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MONTHLY BOTANICAL REPORT. OWING at one time to the indisposition of the Reporter, and at another to the necessity
of noticing other works, our obfervations on the periodical botanical publications have fallen behind hand; we shall now attempt to pay our arrears.
The four last numbers of the Botanical Magazine contain, in Mr. Gawler's department, a white-flowered variety of Iris sibirica as it is here called; we have some doubt, however, whether it be not really a distinct, though a very nearly related, species. There is some difference in the form of the internal petals, which are more dilated upwards, and contracted into a narrower claw below; they are likewise less erect and blunter pointed, but whether these differences are constant, we cannot positively decide. -Ornithogalum tbyrsoides, drawn from a specimen containing so few flowers as hardly to deserve its name of tbyrse-flowering. Lilium concolor, a lily of very mortero introduction from China, the country of splendid flowers.-Wachendorfia brevifolia differs froin birsuta especially, but not solely, in the colour of its fowers, which are singularly lurid. -Amaryllis ornata, here called crimson and white amaryllis, a name certainly not very appropriate to the coloured figure, in which the flowers are striped with a dark purple. Mr. Gawler has seemingly with reluctance renounced his former opinion, that this, and the white Powered amaryllis from Sierra Leone, are the same species; though no cultivator doubts of their being really distinct. In these very natural families, the lines of demarkation, both between the genera and the species, are often so very faint, as to elude the eye of the botanist, or rather the touchstone of his definitions; the differences consisting more in innumerable little points, than in marked botanical characters; yet these points of difference, from their great nuinber, may be equal in value to a lew more decided distinctions. It not unfrequently happens, from this circumstance, that the bo. tanist is puzzied to iind a difference where a common observer scarcely sees any similarity. Antholyza Æbiofica, the smaller variety, and Ixia crecia, var. luiea odorata, both stand in the same predicament, though considered by the botanist as mere varieties, the cultivator, who attends more to the t'ensemble than to legitimate characters, would not hesitate to decide that they were essentially different. In the latter plant, besides the fragrance of the blossomn, which is without reent in the other varieties of the Ixia erecta ; the tube of the corolla is longer in proportion to the limb, the stigmas are more erect, and the whole plant is far mo e robust chan in the white. Amaryllis revoluta is a very fine figure of a species before published in the Magazine from a less perfect specimen.--Of Sanseviera Guineensis, and Dracæna ovata, we should have nothing to say, were it not to correct an error of the press, which will mislead the unskilful. The former should have been numbered 1179, and the latter 1180; these numbers being reversed, the name of the one is of course applied to the other. It may be remarked, however, that Dracena ovala has never been before described or figured; it was discovered by Afzelius in Africa. -A pink-coloured variety of Scilla (commonly Hyacinthus) serotina; to make amends for giving us a mere variety, one however which has never been before described, Mr. Gawler has here given us a synoptical table of Scilla, Hyacinthus, and Muscari, considered as one genus, divided, for convenience only, into three--Narcissus bifrons, before considered by Mr. Gawler as a mere variety of N. calat birim, but now raised into a distinct, species. The author, however, surmises that it may probably be a hybrii production between Jonquilla and calatbinus. -Narcissus bicolor, nearly related to N. Pseudo-narcissus and N. italicus, heretofore considered by the writer himself as a variety of P. papyraceus,
