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hned so many imhappy wretches there) the Defcat of the Rebels at the Battle is so great, that its nainę alone is ren of Calloden, in Scotland, April 16, elered terrible to them, and their poste- 1746. rity. This account is not merely matter I left London on the 22d of Octo of curiosity, but affords a very interesting ber, 1715, in company with Mr. and instructive contrast, between the Hubert Gravelot, an artist, well known borrors of a despotic power, and the mild for his abilities, with whom I had been a and just administration of a free state; pupil. We embarked in the packet at which I hope will ever give me a true Harwich, for Helvoet-Sluys, and from relish and love for my country..

thence went to the Hague, with a view

of obtaining passports from the French "Here Liberty delightful goddess reigns,

* ambassador, to proceed to Paris. UnGladdens each heart, and gilds the fertile

luckily he had departed from thence, to plains; Here firmly seated may she ever smile,... settle some affairs at his court with the And shower her blessings on her fav'rite

Duich;. for at that time the French had lolc.”

taken possession of part of Flanders. In

this dilenna we applied to the EngYou will here find truth undisguised,

lish ambassador, Mr. Hampden, (since and unadorner, by Howers of rhetoric;

Lorri Robert Trevor) but in vain, who a plain simple narrative of incre inatter

finding we had left London at so criticat of fact, related purely as the incidents arose. Tritling as they may be, to me

a juncture (the rebellion being in Scot. they becaine of importance from my

land), and having no letter ofrecommensituation. Those who jest at a scar,

dation to him, he thought proper to renever felt a wound. Perhaps the sine

fuse us a passport. This delayed our

journey till letters were dispatched to gularity of this affair, and inanner of re..

Paris, to get recommendations to Mar. kation, may cause a smile. If it afford

shal Saxe; when these arrived, we went to you any entertainment, I shall think

Ghent, where the Marshal, very politely, myself happy, as my greatest pleasure will be to acknowledge with gratitude,

(as artists) granted us the protection we the honour you do we by your generous

wanted, and then we proceeded to Paris

by the common route, through Lisle, &c. friendship, and the inany civilities which I have received from you.t

and arrived there the latter end of No. .

vember, 1745. Here I cannot help reI am, Jear Sir,

marking the strong contrast found be. Your obliged huinble servant,

T. MAJOR.

tween the French and the Dutch artists,

As I was obliged w stay in Holland till Account of Thomas Major's confinement our passports arrived, I was unwilling to

in the Castle of the Bustille, with others lose my time, and therefore applied to of his Countrymen, by way of Reprisal Mr. Houbracken, the celebrated ene for the Irish Regiment of Fitz-James, graver, having a letter of recommendataken prisoners by his R. H. William tion to him from Mr. Paul Knapton, the Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, after bookseller, of whom be had taken large

suins of inoney, for engraving the heads • It must be remarked and acknowledged, of the illustrious persons of Great Britain, from long experience, that no state can exist, I shewed bim my juvenile perforipances, or be weil governed with safety to the people,' on wirich he was pleased to pay me some and security of their property, unless there complimients. I offered to work with be fit places to confine and check villainy him without pay, purely for the sake of It was not the prison itself that was thus instruction, and to fill up my time, rather odious to the nation, but the cruel and arhi.. than spend it in idle curiosity. He said, crary use of it, by profligate and corrupt mi. lie never employed any body in his bouse, pisters of state.

and could be of no assistance to me. + Had this account been written imme.,

be This was a convincing proof of the nara diately after my release, the various inci. dents, (from the acute feelings of human

rowness of his mind, and of his close disnature, J would have been painted in much position ; even though it werc to his own stronger colours. The remembrance of past advantage, he was unwilling to forward a evils, however, is greatly l'essencd by time; young wan in his studies. Such wius it now almost appears like a dream, but with Dutch benevolence. In the latter end this satisfaction, that I feel a melancboly of October, 1746, I was theil studying pleasure in retracing the past, and a gratitude under the celebrated Mousieur 1. P. to diviac 'rovidcace for my deliverance, Le Bus, and was constantly unpluyed in

