves about the streets in perfect security. The shops were open till eleven o'clocic. All the citizens sec themselves to destroy the barricades and repave the streets, the Monks returned into their Convents, and iu a few hours Madrid presented the most extraordinary contrast, * contrast inexplicable to those unaccustomed to Che manners of great towns. So many men, who cannot conceal from themselves what they would have done in similar circumstances, express their astonishment ac the generosity of the French. Fitty thousand stand ar arms have been given up, ana 101/ pieces of cannon have been collected at tbe Retiro. The anguish in which the inhauitants of this wretched city have lived tor these tour months cannot be described. The junta was without influence; the mostignorant and maddest ot men had ail the power in their han<ls, aud the people at every instant massacred, or threatened with the gallows, their Magistrates and their Generals.

The General of Brigade Maison has been wounded. General firuyere, who advanced imprudently the moment the flung ceased, has been killed. Twelve soldiers have been killed, and fifty wounded. This lo.s, so trifling for >n event of so much importance, is owing totbesoaallness of the number ot troops suffered to engage i it isowingbesides, we must say, to the extreme cowardice of all those who had arms in their hands against us.

Tbe artillery, according to its usual custom, has done great services. Ten thousand fugitives who hid escaped Irom Burgos and Sjrnosierta, and the second division of the Army

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