We have thought it best to place together the plants belonging to the natural orders of ensatie and liliaceæ, the letrer.press to which is written by Mri Gawler. 'And, although We doubt not but that many of the purchasers of the Botanical Magazine are dissatisfied with having so large a proportion of the work, as one hall, occupied by these orders exclusively, yet we cannot but express our hearty approbation of the plan. These plants have been more cuicivated than most others, and far less understood by botanists, of whom they may justly be deemed the opprobrium. The French botanists have had the same view of the matter, and a tery magnificent work in folio has been for some time publishing in Paris on these orders, conLained under the denomination of Liliacées. But whoever will take the pains to compare this work with the Botanical Magazine, will at once perceive how much the best botanists are at a loss in this dupartment, and how much more luminous and saçisfactory is the inforination contained in the latter work. We proceed now to enuinerate the other plants given us by the editor in Number 261, 265, 266, and 267.-Celastrus pyrocanbus: this is a good drawing from a remarkable fine specimen which grew in the open air, against a southero wall in the garden of Edmund Graoger, esq. of Exeter. Dr. Sims, by slewing how this shrub varies with regard to its foliage, and in being with or without spines, has gone a good way.Lowards reconciling the very contradictory accounts of botanists respecting it, Trifolium cancron: a plant hardly known to botanists but by 'Tournefort's name, introduced from Mount Cau. casus by Mr. Loddiges - Stapelia picta, a new species of a genus so elaborated by the late Mr. Masson. Jacquin endeavoured to convince Linnæus that the natural order of Asclepiades properly belonged to the class Decandria, instead of Pentandria, where he bad placed these blants: and more lately, Dr. Sinith bas asserted that the same are really gynandrous, Botki these opinions are controverted by Dr. Sims; who defends Linnau. upon the ground, that all
anthera anthers consist of two lobes; that these lobes are more or less approximate, and frequently, as in this order, quite distinct. But though the lobes are distinct, Dr. Sims considers them as composing one anthes only. With respect to Dr. Smith's remark, Dr. Sims observes, that a perpendicular section of the Aower shews that the stamens are not really attached to the true germen, but to certain processes of the corolla; and that theje plants do not therefore belong to the class Gynandria.-Epacris pulcbella, a valuable acquisition to our list of New-Holland plants, gratifying at once the sight and the smell - Erodium bymenodes, one of the hardy species of Geranium, or more properly Heron's bill. As Northern Atrica is little distant from Europe, so this species, a native of the former country, approaches much nearer in affinity to the European species, than those from the southern extremity of Africa. Cy tisus purpureus: we have some doubts whether this be really a distinct species from Cytisus supinus, -Podalyria alba: a hardy perennial, of easy culture, and deserving a place in every extensive collection. Mr. Salisbury has, in the Linnæan Transactions, divided Sophora into several distinct genera, applying the name of Podalyria to the Cape species, which are fruticose. In this Dr. Sims has not thought fit to follow him, although he appears to approve of the division. If Mr. Salisbury's genera should be in future adopted, and the name of Poda. lyria be applied as he has done, Dr. Sims recommends that of Thermopsis (Lupin.face) for the American species, which are herbaceous, and alike in their habit: Thermos being a Greek name for Lupin, which these plants so much resemble --Two sprcies of Asclepias, che pives and variegata, both characteristically figured ; but the former having only one terminal umbel, hardly represents the general habit of the plant ; nor is the snowy whiteness of the nectaries, from which it has its name, sufficiently expressed.-- Protea specissa.-Stapelia elegans, Nymphæa versicolor, a very fine figure of a new species of water-lily trom the East Indies, whence it was introduced by Dr. Roxburgh, and is cultivated with great success at Mr. Vere's, Kensington Gore. This species belongs to Mr. Salisbury's Castalia, and is nearly allied to, though distinct from, N. Lotus. - Viminaria denudata ; one of the pretty papilionaceous tribe from New South Wales.-Gloxinia maculata, formerly known by the name of Martynia perennis, and inserted under both names by Professor Martyn in his new edition of Miller's Dictionary. It appears by the observations here made, that the arrangement of this plant, and some of its relatives, according to their natural affinities, bas been attended with some difficulties, which has occasioned the establishment of a new natural order, was this day brought to me, which had been found, along with severil others, ia fome buodies of thatch that had lain near a pond since the latter end of autumn. The animals had taken shelter in these as a retreat for the winter. I have never before seen any of these animals in this gravelly neighbourel; and although I am informed that there are also frogs in bome places, yet it is more than fx years fince I law one here.
