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the ex-gencies'of the drifts, but woithy of the
fruits of a just policy were enjoyed in an un- which is the cement of the Union, as well in rivalled growth cf our faculties and resources, its limitations, as in its authorities; toreProofs of this were seen in the improvements spect the rights and authorities reserved to the of agriculture; in the successful enterprise of States and to the people, as equally incorpocommerce; in the progress of manufactures rated with, and essential to, the success of the and useful iirts: in the increase of the public eener.il system; to avoid the slightest interrevenues, and the use made if it in reducing, fcrence with the ri.ht of conscience, or the the public c>b~; and in the valuable.works- functions of .religion so wisely exempted from • nd establishments every where multiplying aicivil jurisdiction ;, to preserve to thcii full over the face of our land, .a,.»,«>»'< — *, -. ^^Jcenergy tne other salutary provisions in behalf
'• It is a precious reflection that the transi^f of private'aud personal rights, and of the freetion from this prosperous condition, of our** dom of the press; toobserve economy in psbcountry, to the scene which h*a! lor some rimenj lie'expenditures j to liberate the public rebeen distressing us, is-'not'cbargeable on any A sources by an honouriolc discharge of the pubwanantaole views,-nonas I trusc^ori any , lie debts ;• to keep within the requisite limits involuntary errors in.thctpulilic4cnuncils.«t In-aCa standing military force, always remembering dulging no passions which trespass on .thet'that an ar'ned and "treated militia is the fines! rights or the repnse. of o.tlief.nations, *it has* bulwark**! republics, that without standing been the true glory of the United States to«?amiirs r.ieir liberty can neveribe in danger;' cultivate peace by obseiving, justice,, and tofcnor vvithMurge ones sate;<to promote, by aueatitle themselves tothc respertof thejiationsajjthnrised.^ means, improvements, friendly to at war, by fulfilling their neutral'obligations^cagrieulture, and'to externa! as well as interwith the most scrupulous impartiality. * tlnal commerce; to favour, ii like manner, the
*' If there be candour in .the-world, thejfiadvancement of science and the diffusion of trevth of these assertions wdl net be ques-Minf rmation,' as tne .best. aliment to true li* tiar.ed. Posterity at least will do justice to.*8 berty; to carry on the benevolent plant which them. '','m **"^ £ have been sn meritoriously applied to the coti
** This unexceptionable .course.could notT.version ofour aboriginal neighbours, from the avail against the injustice and violence of themdegradation and. wretchedness of savage life, Belligerent powers. Jn their rage against £toa participation of the improvements of which each other, or impelled by more direct mo-."the human mind and manners are susceptible tives, principles of retaliation have.been Intro-j* in a civilized ttaie. 'As far as sentiments and duced equalK contrary to universal reason and'' intentionssuch as these can aid the fulfilment acknowledged law. Howdong their arbitrary ¥ of my duty, they will be a resource which csnedictt will be continued in spite of, the dc- not fail me.
tpunsttations, that not even a pretext for .* "It is my good fortune, moreover, to have them has been given..by the United , States, . the path in which lam to tread, lighted by and ot the fair and liberal attempts to induce examples of illustrious services, successfully a revocation of them, cannot be anticipated. ■*-. rendctcd !n the most trying difficulties by
u Assuring myself that, under every, vicis- L those who have marched before me. Of situde, the determined spiptand united coun- A those of my immediate predecessor, it might cils of the nation will be safeguards to its ho- r. least become me here to tpealc. 1 may, how* nour and its essential interests, 1 repair to the , 'ever, be pardoned for not suppressing thesyra* post assigned me, with no other discourage- Apathy, with wbichmy heart is full, in the merit than what springs from my own inade- 1 reward he enjoys in the benedictions of a bcquacy to its high duties.. if 1 do not sink un- /loved country, g'atefully bestowed for exalted der the weight of this deep conviction, it is .talents, zealously devoted, through a long cabecause I find some support in a consciousness freer, to the advancement of its highest interof the purposes, and a confidence in the prin- 'J est and happiness. ,
:inlcs which 1 bring with me into this arduous $ "But the source to which I look fir the1 service. yji ._ ,'. I -^^ v aid, which alone can supply- my deficiencies,
"To cherish peace and friendly intercourse < is in the well-tried intelligence and virtue of with ail nations, having correspondent dispo- my fel'ow-citiiens and in the counteltof those sions; to maintain sincere neutrality towards .representing them in. the other departments belligerent nations ; .to prefer in all cases ami-1 associated in the.care of the-national interest. cable discussions and reasonable accommoda- f In these my confidence will, under every d.ftion of differences, to a,decision of them by i> ficulty, be best placed; next to that which we an appeal to arms; to exclude foreign in- - have all been encouraged to-feci in the guaitrigues and foreign, partialities so degrading to idianship and guidance of that Alinightr Be. all counttics, and so.baneful t;o. free .ones; to ing, whose power regulates the destiny of n; foster a spirit of independence, too just to irr- ktions—whose blessings have been so cons[ fade the rights of o:hers ;^too proud.to surren- 'cuously displayed to this rising, republic; and der their own; too liberal to indulge unwor- 'ato whom we are bound to address our devout thy prejudices ourselves, and too elevated not ./gratitude) for the past, u. welUas our.fervent to look upon them in others;. td*hold the na- 'supplicationsand best hopes for the future." tion uf the States as the basis of their peate. liiWjibir.ztan, Mw.l i, lbl>9. and happiness; >a,suppprt tht <»-titution,J^
The following letter from LieutenantGeneral Sir John Moore, to Viscount Castlereagh, dated Coruiinii, Jan. 13, 1809, three days before the death of the general will tend to explain belter than has yet been done, the causes of the unfortunate termination of that campaign.
