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T<itht Editor of' the Monthly Magatine.
HAVING the honour to be entrusted with the superintendauce o! the textpart of Mr. Hewlett's Bible, in its progress through the press, an anxious desire that it- character, in point of accuracy, -iioultl not djsgrace its other recommendations, has led me to such an inspection of different English editions and translators of the scriptures, as confirms a suspicion I had long entertained, of the incorrect state in «hich the sacred volume geoerally appears among us. Every I..■!'., acquainted with the business of printing, knows that it is almost impossible, except by the -most extreme caution, that a book should pass through a multitude of successive impressions without an accumulation of errors; the ordinary copies of the classics shew this in a striking manner: but surely the Bible is an extreme case: and though we cannot expect tlie university presses, more than any oilier*, to have angels for their correctors, (for those who are engaged in correcting, know there is nothing heavenly in the employment,) yet the exclusive privilege, which enables them to make their editions so very large, imposes on litem the duty, and at the same time makes it very" well worth the while, to bestow an extraordinary degree of enre Id that respect. With no invidious », therefore, butin the hope of rousing Jniversity editors to an active ottento this subject (which appears the : desirable at a time when a stereoI edition of (he Scriptures is said to be. contemplation), and of supplying a which perhaps some of your reamay peruse with interest, I offer J, even in this early stage, the results of r examination, as far as it has as yet ex
matter of Mr. Hewlett's Bible are collated with both the University Quarto editions, and Bishop Wilson's, and the text is compared strictly with Dr. Geddes's: the other three authorities are only consulted occasionally. I shall not confine my lists of errors to the University editions: as Bishop Wilson's has a high reputution for accuracy, in consequence of having been edited by the indefatigable Cruttwell; and the character of Dr. Geddesis far beyond my power of appreciation. With respect to Ciuden's Concordance, however, I shall merely observe here, once for all, that though a work of vast utility, yet any bxly who may unfortunately have occasion to inspect it with minuteness, even strictly according to the author's plan, will experience, I say it with confidence, perpetual feelings Of disappointment and disgust:—I do not now speak ot typographical errors but of omissions. The corremlons in each of the following lists are made on the authority of «// the rest of the six sources above mentioned (or without the opposition of any of them) except where, otherwise expressed.
Quarto (nivcrsity Bible.—Genesis, chap. iii. ver. 19, out it for out of it; v. 22, margin, Mac. (Alaccubces) for iv/ir. (Micah); vii. 11, foundations for founfmiM.;8 xv. 18, the first the should he t/i«( ;f xix. contents, the second is should be becomes ;\ xxx. 23,§ take for token; xxxi. 33, his for the; xxxvi. 4, Adas- for Adah; xxxviii. 23, send for scut; xxxix. contents, mistresses's lor mistress's; xxxix 14; Aim for them ; xlii. 2, yc for tee; xivi. 24, Gezcr for Jezer; xljx. 6, thmi not for not thou; xlix. 26, the second tiydw.uii
a pretty old one, as he has the spelling "Yce" alone (and nor. Ice) in Ins alphabetical arrangement. Perhaps he employed more than one ccpy. •■»■ *• * . 4/?1 •■'• ■" ■'
• Gh-gtnhitt in x. 1<>, Is supported also by Cruden, but my other authorities have it here
'lite, in every other passage of Scripture, where 1 find the name, they all have the ii except Geddes, who constantly writes.—s/Vr.
♦ The Octavo also has the.
or else something (as fi/r«rf;»iro) is omitted after i. H
§ Endued in verse 20 of this chapter it given also by the Octavo edition and by Cruden: the other three have etidtwed. We should certainly at present call a woman hair* ing a large marriage portion, richly tnii-utd, rather than endued.
be my ;* Exodus ii. 3, no for not ;\ iv. 10, the second my should be thy; vi. 14, father's iarjatliers' (see verse C5.)t A periodical journal of last month, in an article of biblical criticism, mentions it, as "not generally known, that in tlie successive editions of the bible, the number of supplementary words printed in Italics has been unwarrantably and surreptiliously increased to alarge amount."§ Something,! know, lias been done toward reducing this amount, in the stereotype edition of the New Testament, lately executed at Cambridge; but as neither of my complete liibles pretends to any innovation in thisrespectyhe few variations among them concern my present purpose. In the edition which I am now examining, the following words should be in Italic: Genesis xviii. 31, it; xxiii. 17. tiic first u as; and xxx. 33, t*.|| The enumeration of errors merely literal and of an inferior description will serve only to shew what degree of general care has been exercisea in the business of correction. Thus there is at Genesis iv. 23, in the margin, hut for hurt; x. 10, kingdon for kingdom; xix, the sixth verse is numbered 5; xxv. 2, margin CAilrt. for Chron.; xxxvii. 2, the first comma should be a full point: Exodus i. 19, midwive formiduives; ii. 7, a note of admiration for an interrogation; iv. 4, Lord should be printed Lord: vi. 28, the full point should be a comma; ix. 13, Pharaoh for Pharaoh; ix. 29, as for As (being the beginning of a speech), and a like mistake xiii. 3, in remember for Remember.