The Rolanist's Repository, No. 119, contains, what is here called Protea speciosa variatas patens which is undoubtedly a distinct species from the P. speciosa of the Botanical Maga. zine. --Mimosa pudica ; or the sensitive piant. It is here said that its "shrinking from the touch is supposed to be owing to its being strongly saturated with oxygen gas, which it disengages upon the slightest provocation, and its place for a short time is supplied by the atmospheric air." We do not know upon the authority of what experiments this supposition is founded, nor do we see how the hypothesis can account for the phenomena at all satisfac. torily.-Protea abrorani folia varietas odorata; a good figure of a very clegant little shrubs, the more valuable as its flowers are fragrant.-Monarda punctata a very beautiful species from the collection of Messrs. Whitley and Brane, worthy of cultivation, but far more uncommon than some of the less ornamental species.-Passiflora perfoliata from the collection of the Comtesse de Vandes. Wildenow describes the segments of i he calyx as being shorter by half than the petals; while in this drawing both parts are equal.
No. 112 contains a very fine figure of Cucumis Dudain, from the collection of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, esq. This plant says the author was named Dudaim by Linaceus, " from the fantastical idea that it was the fruit mentioned in the Bible by the name of mandrake, with which Jacob's neglected wile purchased her husband's favours for one night of her rival." Now whether Linnæus supposed the fruit of this species of melon to be the real Dudain or not, the nome was very properly applied, because some learned men had imagined it to be so, for however "fantastical," it was no new idea of his And in our opinion there has been po more probable guess made amongst all the “ fantastical ideas" that have been entertained upon this subject; for the objection that Hiller, who imagined the mandrakes were cherries, mude to is, that Dudaim is used by Jeremiah for a vessel (or in our translation a basket) containing figs, may be explained fully as probably as his nation that they were howls turned out of the cherry tree. For Dudaim might perhaps be as general a word as gourd, and we know there are gourds no bigger than oranges, and others so large that capacious vessels are made of them. The fruit of the Cucumis Dudaim is a beautifully striped round melon or gourd, admired for its very fragrant smell, and is probably a native of Syria, which is much more to the purpose, than whether it be of Egyprian origin or not, Egypt not being the country of Jacob. Pascalia glauca of Ortega, a native of Chili, from the same collection, Hermannia firmoa of J.cquin's Hortus Schoenbrunensis, a native of the Cape, taken at. Mr. Knights in the King's Road, the possessor of Mr. Hibbert's late collection. A new species of Lopezia, the coronata native of South as the next (Hypericum virginicom) is of North America.
In No. 114 we have Lobelia assurgens, a very scarce plant communicated by A. B. Lanbert, esq. from his stove at Boyton, where it is remarked that the powers died away without producing seeds, which perhaps might be owing to its being treated with too much warmth,
being according to Swartz a native of the colder regions of the mountains in Jamaica. To the successful cultivation of plants, a knowledge of the elevation at which they occur is fully as necessary, as that of the latitude. Volkameria angustifolia, supposed to be a native of the Isle of France, communicated by Mr. Donn, eurat r of the botanic girden at Cambridge. In habit this shrub appears to approach very near to the simple-leaved jasmins.-Zingiber Chfordiana, so named in honor of Lady de Ciittord, an amateur of botany and collector of Curious and rare plants. ---Pancratium amoenum. The author says that this plant is certainly distinct from P. carilæum, but as far as we can judge from the figure, not by any means a good one, it is a mere variety; and was brought by Lord Seaforth from the West Insies under the latter name, and presented to Mr. Lambert in whose stove it flowered in March 1808.
Periploca africana, a rare plant which fowered at Messrs, Whitley and Brame's Old Brompton, industrious cultivators of rare plants from every part of the world, and obligingly communicative of their treasures to inquiring botanists.