"Situated as this army is at present, it is impossible for me to detail r» your Lordship the events which have taken place, since I had the honour 'o address you from Asturg.i, on the 31st of December: 1 hive therefore determined to send to England, Brigadier-General Charles Stewart, as the Officer best qualified to give you every information you can want, both with respect to our actual situation, and the events which have led te it
"Your Lordship knows, that had 1 followed my own opinoit, as a military man, 1 should have retired with the army from Salamanca. The Spanish armies were then beaten, there was no Spanish force to which we could unite, and I was satisfied that no efforts would be made to aid us, or to favour the cause in which they were engaged.
11 I was sensible, however, that the apathy an i indifference of the Spaniards would never have been believed; that had the British been withdrawn, the loss of the cause would have been imputed to their retreat, ana it was necessary to risk this army to convince the people of England, as well as the rest of Europe, that the Spaniard* had neither the power nor the inclination to make any efforts for them•elves. It was for this reason ihv 1 made the march to Sahagun. As a diversion, it succeeded; I brought the whole disposable force of the French against this army, and it had been allowed to follow me, without a single movement being made to favour my retreat.— The people of the Callicias, though armed, made no attempt to stop the passage of the French through their mountains. They abandoned their dwellings at our approach, drove away their carts, oxen, and every thing that could be of the smallest aid to the army. The consequence hat been, cbat our sick have been left behind: and when our horses or mules failed, which, on such marches, and through such a country, was the case to a great extent, baggage, ammunition, stores, let. and even money, were necessarily destroyed or abandoned.
•« I am sorry to say, that the army, whose conduct J had such reason to extol on its march through i'oftiigal, and on its arrival in Spain, , has totally changed its character since it began to retreat. I can say nothing in its favour, but that when there was a prospect of fighting the enemy, the men were then orderly, and seemed pleased and determined to do their duty. In Iront ot Villa Franca, the French came up with the reserve, with
Monthiy Mac. No. Hi.
which I was covering the retreat of the army; they attacked it at Calcabelos. I reti.ed, covered by the 95th regiment, and m-rcned that mgnttoHcrresias, and from thence to Nogaies and Lugo, where I had ordered the diff tent divisions which preceded, to halt and collect, At Lugo, the French again tame up with i». They attacked our advanced po.es on the 0th and 7th, and were repulsed in ooth attempt*) with tittle loss on our side. I beard from the prisoners taken, thar three divisions or the French army were come up, command-d by Marshal Soult ; I therefore expected to be attacked or the morning of" the 8th. It was my wisn to coin; to that issue ; 1 had perfect confidence in the valour of the troops, and it *a» only by crippling the enemy that we could hope either to r treat or to embark unmolested. I made every preparation to re.eive the attack, and drew out tnc army in tue morning to olfer battle. This was not Vlarsh .1 Souk's object. Heeither did not think himself surficiuntly itron/, or he wished to play t surer game, by attacking us on our march, or during our embarkation. The country was intersected, and his position too strong for me to attack With an i lienor force. The want at provisions would not enable me to wait longer. I marched that night; and in two foreesl marches, oivcniacing for six or eig .t hours ta the rain, 1 reached Beunzos un t.ae l(J(.h in.
"At Lugo, I was sensible of the impo*ibiiity ol teaching Vigo, which was at too great a distance, and offered noajvanta^es to embarlc in the face of an enemy. My mcentlon was) then to have recreated tu the peninsula of Betanios, where I hoped to find a position to cover tHe embarkation of the army in Ares ot Redes Bayes; but luving sent an o.ncer to reconnoitre it, by his report I was determined to prefer this place. I gave notice to the Admiral of my intention, and begged that tue trans* ports might be brought to Coiunni: hal I found them here on niy arrival on the 11th, the embarkation would easily nave b en effected, fori had gained several marciei on the French. They have now come up with us, the transports have not arrived; my paiit.on in front of this place is a very baa g.ie; aud this place, if I ara forced to retire into it, ia commanded within musket shot, and cne harbour will be so comrr. enaed by cannon on the coast, that no ship will be acle to iay in I:.tIn >hort, m> Lord, General itcwari will inform you how critical our situation is. It has been recommended tome torr.n«.eaf.ro;jos«l to the enemy, to induce him to allow u> to embark quietly, in which one he gets us out of the country soon, and this place, with ita stores, Ice. oomoletej that otherwise we haro the power to maj*e a long defence, winch must cause the destructios of the town. I am averse to make any such propvsil, and -m exceedingly dsuatful if ic would be attended 3F with with any good effect; but whatever I resolve on this head, I hope your Lordship will rest, assured, thar I shall accept no terms that are in the least dishonourable to the army or to the country."