The University Octavo, and Duodecimo, copies as I mentioned before, I have only consulted occasionally, in matters of suspicion or doubt. The list of errors, therefore which, I have found in these exclusively is but small.—In the Octavo, Genesis xxxi. 5, he should he omitted ;U
* The Ocuvo also has thy, which however appears clearly to be wrong from the Duodecimo, Wilson's (with all the an various renderings colleucd in this latter), and Cruden. Geddes has nt ther.
♦ Cruden his not under " Hide," and no under " Longer."
J The Octavo also has this error.
5 Eclectic Review, page 31. In xliv. 9, btth is given by Wilson in italics, which seems countenanced by Geddes, (compare his 16th verse). ♦jl Il->gii'> in xlvi. 16, is supported also by
1 Samuel ix. 23,S.< it for Set it. In Genesis xxv. 2d, there is venhion for venison; Exodus iii. 22, neighbour for neighbour; and ii. 21, a note of interrogation for a colon.—In the Duodecimo, Genesis x. 22, there is Edom for Klam.
liishop Wilson's Bible (as it is called). Genesis vi. 21, for is omitted before food ;* ix. 4, you for ye ;t xix. 21, «/so omitted after thing;X xxii. 7i the omitted before icood; xxii. 2:i, bare for bear; xxiv. 6, thou omitted after Beware i\ xx». 13, 14, these verses arc wrong divided (the sign of separation should have followed Mibsam instead of Adbeet) ; xxv, 33, the second to should be unto; xxxi. 39, longest for longedst; xxxi. 34, camels' for camel's; xxxv. to omitted before stink; xxxvi. 22, Hemom for Heman ;|| xxxi. into for into; Exodus ii. 6, Hebrew's (orHebrars';% iii. 22, the latter clause (after raiment) is erroneously made a separate verse, numbered 23; viii. 24 end, swarms for swarm; ix. 0, beasts for beast; ix. 11, the first boil should be boils; x. 14. coast for roasts (see ver. 19). The following errors occur in the use or omission of the Italic distinction: Genesis vii. 25, land should be in Italic ;•• so likewise is in xxxv. 19tt and xxxvi. 1, are in xxxvi. 20, art
Wilson, Cruden, and Geddes; but theguarto and Duodecimo have Hagg'i: and when the name is mentioned again of the same person (Numbers xxvi. 15) all my authorities have Hagg'i, except Geddes, who constantly writes «; and Cruden, who (as is not at all uncommon) totally omits thisuxt.
• Geddes's omission of for, seems a mere matter of style.
■\ Cruden also has yea under " Eat not" and "Blood," but^r under" Life."
X Crudeu has not this text under "Also;" but his omissions of text decide nothing.
§ Cruden has not the rounder " Beware," but he often omits inferior words for the sake of compression: he has it under *• Bring again;" Geddes"s omission seems a matter of style.
J Henum is also given in the Varioua Renderings; Geddes haa adopted that reading into his text.
*\ This error occurs also in the Duodecimo. Cruden, under the word has Hebrews, which is consistent with the correction; but under "is One" he has Hebrew, which I suppose to be metely a typographical error.
•• See Genesis, i. 9, 10. Geddes uses the Italic very sparingly.