drawing drawing from the life, in the Royal Aca. being at all times a necessary article, I demy of Painting. I lodged and boarded unlocked my box to take some with me with Monsieur Dennis, in St. James's. The gentleman hearing it chink, told me, street, opposite St. Bennet's church. I should have no occasion for money When I carne home to dinner one day, where I svas going - little dreamt that I my landlord told me that a gentlemani, was to be entertained and lodyed at the very superbly drest, had been enquiring king's expence. I was then about to for ide, who would neither leave his put on my sword; * he taid, I had no need name nor business, but said he would call of one, I must leave it, they would take again. The same night about eleven great care of me. o'clock, as I was in iny shirt just step On this occasion the whole house was ping into bed, my landlord rapt at my alarmed and in terror, all its inhalsitants door, desiring me to open it; upon hearleft their beds, peeping through their will. ing his voice I did se), and a person en- dows, not dariny to appear, but secretiv tered rery gaily drest, with screral al- enquuring who were the objects of such & tendants, one of whom was in black. visit, and of what crimes they were After the first salutations customary in guilty. My ingenious friend and coonFrance, (wondering what could bring me trymall, Mr. Joseph Wilton, sculptor, such a visitor so late at night), he asked loriged in the same house, above stairs, une it my name was Major, whether I with a Mr. Vammeck, a Flanderkin, who came froni London, and was a proteje informed him of my being seized by an tant, to whici. I answered in the attirma- exempt. Mr. Wilton, conscious of his tive. He told me that he had an order coming to France in time of war as a to take me before the Lieutenant-Civile, Fleming, and passing as such to all, cs(tlie chiet magistrate of Paris). This was cept luis master, Mr. Pigal (under whom enly a deception, that it should not be he was studyiny) and a few friends, was known where he was going to cury me; fcartul a discovery had been made. I replied, that it was a very late hour to With this idea, be very prudently took a go betore such a person, and that I would little excursion over the tops of the be ready to attend hiin any time in the houses, to elude their pursuit, believing morning. He said his orders were for my they might also be in search of him; and going with him then. Whilst I was put notwithstanding oor intimacy and friendting on my cloaths, they went into the ship, he had no inclination to accompany alhjoining chamber, except one of them, me in such an expedition, which would who staid with ine, (I suppose) lest I certainly have been the case, had they should make an escape. This was La known he was an Englishman. When Mouche, or spy. As he was sitting, I the coast was clear, Mr, Tammeck gave perceived he held a hay with something him the signal; he returned, but without in it; I was afterwards informed that it rest that might. The dread of sharing the contained the gown of the gentleman in suine fate made hinn apply early in the black, who was the cuininis-ary, or civil morning to Mr. Pigal, who procured hiin magistrate, whose attendance on these a protection, by which bris fear's vanished, occasions upon the exempt, or king's and he pursued his studies in safety. As messenger, (for such was my fine gen. I had to guilt upon my joind, I had 110 cleinan), is inerely to keep up the appear. Suspicion of harin, and therefore I did ance and specious form of liberty, for his not even desire my landlord to acconirefusal would subject him to a bike ex- pany me. Had I shewn i ditřiculty, or ecrable instrument, as that which I af made any resistance, the commissary terwards found they had provided for would liave put on his magisterial robe, me, (in gentler language, a Lettre de to have shewn liis tuncrion and authority. Cachet). It is said, that these Lettres de Law is but a poor defence where humaCachet make more havock in France, in nity is lost, and conscience lulled asleep. one year, than the inquisition in Spain But a stronger and more irresistible meand Turkish cruchy do in ten. The mi. thod of commanding obedience on such nister has always a number of these war. occasions, is the military force attending rants ready to use, upon every occasiou, upon the exempt, to strike the greater

terror tu delinquents, and to keep those " Mark'd with a secretary's seal,

who are of 100 volatile spirits (in which In bloody letters the Bastillo." Chuobil.

this country abounds) in subjcction. Before I was quite drest, they returned to * my room. As I was going, I knew not

"At that time all the artists of the Royal where, uor on what account, and money

Acaderny wore swords.