Captain Preedy, Aide-dc-Camp to Lieutenant-General Bcckwith, Commander of his Majesty's troops in the Leeward Islands, ill Downing-street, on the 12tli of April, witli dispatches from the Lieutenant-Oeneral, to Lord Viscount Castlereagh, one of hi» Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, of whieli the following are copies :—
Ihatl-quJitus, Martinique, Feb. 28,
My Loud—In my letter of the 15th instant, I had the honour to transmit to jour lordship the details of our operations to the 11th preceding; from that period until the lyih we were incessantly employed in the construction of gun and mortar batteries, and in landing cannon, mortars, and howitzers, with their ammunition and stores, in dragging thf m to the several points selected by the engineers, and in the completion of the works, and in mounting the ordnance. The exertions of Commodore Cockburn, and other naval officers under his orders upon the right, and of Captains Barton and Neshain, of the navy, upon the left, in forwarding these services, were most conspicuous. The enemy during the interval fired upon our encampments with shot and shells, but fortunately with little effect, and his piquets, when pressed, constantly fell back under the protection of his works.
On the 19th at half past four in the afternoon, we opened from six points upon the enemy's fortress, with fouitcen pieces of heavy cannon, and twenty-eight mortars and howitzers, and the cannonade and bombardaient continued with little remission until noon of the 23d, when the French general sent a trumpeter with a letter to our advanced posts, near the Bouille Redoubt, in the front of attack. In this communication General Villaret proposed, as the basis of negociation, that the French troops should be sent to France free from all restriction as to future service; but this being admissible, the bombardment recommenced at ten at night, and continued without intermission until nine o'clock of the -J-lth, when three white flags were discovered flying in the fortress, in consequence of which, our fire from the batteries irrjmedictely ceased.
It is with the must heartfelt satisfaction I Jlave now the honour to report to your Loiuabip, for his Majesty's information, that* supported by the talents of the gencial officers, and in particular of Lieutcnant-Gcnenil, Sir George Prevost, and of MajoraGcncr.il Maitland, the experience and zeal of all the other officers, and the valour and unrcmittio( labour of this army, strengthened by the in
defatigable exertions of Kear-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane and the squadron, the campaign, notwithstanding incessant rains, his been brought to a glorious conclusion in the short space ot' twenty seven days from our departure front Bttrbadocs.
The command of such an army will constistitute the pride of my future life. To these brave troops, conducted by generals of experience, and not to me, their king and country owe the sovereignty of this important colony; and I trust that, by a comparison of the force which defended it, and the time in which it has fallen, the present reduction of Martinique will not be deemed eclipsed by any former expedition.
1 have the honour to inclose the articles of capitulation, as originally produced by the French commissioners, in consequence of General Villaret's application to me for this purpose, during the forenoon of the 24th, and acceded to by Lieutenant-General Sir George Pievost, Mzjor-General Maitland, and Commodore Cockburn, appointed by the rear-admiral and myself to meet them. Thhj capitulation, which was mutually ratified the same night, will, 1 trust, be bonoarcd with his Majesty's approbation.
By the next conveyance, I shall have the honour to submit to your Lordship's consideration the various details which are now referred to in general terms, and to report the merits of the several corps; but the science of the officers of the royal artillery has been too conspicuous not to be particularly noticed, the interior of the enemy's fortress being torn to pieces by shells: his works have also been much injured by shot from the ^un batteries, manned by the seamen uader the direction of Commodore Cockburn, and other naval officers.
After the embarkation of the French troops, I shall have the honour to command the eagles taken from the enemy to be laid at the king's feet.
Captain Preedy, of the 90th regiment, one of my aides-decamp, has the honour to be the bearer of this dispatch: he is an officer of service, and I beg leave to recommend him to his Majesty's favour, and to your Lordship's protection.
I have the honour to be, Stc. (Signed) G. BxcawiTa, Com. Forces.
Sir Harry Neale, bart. first captain to Admiral Lord Gambicr, commander in chief of his Majesty's ships and vessels employed in the Channel Soundings, cVc. arrived at the Adiiiwalty-otfice, on the 21st of April, with a dispatch from his lordship to the Honourable William Weilesley Pole.ofwhich the foilowingis acopy: Cjttdtaia, ii Btiqut Reads, April 14.
Sis—The Almighty's favour to his Majesty and the nstion Ins been strongly marked Kccis he has been plcascJ to give to