Our limits will not permit us to proceed further for the present, we are obliged therefore to postpone the consideration of the two latter nunibers of the repository to another opportunity, when we shall also again take up our account of the English botany, of which we are several numbers in arrear.
The flower-buds of the black or loe tborn, begin !o appear and several of the wall.fruit trees are in bloom. The easterly winds and froity nights have huwever greatly checked the progress of the latter.
In the last week of this month a very large salmon was caught by an angier, with an artificial fly. The river trout, as well as the roach and dace begin to feed, and play about the surface of the streams and rivers.
MONTIILY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THE check which the young wheats have received durin: the present month, has des
extremely beneficial in preventing the over luxuriance which the fineness of the preceding month had caused in all those which had been put in at an early period. It has likte wise bad a good effect on those which were late sown, which on the whole look well. In England and Wales, Wheat averages 915. 10d. per quarter; Barley, 44s. 11d. ; and Oats, S2s. 60.
The badness of the weather, and the snow which has fallen in many parts during this month, has much retarded the business of the field, in different situations, much less seed-graina having been got into the ground than would otherwise have been the case. In many places the lands leave been so soaked and saturated with water, that it has been quite impossible to sow them.
The grazing stock of all kinds, has, however, gone on well, as much food had been produced by the warmth of the weather in March. Grass Lamb is just getting plentiful in the country as well as town markets. The prices of all descriptions of fat stock however sui keep up.-In Smithfield Market, Beet' fetches from 5s. to 63. 4d. per stone of 81b.; Mattun, from 6s. 4d. to os. 8d. ; and Pork, from 6s to 75,
There are plenty of Potatoes for setting this season; but the extent of land which has been planted with them this month, has not been nearly so great as usual, probably from the badness of the season.
The business of repairing the fences, and of dressing and rolling the grass lands, has in many places been well performed.
In Smithfield Market, Hay fetches from 51. to 61. 105. per load ; Clover, from 61. 105. to 71. 16s. ; and Straw, froin il. 143. to 11. 18s.
of April, 1809, inclusive, Four Miles N.N.I. of St. Paul's.
Highest, 55 April 10. Wind W.
Lowest, 28. April 12. Wind N, W.
On the 11th, the 65 hun mercury was as low
mercury was as bich Greatest dredelis as 28 77. and on variation in variation in
" as 46°, but on the 19th of an inch the next day, at the loan 24 hours the next day, at the 24 hours.
it was no higher than same hour, it was
289. ( 29.42.
The quantity of rain fallen since our last report of it is equal to 5.39 inches in depth.
The average heat of the month is little more than 42', nearly the sam: as it was for March. Four or five weeks since, the Spring was louking remarkably forwurd; it is now exceediogly backward. The frost has more than once been very severe, and the ice from half an inch to an inch thick. On five or six days we have had snow ; but the fall on Thursday and Friday, the 20th and 21st, was deeper than we have ever known it so late in the season.
Tbe avorage height of the barometer for the month has been 29.54; of course we bare had much rain. Our readers will remember that we anticipated rain, at the tune we closed our last report: the baroineter led to the expectation, but we had a very small quantity eind che beginning of the month. On the 14th, we had a violent thunder-storm, acco.npanied with large hail-stones, which cut every thing to pieces in the garden. This, we have reason to believe, was partial; at Islington and Higligate it was slight, in comparison of what was experienced at Holloway, where the weight vi a cloud seemed to rush down with tremendous violence.
We can reckon hut seven or eight brilliant days out of the thirteen ; and on sixteen we have had rain, snow, or hail ; and on the 11th was a violent hurricane, that brought to the ground the newly-built nests of the rooks, which, as yet, are wholly undefended by the opening leaves.
The wind hias blown chiefly from the Easterly quarters.