They

They otherwise would be continually " Conscious of guilt, and fearful of the light, scrutinizing, and meddling with state They lurk enshrouded in the veil of night.'' affairs. In politics, as well as religion,

Cburcbill. they are implicitly to take for granted I was put into a backney-coach, the whatever is dictated to them, nor are gentleman followed with the commissary, they suffered to make use of their reason; and his attendant. To my great surwhich is the grossest utfront upon human prize, I observed three soldiers on one nature, trampling unrestrained upon the side of the coach, and three on the other laws and rights of the people, hunan and side, thiee behind and three before, to divine, and rendering mankind but little guard such a little fellow as I was. How. superior to the brute creation. Some- ever, all this parade was not only for me : times an elevated gepius appears, and these' black agents of night stopt at broaches new marins, for which he is several places, as I imagine, in search for certain, sooner or later, to nicer the re other persons; whether they had any ward of his rashness. One example, item given them, or that they happened bowever, there has lately been, of a sus not to be at home, I know not, I was perior and exalted genius in my honoured the only victim carried that night. friend, Monsieur Elie de Beaumont, who In the course of their conversation, exerted himself in a most noble cause, the commissary told the exempt, that he that of injured and defamed innocence. did not think it un cas pendable; that is. He searched to the bottom of the trial of a hanging matter. The other replied, the unfortunate protestant Calas, not- he could not tell, but possibly it was, if

withstanding all the powerful efforts of it were only to shew the power and will · injustice and bigotry, in opposition to his of the king. What a blessed tenet is

honest endeavours, to bring the truth of this! to destroy innocent people to prove · tbat iniquitous affair to light. By his the king's authority: a maxiin not un

unwearied application and integrity, he common in despotic countries. discovered the fraud, and obtained an. “ It is the curse of kings to be attended order for reversing the cruel and unjust by slaves, that take their humours for a Sentence which had bcen executed on warrant to break into the bloody house this unbappy ruined family. Though of life, and on the winking of authority to life could not be restored to this poor old understand a law." Shakespeare, K.J. man, yet the honour of the family was. The coach windows were drawn up; I Reinstated and justified through his knew not where I was going, and they means:an action tbat will be an ever- trailed me thus about Paris, like a cria lasting monument to the praise of Mone minal, till very near two o'clock in the sieur de Beaumont, and which time it morning, before we arrived at my desself cannot efface. Calas and bis family tined habitation; when lo! a draw-bridge were protestants. His son, who lived in was let down, a great pair of gates opened, the house with his father, and had been and we came into a court-yard, called for some time insane, hanged himself. the first court, where we alighted, and The clergy and bigots fixed this deed on they all left ne except the exempl: he poor Calas, suborned witnesses, insti- conducted me into a guard-room on the tuled a process against him, and he was left hand, at one of the angles, which executed. The relations of a malefactor was full of arms, and had one centinel in in France are obliged to change their it. Le took bis leave, saying he would Baines, and retire to some remote part wait on me presently. I found after of the kingdom, where they are unknown; wards that he went to acquaint the goas it is deemed a dishonour lo be seen in vernor of the arrival of a prisoner. Find their company. When I came down ing myself with this soldier only, I said, to the street, it was half past eleven Pray, friend, what place do you call this? o'clock, as generally the hour of darkness The fellow, surprized at the question, and and secresy is chosen in these violent amazed at my being brought a prisoner proceedings.

to a place I did not know, and which the

whole French nation dread and abhor as • This odium on families was abolished by a political inquisition, cried out wich the National Assembly, in 1790 ; and on the astonishment, 'My God, Sir, this is the 15th of November, 1793, the Convention.

