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wluch is now admitted before « pardon. It would he a painful and disgusting ath," should therefore be expunged. The detail, if I were to entenvuur to bring consiruction is similar to that adopted before you the almost ununierable inby the translators of the Bible, in 1 Sam. stances of cruelty to animals, which are xvii. 37. “The Lord God, that deli- daily occurring in this country, and vered me out of the paw of the lion, and which, unfortunately, only gather strength out of the paw of the bear, he will de- by any eiforts of humanity in individuals liver me out of the hand of this Philistine," o repress them, without the aid of the
It is probable, that, by some typogra- law, phical error, the punctuation bas been T hese unmanly and disgusting out. allered, by substituting the period for rages are most frequently perpethe comma; and that the practice which trated by the basest and inost worthlits till lately obtained of writing the ini- less; incapable, for the most part, tials of pronouns with capital letters, has of any reproof which can reach the misled the reader, and introduced the mind, and who know no more of the present inaccurate reading.
law, than that it suffers them to indulge Mr. Sheridan, whose remarks on the their savage dispositions with impunity. serise of the liturgy are generally correct, Nothing is inore notorious, than that has not observed the grammatical impro- it is not only useless, but dangerous, to
priety of this sentence; but has pre- poor sntfering avimals, to reprove their s scribed a forin which sanctions the ese oppressors, or to threaten then with pu. tablished manner of reading it.
mishment. The general answer, with the Nowbury,;; Your's, &c.
addition of bitter oaths and increased Mloy '11, 1809. WM. ALLEN. , cruelty, is, “ What is that to you?
If the offender be a servant, he curses for the Monthly Magazine you, and asks, if you are his inaster? : The SPEECH of LORD ERSKINE, in the and if he be the master himself, he cells
HOUSE of PEERS, on the second READ- you that the animal is his own. Every ING of the BILL for preventing mali. one of your Lordships must have wil
cious and wanton CRUELTY 10 ANIMALS, nessed scenes like this. A noble Duke, . --Taken in SHORT HAND.* . whom I do not cec in his place, told me My LORDS,
only two days ago, that he had lately 1 AM now to propose to the humane received this very answer. The val duy
I consideration of the House, a subs. of this most infamous and stupid defence, ject which has long occupied my atten- arises from that defect in the litw wlrich tion, and which I own to your Lordships I seek to remedy. Aviorals gre consie is very near my heart.
derent as property only-To destroy or to
abuse them, from nalice to the pripreThe Publisher of this Magazine con- tor, or with an intention injurious in his ceives that no apology will be requisite, ou interest in them, is criminal; but the bis puit, for the pains he has taken to pro- . animals themselves are wilhoul proieccure & correct copy of it, and for presenting in the law reraris them not substanthe same to the world. The principles of sound morality and hu.."
(ively they have no rights! mane policy, which this speech contains, can
I will not stop to exaniine, whether not be too widely disseminated; and they public cruelty to animals may not be. may be the means, in this shape, of pro. under many circumstances, an indictable ducing an effect on the feelings and practices offence: I think it is, and if it be, it is 6/ mankind, siearly equal to that proposed by somnucli the better for the argument ! legislative regulations. At the same time the arn about to submit to your Lordstupi. sanction of law can never be more usefully but if even this were clearly so, it would bestowed, than in giving weight to doctrines
fall very short of the principle which I which are frequently at variance with the mean anxiously and earnests to invite prejudices and passions of mankind.
the House to adopt. I am to ask your Un the whole, it may be asserted, that Lordships in the name of that God who tispeech contains such a condensed view of
gave to man his dominion over the lover the arguments in favour, o: a mid and hu. mare treatment of the brute creation, as to
world, to acknowlerive and recognize claim a general introduction into families and that doininion to be a Síorud Tnt. It seminaries of education, and to deserve circu- 15 a proposition which oo man living can lation among the livers slasses of society by dery, without dengang the whole foundathe Jergs, and by all m.ial and piqu. per. tion of our duties nodevery thing the sons.