+t This is round also in the Octavo edition,
in xlvi. 18, and ifin xliv. 22--in xviii 32, llrgtsbould not be in Italic :° so likewise I 'A in uxiv. 1. The next are of a merely literll and inferior kind: as in Genesis xxiv. 66, one for done; xxv. 4, it full point for a comma; xlvii. 15, (irreus for Give us; xlix. 29, n full point fora semicolon; and Exodus ii. 18, a full point for a note of interrogation. Dr. Geddcs's Translation must be tnken up cautiously in alleging errors, ns it is often so widely different, from our common Bible ; ' hut a few things of this son,wlnch appeared evident to me,I have noted, und there were some, of which I did not make any memorandum. Thus in Genesis ix, 28, and ffty seems omitted (see viii. 13, and ix. 29) Exodus ix. 29, rain for hailf; xxiii. 18, unleavened tiir leurened ; and xxxviii. 25, sixty tbr rren/_y»_£ve ; (see ver. 2110.1 _ Without achieving the task of verifying every reference in the immense mzfss of Parallel flbts given in Bishop Wilmu‘s Bib|c,§ my exnminationhas enabled mealrendy to detect a great number of emrs, involving every sort of confusion, both in that and the Uriiversityfluartoledi. tion. A derail of them would be very unmterestingnnd repulsive to your readers ; itis sotlicient tosay that these_ will be all corrected in Mr. Hewlett’s catalogue ; and any person who muy he in possession of either of these tw0 editions, who will do me the honor of npplying to me privately, shall be very welcome to such remarks as -I have made upon the subject. l shall only mention here as a specimen, that in Bishop Wilson, atGt¢nesis xxv. 18. the textsnf two references (p unrlq) ue entirely omitted; chap. xli, the references of the last paragraph are wrong
all together' ; the same with those in the gext_ofcliap.xlvi. from verse 26 to the enrl;f and the some at the bottom in Exodus iv. 21, to the en¢,l.1 In the University Quatto errors of this latter description occur at Genesis xxx. 2 to 4, and some other places. liven the laborious Crutwell shrunk from a minute scrutiny of this dcpnrtmentof his compilation, and nmkes the crhtors from whom hc copied, nnswerable tbr its correctness: and I have no douht that many of its mistakes have been handed down implicitly front geocrntion to generation. Having occasion to inspect n reference to the ninth chapter of Deuteronomy, that occurs (in all my Bibles which hnve any Pnrnllel'I`exts):1t Genesis xli. 57, I perceived it to he wrong; nod some knowledge of the mechanical process of printing, lending me to suspect that the second chnptcr was intended, I turned to that, and found my suspicion confirmed(the resemblance indeed is rather fitntnstical, but that is nothing uncommon):-but the curious part of the circumstance is this; that the corresponding (or, as I may cull it, returning) reference has been blindly placed at the ninth chapter! Now this can never have been done by the hand that originally assigned the former reference. So much forthe necessity of nt/wrong/t revision of the Parallel'l`exts ; rt task which the University editors nlone cnn be expected, and ought to he required, to perfnrm.§ The marginal Dates are not in a much better condition, but I am afraid my letter has already becometedious. After just therefore mentioning the absurdity (which appears in"all my Biblr,= that have any chronology(of continuing n single date throughn series of events, that must have occupied many years(as in Genesis xxxviiil 4 ` to tbeendj, I shall only give nn examplnpeeuliuty rinieuious, which 1 and in . _ P _
my Octavo University edition, at the fourteenth chapter of Genesis. The date 1913, it stems has been ascertained to Wong to the event related in the fifth verse, and the editor lias sagaciously taken advantage of the words "fourteenth year" occurring in that verse, to give the date of 19'16 to the beginning of the chapter. I refer your readers to the passage itself as the quotation would be loo long: I cannot better illustrate the case, than by giving an historical narrative dated as follows;
1799.——^Buonaparte had now been nine years in possession of the sovereign power of France, when
1808. his immeasurable ambition led him to seize treacherously on that of Spain.
Here the second date is proper, and the first may be supposed to have been added by an University editor.
In the particulars of Punctuation mid Paragraph-marks every editor seems tn have followed his own fancy. 1 have done the best I could with them.*
I do not give the above detail as a complete list of the errors which 1 have found even in the two editions which I have principally consulted. Several things af this sort I corrected without taking any account of them. What I have now troubled you with, liuwever, may perhaps be of' some utility. The Clarendon Press has done itself honour by its editions of the classics—let it give us acorrcct Bible. 1 am, Sir,
Yours, &c. M. Smaut.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
•T SHALL feel myself highly obliged to J_ any of vour correspondents, who through the medium of your valuable Magazine, will give me any information on the following subjects.
Has the African society received any certain intelligence of the fate of Mungo Parke?
What has been the success and what is the present state of the missionaries who were left at Otaheite, Tongataboo,and the Marquesas, by the ship Duff, in 1797; and has any account been made public of
• In Genesis xlix. 26, there it a variation, which eeenu not to have been accidental, in placing the colon: my three University eflditions have it after bith, and Wilson after fnttmttsrt. My other tw» autho*tie» give me noanistance hue.
their proceedings since Capt. Wilson's Voyage was published?
Mr. I,ancaster*s improved plan for educating youth is a matter of immense importance to parents, a9 well as to the rising generation ; but as Ins method has not been generally explained; a short account of its principles would be highly gratifying to numbers of your readers.
In your 24th volume, page 310, I inserted a query respecting the cause and preventien of ropiness in bread, beer, perry, &c. to which a correspondent has obligingly sent an answer, in vol. 25, page 313, mentioning a method to prevent that disease in leer, but the chemical cause has not been explained.
Yours, &c. Tuos. Davis. Easthain, Worcestershire, Jan. 6th, 1809.
For the Monthly Magazine.
THE D1LLETANTI TOURIST,
Jra a Series of Letters, from uu Am.vIeih iu Lomxin, to a i Uil.no near
[With a Plate.]