Bastille. This gave me a sudden shock, passed an order to crect a column at Thou. house, to revive the memory of Calas, de

and caused a revolsion in my blood. dicated to paternal affection and to nature,

ure. I began to ruininate with myself, what I and ordered their effects to be restored to could have said or done, to bave broughs che family. .

me into this tribulation, and to be us

the

the sport of fortune, and the child of The governor (the Marquis de Thisorrow,

boutot, who was also keeper of the are « For something or for nothing, for a word,

a senal,) was then sitting in a silk night.

senat,) Or thought, I might be doom'd to death un. gown, in an arm-chair, before the fire. heard."

Churchill. The exempt delivered ine into his cuse

tody, and then very respectfully withdrew, I was not conscious of any ill, being al. having done his office. The governor, ways cautious in speaking about religion who seemed a very polite and affable or politics, but diligently pursued my man, asked me the same questions which studies, and therefore I could not charge had been asked before by the exempt, to myself with having inadvertently done which I answered him in the same manany thing amiss. I patiently waited, ner. Possibly the reason of this civil though greatly agitated in my mind, till treatment might arise from the account the return of the exempt, who had taken he had received from the exempt, given me up by a lettre de cuchet, for such I bim by inv landlord at the time I was found was his employment. He did not dressing, when he was making particular keep me long in suspense, but carried me enquiries concerning my occupation, and across this outer court, to another draw the connections I had in France. The bridge, and another large pair of gates, governor enquired if I had any papers in which a small wicket door opened, and about ine; I told him, I'had; he desired we passed through a corps of guards. to see them. They were a pocket-book, They quitied their amusement of gaming and a letter or two), which he looked and drinking; their attention and re- over, (whether he understood English or marks, as I passed by ther, were imme- not, I cannot say) and returned them to diately fixed on a miserable being, coni- me again. He then asked me if I had demned as they thought to punishment, any penknives or scissars, I told him I expecting to find guilt and terror marked had not, upon which the gaoler, or on my countenance, perhaps forining in keeper, said, “ Sir, if you please, I will their minds a variety of crimes, so frequent search him!" He replied, " there is no ocamong theinselves. Beyond the corps casion; I believe I may take his word." de garde was a centinel in his box, sure He perceived that I had an open rounded with high palisades of wood. countenance, that I answered his ques

This was a strong barrier plated with tions without dread; and as a sensible iron, which separates the inner court man he made the proper allowances for from the corps de garde. The space the anxiety which must naturally attend within might be about fifteen or twenty any one upon such an occasion. feet for him to walk in. This was a pre- The governor told ine to follow the caution I had never seen in any fortified keeper, and he would conduct me to my towns or places. It was to prevent any lodging. He took a candle and lanıhorn, prisoner who might have dexterity enough and held a coarse pair of sheets under to escape, (which is next to impossible) his arm. froin his apartment into the court, from " Led softly by the stillness of the night, attacking the centinel by surprize, who Led like a murderer."

Young. could defend himself by firing at hin through the bars. We crossed this se With yrave and solemn pace, while cond court, which was an oblong square; all was awful silence, we crossed this it was about one hundred and twenty, by inner court, to one of the angles on the eighty feet broad at the upper end, in right hand, and on the left, coming in the centre fronting the gate; we went up through the palisades, where a draw. five stone steps, to the governor's apart. bridge was let downl, and a door was ments, before whom I was brought. To opened, he went up circular stairs, and arrive there, you must pass two draw. opened two other strong doors, each bridges and five gates, all of which have about seven inches thick, an outer and sentries and three posts of guards. The an inner one. This last, within side, castle is encircled with a dry ditch, was plated with iron. All the doors twenty-five feet deep, and one hundred were fastened with larve boles, let into and twenty feet wide, round which is a enormous locks. The keeper set the wooden gallery, with sentries, and a pa- candle upon the table, threw down the trole at night, who go their rounds every sheets upon the bed, and said, “Sir, shift half hour; the signal was given by ringa for yourself as well as you can, I wish ing a bell. This is to keep all sale, and you a good night" Without further ceto see that no attempts are inade to remony, he shut the door upon me with wards rescuing the prisoners.

