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the weight of the form was at a distance, the thunder not very loud, but like a continual rumbling, and unaccompanied with hail. At a similar distance, on the south side of London. the hail did ipuch damage to lky-lights, green houses, confervatories, &c. &c. The baitstones were not only very large, but they appeared in some places rather like pieces of ice. broken from a large sheet, in its fall from the clouds, than as regularly-formed bail-Atones. Since the 19th, the atmosphere has been cool, approaching rather to cold; but on the day previously to that, the thermometer stood at 77o, since which it has not been higher than 68°, and once or twice, the greatest heat in the day was G20. Still the average heat of the month is about 56°, which is 14° higber than it was for April, but 70 or go less than it was for the month of May, 1808. The wind had been variable, but in the eartcrly points (unl half the month. The average height of the barometer is reckoned at 29.56. *
The arcrage temperature taken at Shide, Ide of Wight, for the month of Aprü, is 450.366: it muit be remarked, that the observations were made every day at half-past eight, A.M. which perhaps gives scarcely the average heat of the 24 hours. In the neighbourhood of London, we know, from accurate observations in several places, that the average heat of the day may be taken without error at ninc, or from that to half-patt nine in the morning The quantity of rain fallen at Sbide, measured, by a rain-gauge, limilarly conltructed to that which we are, is, from November 5, 1808, to March 31, 1809, twenty-two inches; and for the month of April, it is five inches.
ASTRONOMICAL ANTICIPATIONS. The new moon will fall this inonth on the morning of the 13th, at 42 minutes past three and the full moon, at 7 minutes past three in the afternoon of the 27th For the firit fort night, mercury may be feen in the evenings, if the weather be favorable. On the 1st, be fets at iwo minates past ten (night), on the 4th at eight minutes past ten; on the 7th, at ten minutes past ten; on the 10th, at eight minutes past ten; on the 13th at three minutes paft ten; and on the 16th, at fifty-five minutes past nine. On the 5th, this planet will come into conjunction with the ., in the constellation of the twins, a star of the third magnitude : on which day the Atar will be only 5 minutes of a degree to the north; and on the 121b. he will be in conjunction with the 8, in the lame constellation; and another star of the third magnitude, when the planet will be 1: 23' to the north. The beautiful planet, Venus, in now a thorning-ftar, and will continue such till the 15th of March, 1810. For the firft week he will hardly be visible to the naked eye, on account of her proximity to the lun; but in the after-part of the month, the will make a splendid appearance every fine morning, towards the north-east. Throughout the month he will increase in luftre; and her telescopic appearance will be very interestic.g. On the 29th and 30th, her brightuess will be equal to what it was in the evenings about the middle of April last. Mars will be fill an evening. ftar. He will not let till after midnight. Jupiter wil be up in the mornings, from two to three hours before (un-rise. On the it, he comes into conjunction with thc , a star of the fourth magnitude, in the constellation of the fiches, when the difference of latitude will be 58 minutes, the planet being to the fouth. On the morning of the 15th, at 26ni4s. Daft two, the third satellite of Jupiter may be seen to emerge out of its primary's ladow; and on the morning of the 24th, at 30m. 185. paft two, will take place a visible immersion of lapiter's fecond satellite. Saturn will be put up in the evenings, and part of the inornities of the prefent month, throughout which, his appareat motion will be retrograde, frorn 29° 48', to 27° 58', of the anastrous figna fcorpio. The Georgium Sidus, as well as Saturn, may be seen for a great part of the night. From the noon of the int indant, to the noon of July 1, this planet's place in the zodiac, will have moved from 6° 19, to 5° 38' of the lign scorpio, the apparent motion being retrograde. On the evening of the 21st, at 56 minutes paft our nine, the sun will touch the tropic of Cancer, which is bis ut mot limit north-ward. The folar declination, north of the equator, will then be 23° 27', 43,7" which quantity is equal to the obliquity of the ecliptic at that time. For the entertainment of our readers, we subjoiu the following table of the sun's ring and setting, at London, for a few days before and after the summer folftice ; carefully calculated to feconds, the latitude b-ing stated at 519 30.
* S Suu rises.
Bh. 16m. 355.
8 16 46 . 1
JULY 1, 1809.
[6 of VOL. 27.
"As long as those who write are ambitious of making Converts, and of giving to their Opinions a Maximum of
* Influence and Celebrity, the most extensively circulated Mifcellany , will repay with the greatett Effect the " Curiofity of those who read either for Amusement or Instruction."- JOHNSON,
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. nishments inflicted at a distance from • SIR,
" the seat of crime, were never in the coue I AM not surprised at the countenance teinplation of the law. I given, by various high legal au- 4. Hence, every punishment should thorities, to the novel practice of the have relation, in regard to its locality, Court of King's-Bench, of banishing per- to the place where the crime was comsons, convicted of, misdemeanors, to mitted. strange and remote places of confine . What could be so prepesterous, as to ment. Public men, and particularly order a man to be whipped at Durham, colleagues in power, cannot well avoid for a crime committed at Falmouth? sacrificing truth at the shrine of polite- Reason, and therefore common law, ness, and comproinismg their principles, are obviously at variance with the novel from the regard which they feel for their practices of the Court of King's-Bench, personal coinfört and convenience. and I have heard of no 'statute to jus.