Blit proposes will be found in bo'la
lunchy lutely corollary to its establishment; ex out any one abuse of a brute which is cept, indeed, that from circumstances in- prnperty, by its owner, which is not di evitable, the enacting part will fall shurt rectly against his own interest, Is it or that which the indisputable principle possible then, iny Lords, to contemplate of the preamble would warrant.
thuis wonderful arrangement, and to Nothing, my Lords, is, in my opinion, doubt, for a single moment, that our de more interesting than to contemplate the minion over animals is a trust? They helpless condition of Man, with all his are created indeed for our ase, but not" godlike faculties, when stripped of the aids for our abuse: their freedom and en-" which he receives from the numerous joyments, when they cease to be conclasses of inferior beings, whose qualities, sistent with our just dominion and enjos. and powers, and instincts, are admirably ments, can be no part of their na and wonderfully constructed for bis use. tures; but whilst they are consistent, If, in tbe examination of these qualities, their rights, subservient as they are, powers, and instincts, we could disco- . ought to be as sacred as our own. And ver nathing else but that admirable and although certainly, my Lords, there can wonderful construction for man's assist- be no law for man in that respect, but ance; if we found no organs in the ani- such as he makes for himself, yet I calimals for their own gratification and hap- not conceive any thing more subliine," pinesss--no sensibility to pain or plea- or interesting, more grateful to Ileaven, sure-no gratefal sense of kindness, nor or more beneficial to the world, than to soffering from neglect or injury--no see such a spontaneons restraint imposed; senses analogous, though inferior to our by man upon himself. Own: if we discovered, in short, nothing . This subject is most justly treated by but mere animated matter, obviously and one of the best poets in our language. exclusively subservient to human pur- Mr. Cowper, in the Task, says : poses, it would be difficult to maintain
u The sum is this . that the dominion over them was a trust; If man's convenience, health, or safety in any other sense, at least, than to make Inter.ere, his rights and claims are paramount, the best use for ourselves of the property And must extinguish their's, else they are in them which Providence had given us. But, my Lords, it calls for no deep or He then proceeds in a most affecting extended skill in natural history, to know and sublime appeal to our humanity and that the very reverse of this is the case, justice. I have not a sutficient recul and that God is the benevolent and im lection of it, and I will not destroy the partial airbor of all that he has created. effect of it by misrepeating it..! For every animal which coines in contact The same subject is touched upon, in with man, and whose powers, and qualities, most eloquent prose, in the theological and instincts, are obviously constructed works of Mr. Jones, which were put into for his use, Nature has taken the same my hands the other day, by iny wortlig care to provide, and as carefully and and excellent friend at your table. bountifully as for man himself, organs Here Lord Erskine read, an ertract. and feelings for its owu enjoynient and Nir. Young, of Trinity College, Camhappiness. Almost every sense be bridge, bas also published an excellent stowed upon man is equally bestowed treatise on the subject;" and many of the upen them seeing, henring, feeling, most 'worthy and respectable of the thinking, the sense of pain and pleasure, clergy have done honour to their sacred the passions of love and anger, sensibi- funcrions, by unpressing upon their canla hry to kindness, and pangs from unkind- gregarions the divine command, as it reness and neglect, are inseparable charoc gards this important daty.de teristics of their natures, as much as of Every other branch of our duties, when our own. Add to this, my Lords, that subject to frequent violation, has beca she justest and tandlerest consideration of recognized and inculcated by our laws, this benevolent systein of Nature, is not and the breaches of them repressed by only consistent with the fullest domi- poloshmerits; and wliy not in this sion of man over the lower world, but where ner duties are sa importaót, so dstablishes and improves it. In this, as universally extended, and the breaches in everything else, the whole moral sys of thein so Trequent and so abuinina. tein is incaleoted by the porsuit of or ble? awn happiness. In this, as is all other But in what I am proposing to things our duties and our interests are Lardships, disinterested virtue, is in inseparable. J defy any unnn to point other cases will have its own sertai