a temendous noise, and the faithfulecho, MONTHLY MAG, 285,

3L

from

from the vaulted roof, returned the dole- imagination; for he had affectionately ful sound, enough to make the most re- urged many arguments, to dissuade me solute mind treinble, leaving me to my- from going to France in time of war, set and reflection.

pointing out to me, in strong colours, the In this de plurable situation, the first inconveniencies and risk I might run, in thing I did was to look round the room, going to an enemy's country, and that in which was about fifteen feet high, and all probability I might be imprisoned. twenty feet wide. llere I found large The earnest desire that I had to perfect crosses drawn upon the walls, (before myself in my protession, over-balanced which iny predecessors used to pay their all thiese diluiculties: I was determined, devotions) and adorned by several in- at all events, to risk every thing for my scriprions written with charcoal; such as sanguine hopes of improvement. As

dicadful place," u never have to escape his words were now become true, they from hence," and other things of like made the deepest impression on my nature, written by persons whose supe- mind, reflecting, that having slighied his rior sorrows and black thoughts preyed advice, I had now only my own toliy and on their dejected spirits, desponding at iinprudence to blame, for my present their wretched state and long contine- unhappy situation, and all the disagreement; besides, they might expect to able consequences attending it. All ineet death in every dish, or night col- hopes of getting froin hence vanishing, I clude the opening of every lock, to be next in sorrowful inood, measured my the forerunner of their destruction, and apartment by unequal strivies, walking the signal of the arrival of their execu- backwards and forwards, with folded tider, as their lives are in bo greater arms, lost in thought; till at length. Gudserurity than their liberty. These un- ing myselt cold, the place being damp, common and hideous manuscripts, had and the windows broke, aumitting the such an eliect upon me, and rendered cold air, I made my berl, put the candle my new lodging so disgusting, that I next in the chimney, and, recomending myexamined whether it might not be pos. self to Providence, lay down in my sible for me to escape. I surveyed and cloaths. A variety of thoughts crouding felt the sinail window, it was barred with into my mind, sleep ned from iny eyes iron about the size of my wrist, within till near seven o'clock in the morning. and without, consequently there were no I was awaked by the keeper's unlocking hopes of getting out that winy. A thought the door about nine. came into my licad (rash and inprudent

"On a sudden open fly, as it might be), that being a slim little With impetuous recoil and jarring sound, fellow, perhaps I might be able to get up The infernal doors, and on their hinges grate the chimney. blad this been practic Harsh thunder," Milton's Par. Losi. cable, I verily believe, in the agony and It is scarcely possible for words, in state of inind I then was, that I should any degree, to express tlie anguish I felt have attempted it, whatever had ensued, at this instant. Forlorn like an exile so sweet is liberts. On examination, I from my native country; far froin my refound it barred about three feet up, solations and friends, amidst my enemies that I was as effectually secured from in time of war, aird imprisoned, without the rest of inankind, as if I had been an the least shadow of hope or possibility of outcast from all society, and in the pro- redress. Recollection coming to my as. foundest oblivion buried in the innermost sistance, by degrees dispelled the future borels of the earth. I never heard of of my mind, and initigated the excess of any one, whose unhappy lot it was to be despair. secured in this place, of having made an I found by woeful experience, that no escape (though some strange tales of vain effort of imagination can sweeten this sort are related), as every, vigilance the dark vapour of a dungeon. and precaution possible is taken, to The waiter brought ine a boltle of render a scheme of that kind abortive. wine and a loaf, the usual French breal.

It was now my grandfather's words fast. After I had refresbed myself, I struck most forcibly upon my troubled took another view of my chamber, which

was one of the round towers, and within • "Give me again my hollow tree,

side it way oclngon. All the furniture A crusi cidread and liberty." Pope. was a chair, at table, a truckle fluck bed - - "nec

without a top to it, and nu utensil dedi. Quia divitiis Araduin liberrima muro."

caled to Cloacina. Upon the table Iny Hor. Epis. vii. two books, the Office of the Virgin Mary,

and

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