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The inferences drawn from these interesting and important facts are as follow:
That calculi formed in the kineys, and immediately voided, are almost always composed of uric acid, and that the phosphates are very frequent ingredients in calculi of the bladder. They are uniformly deposited upon extraneous substances introduced into the bladder, but never form small kidney calculi. In what is commonly called a tit of the gravel, a small uric calculus is tinned in the kiduev, and passes along the ureter into tne bladder. For, some time alter a stone ha- passed from the kidney, the urine is generally unusually loaded with uric acid, and deposits that substance upon tiie nucleus now in the bladder. Alter this, the subsequent additions to the call iilus consist principally of the phosphates.
W'tiere the disposition to form uric acid in the kidneys is very great and permanent, the calculus found ill the bladder is principally composed of uiic acid; but where this disposition is weak, the nucleus only is uric acid, and the bulk of the stone is computed of the phosphates. When the increased secretion of uric arid returns at intervals, the calculus is composed of alternate layers of uric acid and the phosphates. There are besides these many variations in the formation of the calculi.
In speaking of the solvents, Mr. Brande admits, that the internal exhibition of the alkalies often prevents the formation of the uric acid, and of course an increase of a calculus in the bladder, -as far as the uric acid is concerned; hut that its action will nut proceed any Farther; because from his experiments he finds there is at all times a quantity of uncombined acid in the urine;and hence it follows, that, although the alkali may may arrive at the kidneys in its pure Male, it will there unite with the micombined acid, and be rendered incapable of exerting any action upon the calculus in the bladder. Mr. B. also observes, that whenever the urine is deprived of a portion of the acid which is nutui.ii to it, the deposition of the triple phosphate and phosphate of lime more readily takes' place, which is effected In- in" exhibition of the alkalies; and, therefore, though alkaline medicines often tend to diminish the quantity of uric acid, and thus prevent the addition of llint substance in its pure state to a Cii'cn us in the hljdder, they favour the di position of tUu phosphates.
With regard to the exhibition of the acids, particularly the muriatic acid, in order to dissolve ihe phosphates, Mi. B. admits. Unit, during the us-.- of this acid, tiie phosphates are either diminished, or disappear altogether; ami even the urine acquires sometimes an additional acidity, ami tiierefore a solution of that pan of the calculus, which consists of the phosphates, may be expected; but even then the nucleus of uric acid would remain, and thus a great ileal of time would be lost without any permanent advantage. Jleis also dec.dediv against the injection of these solvents into the bladder, at once, bv means nf instruments; because in every case that has come under hi* observation, it has always aggravated the sufferings <>4 the: patient, lie concludes, that as the nuclei nf calculi originate in the kidnies, and that of these ihe greater number consist of uric acid; the good effects so frequently observed during the use (dan aikati, a; is. not from any actual' solu:ion of calculous matter, but from the: power which it possesses of diminishing the secretion of urine acid, and thus preventing the enlargement of the calculus ; so that, while of a very small form, it may be voided by the urethra.
In a following number we shall give an account of Mr. Home's observations on the tame siil.icct.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE. Messrs. Guy Lusac and Theoard have given an account nf the met h. id which they adopted in decomposing theborocic acid. They put equal pares ot potassium,and pure vitreous bnracic acid, into a copper lube, to which u bent glass tube was fitted. The copper tube was placed in a small furnace, and the extremity of the glass tube plunged into a bason of quicksilver. As soon as the temperature was raised to 150° (Reaumur, we presume), the mixture became suddenly red, much heat was produced, the glass broken, and almost the whole of the air in the apparatus was driven out with great force. Only atmospheric air was disengaged, nnd a few bubbles of hydrogen. All the potassium disappeared, although it only decomposed a part ol the acid. These substances were changed by their reciprocal action into an olive grey substance, which is a compound of potash, and of the basis of bnrucic acid. The borncic radical was separated Irotn it by washing it with hut or cold water. '1 hat which does not dissolve, » tin; radical itself, which piHsi s-os the following properties: this radical is greenish
brown; brown; fixed, an J insoluble in water. It lias no taste, nor any action on tincture of litmus, or mi syrup of violets. Being mixed v/ith oxyimniute of potash, or nitrate of potash, and projected into a red-hot crucible, it entered into vivid combustion, of which the boracic acid was one of the products. The most curious and must important of all the phenomena prod.iced by the boracic radical when placed in contact with other bodies, are those that it presents with oxygen. When four grams ami a half of boracic radical, were projected into a silver crucible covered with a jar, containing a little more than a quart of
oxygen, and the whole placed over quicksilver, a mat rapid combustion took place, and the quicksilver rose to about the middle of the jar. The boracic radical exhibits the saw" phenomena with air as with oxygen, only that the combustion is less rapid. Hence it follows, that the boracic acid is composed of oxygen, and a combustible body: and that this substance is of a peculiar nature, and ousiht to be classed with phosphorus, carbon, and sulphur. It requires a creat quantity of oxygen to change it into boracic acid, and it previously pusses into the state of a black oxyde.
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1"MIE opening of the exhibition of the Royal Academy, forms an epoch in the annals of British Art. It affords the critic a scale, whereby to estimate the progress of the Fine Arts, and Co measure the improvement or rctrograd.'iiion of our native artists.
The Fine Arts of a nation are certainly the grand criterion by which a philosopher can jud^e of the progress of mental refinement; and as perfectibility of that species of refinement assuages the horrors of barbarism and anarchy, and makes tnan more resemble what his great niciiclvpc unci crc;itor intended hira to be; son watchful eve towards the progress of tiie line Arts, is not the least useful uc of a philosophical observer. The
business of the present allotment of this department of the Monthly Magazine, shall he to point out what is most worthy of attention in the present academical exhibition ;—to select the beauties of established names of well earned reputation; to call forth youthful merit; and to givea correct summary of the increased and increasing reputation of the British School or The Ftxr'AltTs; whose power and energy " has increased, is encreasing, and ought" not" to be diminished."
This year's exhibition ie superior to any that has been seen for many years; the great room, in particular, beams with more talent, and shews much improvement of the British school, in tone of colouring. So much perfection and justness of colouring perhaps, was never seen coalesced together in the walls of the Royal Academy,
Academical drawing, or knowledge of the human figure, *ceins to be more attended to than formerly; though not •.<.! quite to the requisite degree. Certainly the junior artists, frotu vrfioin expectation