ward. ward. The humanity you shall extend evident tendency to barden the heart to the lower creation will come abun- against the natural feelings of huma zity." dantly round in its consequences to the This preamble may be ohjected to as whole buman race. The moral sense too solemn and unusual in its language ; which this law will awaken and incul- but it must be recollected, that the subcale, cannot but have a most powerful ject of the Bill is most peculiar and aneffect upon our feelings and sympathies usual; and it being impossible to give for one another. The violences and out. practicable effect to the principle in its full rages committed by the lower orders of extent, it became the more necessary, the people, are offences more owing to in creating a duty of imperfect obligawant of thought and reflection, than to tion, where legal restraints would be inany malignant principle; and whatever, efficacious or impossible, to employ lantherefore, sets them a-thinking upon the guage calculated to make the deepest imduties of humanity, more especially where pression upon the human inind, so as to they have no rivalries uor resentments, produce, perhaps, more than the effect and where there is a peculiar generosity of law, where the ordinary sanctions of in forbcarance and compassion, las an law were wanting. evident tendency to soften their natures, It may be now asked, my Lords, why, and to moderate their passious, in their if the principle of the Bill be justly undealings with one another.
folded by this preamble, the enacting The effect of laws which proinulgate a part falls so very short of protecting the soumd moral principle is mcalculable; I whole animal world, or at all events have traced it in a thousand instances, tliose parts of it which come within the and it is impossible to describe its value, reach of man, and which may be sub
My Lords, it was in consequence of ject to abuse. To that I answer-It these simple views, and on those indis- dues protect them to a certain degree, purable principles, that I have framed by the very principle which I have been The preamble of the very short Bill which submitting to your consideration, and to I wow present for a second reading to the protect them further, would be found to Ilouse, I night, without preamble or be attended with insurinountable difficulpreface, have proposed at once to enact, ties, and the whole bill might be wrecked if not to declare wilful and wanton cru- by an impracticable effort to extend it. elty to the animals comprehended in it to But I shall be happy to follow others in he a inisdemeanor, Inuking, as I now do, to the attempt. The Bill, however, as it the Commons to enforce the sanction of regards all animals, creates a duty of in the law by pecuniary penalties. But perfect obligation; and your Lordships are then the grand efficacious principle very well aware, that there are very many, would have been obscured; which, if and most inanifest and important moral fortunately adopted by your Lordships, duties, the breaches of which human laws will enact this law as a spontaneous rule cannot practically deal with, and this I in the mind of every man who reads it fear will be found to be the case in the which will make every human bosom a subject now under consideration, sanctuary against cruchy-which will ex- Animals living in a state of nature tend the influence of a British statute would soon over-run the earth, and eat Leyond eren the vast bounds of British up and consume all the sustenance of jurisdiction; and consecrate, perhaps, in man, if not kept down by the ordinary all nations, and in all ages, that just and pursuits and destruction of them, by the eternal principle, which binds the whole only means in which they can be kept living world in one harmonious chain, down and destroyed; and it is remarkaunder the dominion of enlightened man, ble, that other animals have been formed the lord and governor of all..
by Nature, with most manifest instincts I will now read to your Lordships the to assist us in this necessary exercise of preamble as I liave framed it.
dominion; and, indeed, without the Wlierens it has pleased Almighty act of man, these animals would them God to subduc to the dominion, use, and selves prey upon one another, and this comfort of man, the strength and facul- be visited by death, the inevitable lot ties of many useful animals, and to pro- of all crealed things in more painfal vide others for his food, and whereas the and frightful shapes. They have bee abuse of that dorinion, by cruel and op- sides, no knowledge of the furore, and pressive trentinent of such animals, is their end, when appropriated fitly for not only bighly unjust and inmoral, but our food, is without prolonged suffering most pernicius in its example, haviug an This economy of Providence, as it to
gards animals, which from age to age Before I leave this part of the subject, have lived in an unreclaimed state, de I think it right to advert to the practice voted to the use of man and of each of bull-haiting. I did not intend to have other, may serve to reconcile the mind touched on it, but as I find that yome to that mysterious state of things in the who support the principle of this Bill, present fallen and inperfect condition of feel a ditficulty as it regards this practice, the world.