Hence it is, that the errors, or crimes uity tbese novelties; and I defy the of power, are constandy kept in coun- lawyers to produce one. tenance; that truth seldom obtains effec- What says history? Our legislative tive voraries; and that the follies of every authorities quote the precedents of past age remain to be exposed by the dispas- ages. I believe no such precedents sionate voice of history."
exist in their modern interpretation. On this universally prevailing rule of If a man had committed a crime at conduct, we may account, without a Lancaster, or at Exeter, it is reason libel, for the perversion of human reason, able, that the Court of King's Bench which takes place in the discussion of should have referred him back to Lanalmost every political topic. The errors caster, or Exeter, respectively, for puand passions of dien in power are flat- nisbment, and in this sense, and this tered by the slaves of interest, of pre- sense only, the Court of King's-Bench has judice, or politeness, and thus, a num- jurisdiction over every prison in the ber of enormnities are practised in an kingdom. enlightened age, in the most enlightened The principle of punishing in the country in the world, and even law itself, . place where the crime was committed which professes to be the perfection of is anterior and universal, and cannot be human reason, is often perverted to the counteracted by the ulterior and partial worst purposes, and made subservient to rights of any Court, which acts only the basest passions.
under the authority of common law. Else how can it be gravely maintained, Precedents afforded by tinies of rebel in this free country, that the Court of lion, or insurrection, or by the tyratiKing's-Bench possessés, by the custom or nical usurpation of power, are excep common law of England, a right to send tions, which afford no general rule. persons, convicted of misdemeanors, to But the domestic historian will tell us, any remote prison in England, subject to that such cases of remote imprisonment, an arbitrary or capricious election of its inforiner ages, except of Kings, and other own?
1 such personages, were rendered impos • The common law of England is sible, ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE and IM founded on sound reason and conimon PRACTICABIE, by defect of ready inter
and the over, by the difficulty of convey
course between one part of the king 1. That the object of all panishment ing a petig offender to distant plares, and
exen, by the wretched compition of the a Thic example should be inade prisons themselves.
the origie was committed
at secret punishment of pu- the state of the roads, and of communi.
and reason and conti
No han cun gravely contend, Ibat in
cation between distant parts of this king, and a large book, or some other condom, only one hundred years ago, any venient weight upon it, in order to press ordinary culprit could bave been sent two it with a gentle degree of pressure. In or tbree hundred miles to undergo a few this state let it remain two or thret months imprisonment; except it were to days, then remove the upper paper, and his own county, or back again to the see whether the plant be sufficiently firin place where he had committed his crime. or stiff to bear removing; when this is the
Besides, before the vehicle of the daily case, smear over every part of the plant press gave noturiety to punishinents, no with ink, made by dissolting a quantity check existed against the secret destruc. of Indian ink in warm water; then caretion of a culprit, or his perpetual inpri- fully lay the smeared side on a piece of soninent, il' thus sent into a distant clean and strong wbite paper, and cocounty, and thus banished, in effect, vering it with a piece of the blossom, or froin the cognizance of his friends. soft paper, press with the hand on every
Again—What says expediency? If part, and rub it uniforinly over: after such a capricious power existed in the remaining some time longer, remove it King's-Benich, might not all persons, con- from the paper, and a distinct and beauvicted of misdemeanors, be sent to some tiful impression will remain, far exceed. one prison; and thus a single cuanty, bying, in softness of appearance, (it well being so burdened, te mulcted for the conducted,) and justiless of representacrimes of all the others ?
tion, even the most elaborate and highlyOne might indeed pursue the subjcct finished engraving. It is only to be lathrough a volume, to prove the cruelty, mented, that, in this method of figuring bad policy, and unreasonableness, of such plants, some of the minuter characters a system.
of the flower must unavoidably be exIt will not, however, he difficult to con- pressed indistinctly: these, however, as vict the lawyers of perversion, by ineans of well as any other minute parts, which the positive enactments of the legislature. may not have been impressed with suffi
Magna Charta and the Bill of Rights cient sharpness, may be added with a Afford abundant security against these no- pencil and Indian ink; sometimes a velties; but the special provisions of cersmall press is made use of in this protain revenue laws, by which the judges are cess; and various compositions may also permitted, iú order to separate gangs of be used, as well as Indian ink, viz, a smugglers, to send them to distant pri- kind of fiue printer's ink, composed of sons, proves, incontestably, that the law in lamp-black, with linseed oil, &c. The all cases, pot so excepted, does not recog- figures may occasionally be coloured nize such power; and that, without a new afterwards, in the manger of engravings. and forinal statute, such a practice of ba. Their great merit consists in so happily nishing, for misdemeanors, is ILLEGAL. expressing what botanists term the habit,
Need I say more?-IFI add another or true general aspect of the natural word to expose the injustice of this prac- plants; a particular in wbich even the tice, which ought never to have been best and most elaborate engravinys are called into discussion, I shall simply re- found defective.