LET us hope, that the fifth great epocha of the civilized world, may be derived and denominated from the splendours of British genius; that it is reserved for Great Britain to prove that the purest system of civil freedom, is creative of the noblest powers of intellectual excellence.—Let us hope, that the liberal policy of our princes and our statesmen will excite and second the genius of their country; and that we may shortly see the arts and sciences revolving in planetary splendour round the enlivening sun of British liberty; refined to a degree of perfection unattained in former periods; deriving vigour from its heat, and lustre from its beams." So says the unassuming and accomplished author of the liiiymes on Art, and what British heart does not sincerely join in the patriotic wish. If any doubt then existed in the mind of Mr. Shee as to the accomplishment of his wishes, I think the present noble collections now under consideration (being mostly brought together since the publication of the above,) will go, in a great measure, to remove them; at least, in my bumble opinion, if it does not, the blorne cauuot attach to their proprietors.
According to the arrangement made in my last, I shall now commence with the first room in the department of antiquities ties at the British Museum, which is de»wefl to the terra cottas. All the articles rn this department, (antiquities,) unless where it is otherwise specified, formerly belonged to the collection of the late Charles Townley, esq. prefacing my observations, as I there promised, with a few remarks on basso relievos and terra cottas«
Earth or clay is generally the first matter used bv sculpture in forming their designs, and, when rendered solid by evaporation ami burning, is called terra cotta. That modelling, or sculpture in terra cotta, was known and practised by the ancients, besides the undoubted specimens m this and other collections, we have the authority of Pausanins, who in the second chapter of the first liook of his Description «t Greece, mentions a temple of Bacchus, in »h:ch were several works in terra cotta, one of them representing Amphictyon, king of Athens, entertaining Bacchus, and other deities of the Grecian mythology. In the following chapter he says, that in the Ceramicus,* there were several fine work* of this material, and, among others, mentions two very celebrated specimens, oae of them representing Theseus throwing the robber Scyron into the sen, and die story of Aurora and Ccphalus. The aaoents sometimes painted or coloured their statues and bas-reliefs. Pliny and i'ausannu both mention several examples; and though in the infancy of arr, they coloured both their sculptures and ttrra cottas, >ct they did not disdain to employ the latter, even after they had abandoned the barbarous practice of coloonng them. Basso-rilievos were also w ployed as frizes to their temples, and Dent tablets and other plain ; tney also used them as we do for \Sar their artists, for many of them B .been discovered with holes through them big enough for a small cord, as if lheyhadibecn suspended'in their studies. AMgnati tjf' these ornamental pieces of ''sive.'bee*'- found in the tombs
that have been discovered in the Appianway, and in the Campagna di Roma; the little temple at Koine dedicated to Honour and Virtue, has also its ornaments modelled in terra coltu. The ruins of Ilerculaneura and Pompeia were full of basso-relievos, foliages, festoons, tablets, and other architectural and sculptural ornaments of this composition,which, adorn the cabinets of almost every antiquary on the continent; that of the imperial library at Paris has several, the boast of the French cognoscenti, though I have doubts as to their supcriority'over our museum: but the modern ravagers of Europe, who, as in the days of Attila and the Goths, war even against the arts, prevent an English artist from feasting bis mind, and indulging his fancy, in seeing and enjoying these much vaunted collections of ancient art.
Although most subjects in sculpture that are not isolated statues are called bas-reliefs, yet there are three distinct species of reliefs; the alt relief, (in Italian, alto rilievo,) the half relief, (mezzo rilievo,) and the has relief, (basso rilievo.) In alt-relief the figures are entire, or nearly so, the legs, arms, head, and other principal parts, being relieved and perforated behind, as in the charming collections of frizes from Athens in Lord Elgin's museum, and similar works. The half relief is that in which the ground appears at half the depth of the figures, or to speak perhaps more intelligibly, the figures and other subjects appear sunk half in the ground and half raised. This kind of relief is the most common, though it is usually called bas-relief. And basrelief, properly so called, is that species in which the figures are scarcely raised above the ground, as in coins, some medals, some of the frizes from the remains of the temples at Athcns,ckc. and other examples of the first style of Greek scul|>ture. The two last species beiug by usnee or consent amalgamated into one, I shall not venture to separate them, but in this and our future correspondence class them both under the head of bas-reliefs.
In almost every work that contains descriptions of ancient monuments, you will find delineations of antique bas reliefs; and in the following works, which I believe are the principal, you will find enough to gratify your curiosity and your pencil; many of theiu, if not nil, I dme say you will find iu the. college library ac Manchester, viz. The various descriptions of the triumphal arcbei;, the description of tht «€<^niiur ftapUaV' bj> fubretti;;