it becoines necessary w consider how it This state of wild animals is further will he affected by its operation. strikingly illustrated, by the view of such A Bill was brought into the House of of them as have been spared from the Coinsons, whilst I had the honour of a human huntsinan, or the more quineroos seat there, to repress this practice, but tribes of animals of prey. They are not upon the true principle. The traniers swept away by the elements in hard win- of it were, I am persuaded, actuated ters, retiring as most of them do, tu a by motives of humanity; but they mixed solitary, protracted, and paintul death. with it very laudable objects of human
Old age, iny Lords, eren amongst policy, which rather obscured the prine men, is but a rare bicssing; amongst ciple of protection to the aniinals. Olle such brutes, perhaps, never. Old ave great object of the Bill, and it was laucan only be supported in confort by that dable on that account, was to put an aid and tenderness froin others, arising end to sports, which led away the serfrom the consciousness of those ties of vants and labourers of inanufacture and nature, which it has not pleased the Dir husbandry froin the service of their inasvine Providence to dispense to the lower ters. world; but which, as the greatest of all The attack upon bull-baiting coming blessings, it has communicated to man. in this questionable shape, it was defended When the brutes have tultilled their du. as politic, by talents capable of detending ties to their young for their protection, any thing; but talents (I am ready to they know thein no more, and die of old admit) posssessed by a person of as liuage, or cold, or hunger, in view of one mane and feeling a mind as ever distina another, without sympathy or mutual ase guished any than-a man, besides, of a sistance, or comfort.
must beautiful genius, and whoin I have It is the same, to a certain extent, with always esteeined and honoured.* The regard to those reclaimed animals de- truth is, my Lords, that the matter was voted to man's use for food, whose fa- never fairly presented to his heart, and culties, as far as our observation is ca- his intellect had got a wrong bias upon pable of a just comparison, approach the subject. I shall not, however, come nearer to homan reason. The old are in contact with my excellent friend in his even of such animals, for the reasons different view of this subject. adverted to, would seldoin be satisfac This Bill says not a word about bull. Löry. When they pass, therefore, from baiting. I only include a bull in my citlife to death, in a manner which gives calogue of protected animals. They, them 110 fore-taste of their doom, and therefore, who support the practice, may consequently no sense of pain or sorrow still support it successfully, if they can in the road to it, the ways of God are convince a Court and Jury, and the justified to man.
other Magistracies of their countryinen, The Bill, therefore, as it regards wild that it does not fall within the description animals, could not easily have becu of wilful and wantoni cruelly; and if that framed for practicable operation, except shall be the general feeling of courts by sanctiuning as it does the principle of and magistrates on the subject, the practhe preamble, which will, I trust, insen- rice will cease to be supported. sibly extend its influence to the protection As to the tendency of barbarous of every thing that has life; by bringing hu- sports of any kind or description what. bitually into the view of ihe inind the dus soever, to nourish the national characterties of imperfect obligation which it inculo istic of manliness and courage, the only cates; and with regard to animals bred by shadow of argument I ever heard upon man, or reclained for food, it will directly such occasions, all I can say is th's: protect them against the cruelties which that, froin the inercenary battles of the are generally comunitted on them, viz. the lowest of bensts (viz. boman brxers) unmercifully driving them and beating np to thwse of the highest and oobiest them on their passage to fairs and mare that are tormented by man for his rekets, and against unnecessary sufferings in the hour of death.