Your's, &c. fer to another statute, which provi:les, that
WILLIAM PYBUS. every man shall be tried for every offence Hull, May 8, 1809. in the county in which his offence was committed ;-thereby identifying, in lo- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. cality, the crime and the responsibility. SIR,
Säch, Sir, are the doctrines of your ALTHOUGH the method of regtold correspondent,
A lating the divisions of musical time COMMON SENSĖ, by the vibrations of a pendulum, is plau
sible in theory; yet the application of it . For the Monthly Magazine. to practice, is attended with so much An clegant NETHOD of OBTAINING very difficulty and uncertainty, that it is not
cract and pleasing REPRESENTATIONS likely to become a popular one. Re of PLANTS.
gular bands of music, or professed T AKE the plant of wbich you wish to masters, may attend to such instruments
1 obtain a representation, and lay it but there is not one in an hundred af on some sheets of blossom or blotting those amateurs, who play for their own paper, and having properly displayed the amusement, or that of their friends, who leaves and flowers, so as to lie in the will be at the trouble of doing so. And, most ativantageous manner, Jay some even supposing the penduluin commonly more of the same kind of paper upun it, used, the inconvenience and imper
fection of it are so great, as to render it dividing those m a minute by 60. If the very objectionable. For, as every dif- crotchets in a minute were noted, it ferent moreinent of time requires an should be done in a whole nuinber; if appropriate length of pendulum, and the crotchets, or quavers, in a second, in impulse of projection, a tedious and in a fraction, whiose denominator would cessant labour is required, to attend to specify the kind of notes, as is commonly these things; since it is hardly possible done, and its nuinerator the guinber that the most retentive ear could sug, contained in one second. Thus, 90 is gest the numberless different velocities, equivalent to 4.-To illustrate this sysadapted to every kind of music. This tem: inconvenience is so great, that, even A slow inarch requires seventy-five in military bands, only three rates of steps, in one minute, each step, halt a time are attempted to be ascertained by bar, or two crotcliets; so that the whole pendulums. But the chief objection is, number of crotchets, played in one mi. that, unless a pendulum be connected nute, must be 150; of quavers, 300; with some powers, that will keep up a which number, divided by 60, will give 3. regular motion, it will soon cease to Hence, the mark for such tunes should vibrate in equal divisions of time; the be, denoting, that five quavers should difference will be perceived, by a nice be played in one second. ear, in a lew seconds; and it will appear A quick march adınits one hundred the suoner, if the instrument be exposed and eiglet stops in a minute. Some of to a current of air, or any thing that may the tunes for this movement are set in 2. retard its motion. Penduluins, cun. or, as it is called, French tiine; others nected with machinery, are used for this in , or compound coinmon time. Of purpose at Milan, where music is studied the former, one crotchet is played to in the most scientific manner; but they each step; bence, the number of quarers ' are too complex, expensive, and trouble- in one ininute, will be 216; of seinisume, to be generally adopted.
quavers, 432. As this number cannot be As it is extremely desirable, however, divided exactly by 60, it might answer that some correct and easy method, for common amusement to mark such tunes regulating the time of music, should be to, implying, that seven semiquavers devised, I suggest the following reinarks, should be played in one second. But it which may prepare the way for some would be inore exact to mark 108, in a thing more perfect.
whole number, denoting, that so inany The cominon division of time, into quavers should be played in one minute. minutes and seconds, appears the most The quick marches in admit one convenient for this purpose. By means hundred and eight steps also in a minute; of it, physicians ascertain the pulsations but allow three quavers to each step. of the human system, with so great Hence, the number of crotchets in a facility, that an experienced practitioner ininute will be, 162; of quavers, 324; can pronounce, pretty correctly, the which, being divided by 60, will give number of pulsations in one minute, with nearly 5; and such tunes may be marked out looking upon a stop-watch, or a , for coinmon amuscment; though, moment-band. In the same manner, I more exactly, 162, in a whole number. conceive that the number of crotchets to The application of this practice to be played, or sung, in one minute, might other kinds of inusical composition, where be easily determined, anıl marked ac- so much precision is not indispensable, cordingly, at the beginning of every tune, will be very evident and easy. Thus a or piece of music. The practice of psalm, or hymn tune, containing 30 playing, or singing, at the rate specified minins in one minute, may be marked 1. by this mark, would be easily acquired, A minuet, containing 90 crotchets in a by using, for some time, a common clock, minute, marked f. But it is, particularly or watclı; and it would be liable to no in perforining mixed pieces of music, variety, iinperfection, or uncertainty, that the difierent moveinents of allegro,
But if it should be thought that the large), presto, &c. being inarked nuinber of crotchets, in a minute, would or the like, would give steadiness to be too great to be inarked at the begin. practitioners; and proluce a uniformity ning of a quick tune, the same end in the manners of leaders, which is might be accomplished, by ascertaining grently wanted at present. the lamber of crotchets, or quavers, in
a I have thrown out these hints, for the econd, which could be easily done, by consideration of those who are abler g ar onder anderen
, opie nudges