According to our Correspondent in the Isle of Wight, the average temperature for the first three months of the present year is as follows: January, 10:22
(This account was taken at Shide,
near Newport. ASTRONOMICAL ANTICIPATIONS. The new moon, or change, will be on the 14th, at four minutes past twelve, noon; and the opposition, or full moon, on the morning of the 29th, at 18 minutes past eight. On the evenins of the 28th will take place another occultation of the star y in the constellation of the Scorpion, by the mioon, and is the las: of this star that will be visible in Great Britain, tor several years. The immersion will be ac the eastern side of the moon's disk at 41 minutes past ten, apparent time ; and the star will emerge from behind her western edge at 54 minutes past eleven, after been occulted 1h. 91m. At the time of the immersion, the star will be tour minutes, and at the emersion three minutes, to the north of the moon's centre. At the time of the above phænomenon the clock will be 3 minutes 7 seconds behind the sun dial. The planet Herschel or Georgiun Sidus will be above the horizon almost the whole night. On the morning of the 151, he sets at 13 minutes past four, five minutes after sunrise, on the morning of the 16th, at 44 minutes past three ; and on the morning of the 31st, at 45 minutes past two. On the 1st he may be found with the telescope 4° 53' to the west in longitude, and about 7 minutes to tbe north in latitude, of the bright star in the balance named a. On the 16th their difference of longitude will be 5° So', and of latitude 7 minutes; and on the 31st their difference of longitude will be 64 3', the star being still about 7 minutes to the south of the planet. Saturn will be a fine object for observation this month. He will be in opposition to the sun, or, which is the same rhing, in his perige, on the morning of the 22d at four o'clock. T'he quantity of his retrograde motion for the month will be yot'. On the morning of the 3d, he will come into conjuction with the vin the Scorpion, a star or the fourth magnitude, when their difference of Jatitude will be 32 minutes, the star being to the south, and on the morning of the 23d he will be in the same longitude with the B, a star of the second magnitude in the same constellation, the planet in this instance being 1° 3' to the north. Jupiter will be a morning star, rising an hour or two before the sun. Mars will be up in the evenings. Till the 20th his apparent motion in longitude will be retrograde. He will be stationary in 8° 54' of the anastrous sign Libra, 1° 24' 10 the west of they in the Virgin, a star of the third magnitude. For the remainder of the month he will move direct, or according to the order of the signs. Venus will be an evening star till the 24th when she becomes a morning star. Her inferior conjunction happens on the morning of the 44th, at 40 minutes past seven. On the 1st her elongation from the sun, will be 50° 1.4, on the 4th 27° 22', on the 7th 21° 2', on the 10th 20° 19', on the 13th 16° 25', on the 16th 120 5', and on the 19th 7° 55'; alter which she will not be Teadily seen with the naked eye, on account of her then near approach to the sun. The telescopic appearance of this planet will be extremely interesting this month. On the 1st, she will resemble the iroon when she is about S1 days old, or more correctly, like the moon when she is 414 degrees from the sun. Till her interior conjunction, the quantity of her illuminaled disk which is turned to the earth will rapidly decrease. About the middle of the month she will become a very finc crescent, similar to what the moon puts on, on her carliest appearance after a conjunction with the sun. Mercury, for the three first wecks, will be too near the sun to be observed without the aid of the telescope. On the evening of the 251h, about an hour after sun set, he may be seen nearly in conjunction with the northern horn of the bull, a star of the second magnitude, Damed likewise B, their difference of lati. tude being 3° 29, the planet being to the south. On the 22d Mercury sets at 12 tr.inutes past nine ; on the 25th, at 32 minutes past nine ; on the 48th, at 48 minutes past nine ; and on the 31st, at ore minute before ten. That singular star in the head of Medusa, characterized by the Greek iiteral B, may be observed twice at its least brightness; vit. on the morning of the 13th, at 51 minutes past two; and on the evening of the 15th «t 40 minutes past eleven.
Errata - In the Astronomical Anticipations for April, : Line 3, for “ south," road north ; line 27, for's maritine," read matotine: line 53, for "ibctwcen 3 and 4 degrees," read betwe:
a and degrees.