Supposed to be Mr. Wingbam. MONTALY Mag. No. 186.
g'arling pastime, I enter this public pro. be a fanciful reforiner of the world, nor tesi against it. I never knew a inan re. to exact that the manners and customs of markable for heroic bravery, whose very a highly-civilized bation should be aspeet was not lighted up by gentleness brought to the standard of simplicity and and humanity; nor a kill him and eat virtue, if indeed such a standard ever hiin countenance, that did not cover the existed upou earth. I do not seek to apbeart of a bully, or a poltroon.
point inspectors to examine the books of As to other reclaimed animals, which innkeepers, so as to punish any excess are not devoted to our use as food, but in the numbers of their stages, as you do which are most wonderfully organized to an excess of outside passengers on the assist man in the cultivation of the roots of coaches. I know there are very earth, and by their superior activity and many cases (which could not be brought strength, to lessen his labour in the stricily within the scope of necessities) whole circle of his concerns, different where these poor animals must grievously protections become necessary, and they suffer, yet where no law can properly are also provided for by the Bill, and reach to protect thein. The demands, without the loss or abridginent of any one though not imoinent, of human health, riglit of property in such aniinals. On and even of convenience; the occasional the contrary, all its provisions protect exigencies of comierce; the exercise of them, as property, from the abuses of franchises, and many other cases which those to whose care and government must occur to every body, would furnish their owilers are obsiged to cominit them. obvious exceptions without violation of the They also reach the owners thieinselves, principle, and which every court and il, from an inordinate desire of gain, or magistrate would know how to distinguish. viher selfsh consideration, they abuse But the Bill, if properly executed, would the animals, their property in which is expose innkeepers to a reasonable punishlimited to the use.
ment, who will palpably devote an indoIt would be wasting your Lordships' cent aniinal to extreme inisery, if not to time, if I were to enumerate the probable death itself, by a manifest and outcases which this part of the Bill will coin. rageous excess of labour, rather than prehend. It is well observed by an Ita• disoblige a mere traveller, engaged in no lian philosopher," that no man de extraordinary business, lest in future he sires to hear what he has already seen." should go to the inn opposite-when the Your Lordships cannot have walked the law shall give a rule for both sides of streets, or travelled on the roads, without the way, this most infamous competition being perfectly masters of this part of the will be at an end. subject. You cannot but have been almost For my own part, my Lords, I can daily witnesses to most disgusting cruelties say with the greatest sincerity to your practised upon beasts of carriage avd bur- Lordships, that nothing has ever excited then, hy the violence and brutality of in my mind greater disgust, than to obtheir drivers. To distinguish such bruta- serve what we all of us are obliged to see licy and criminal violence, from severe, every day in our lives, horses pantingbut sometimes necessary discipline, may what do I say ! literally dying under the at tirst view appear difficult, and on that scourge; when, on looking into the chaises, account a serious objection to the Bill; we see them carrying to and from Lonbut when I come to that part of the sub- don men and women, to whom, or to ject, I pledge myself to shew that it in- others, it can be of no possible significa volves oo ditficulty whatsoever. But tion whether they arrive one day sooner there are other abuses far more frequent or later, and sometimes indeed whether and important, which will require a inore they ever arrive at all. More than half particular cousideration. For one act of the post-horses that die from abusem crucliv in servants, there are an hundred harness, are killed by people, who, but in the owners of beasts of labour for the mischief I am complaining of, and burthen, sometimes committed by would fall into the class described by the owners alone, from a scandalous de Mr. Sterne, of simple or harmless travel sire of gain, and sometimes in a most lers, yalloping over our pounds for neither unworthy partnership with their superi. good nor evil, hut to fill up the dreary blunk ors, wlw are equally guilty, with no gain in unoccupied life. I can see no reason, at all, nor for any motive that it would why all such travellers should not endea. mut he disgracetul cu acknowledge. I al-vour to overcome the ennui of their lives, luce, my Lurds, to our unhappy post without killiug poor angala, more innoLorses. It is uot my wish, my Lurds, to cent and more useful than themselves.