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far as they fall short of affording suste- jook at once to the pooi's fund as their hance to the labourer and his family, he only refuge against hunger and nakedmust make up the deficiency by lawless. noss: application for purista reliet has means, or be supplied from the poor's ceased to be deemned reproachtul, and rate : the latter is an expedierit which the residence in a poor-hause to be teit too many farmers, in country parishes, as a disgrace, either by the residents, or lave adopted, although they are almost, their families; but, these sensations unust, exclusively the employers of the poor, I am persuadedi, be revived betöre any and payers of the rates, and therefore material decrease of our paupers, or dimicau profit little by this sinister manage- nulio!) of our poor-rates, can be obtained. meut. In the return from the parish of Wien we observe the manners and ba. Cornwell, Oxford, the ove scers account bits in which the poor cominonly bring for the comparatively low raie. in the up their children, we cannot wonder at pound of their assessment to the poor, the increase of paupers; and this is ocby saying, “ We give our labourers good casioned by a general relaxation of diswages, who are thereby enabled to supe cipline towards all descriptions of them, port their families comfortably, and sela from the lazy and thriftless parishioner to dum appiy for relief, but in particular the roving sturdy vagrant. The effects cascs." Vide Abstract, p. 400.-Were of this relaxation are seen in our streets it possible to apportion the product of hourly, where we cannot but notice boys, the land betwixt the owner, cultivator, fit for some kind of work, loitering, beg. and labourer, according to their respec- ging, or playing together, and swearing tive claims fairly estimated, it would be at almost every word, with a strong probawell; but at present the cultivator has bility, seeing the ragged state of them, that to contend, unless he has the benefit of their fathers are wasting their time in ale. an old lease, with excessive rents, heavy houses, at least wasting part of every day taxes, and advanced charges for all bus there, whilst their wives and other children husbandry implements, whereby his con- are at home neglected, almost naked, dition is soinetimes little to be envied by and nearly starved, relying on parish rebis common labourers. Landlords inust liet' for that succour, which the industry abate of their rents, before an increase of the husband and parent, if exerted, of the wages of labour can be sustained and the whole family co-operating, would by their ienants; as it is, should corn fully supply. But if, impressed with a and cattle decline in price, as, in the strong sense of this misconduct, an indig. event of a peace, may be expected, we want observer should demand of the overmust not be surprised to hear of very ge- seer, why he suffers it to prevail in violaueral distress among the tenantry of ihe tion of the Act, 32 Geo. III. c. 45, country. But though the high price of wherein it is enacted, that “If any perprovisions and inadequate wages of como son shall not use proper means to get emtry labour, tend greatly to swell the ployment, or is able to work and neglects amount of the poor's rato, yet there are it, or spends his money in alehouses, oder causes which concur in no small and shall not apply a proper portion of degree to the saine end; such a cause the money, earned by him, towards the we inay trace in the very general extinc- maintenance of his wife and family, so tion of that ingenuous shame ainong the that they become chargeable, lie shall be poor, which formerly withheld them from punislied as a disorderly person"-that applying for parish relief. The poor is, be coinmitted to the house of correcwould then struggle bard to rescue chem- tion to be kept to hard labour, and why, selves and their families from such bumi- if such person pretends that he cannot liating dependence; and as the incans of get employment, he does not provide the benevolence were not, then, wrested, by means of setting him, and such idle chilcomplicated and oppressive taxation, dren, to work, according to the statute of added to excess of current expences, the 43d ot' Eliz. he will tell you that, by from the middling people, their siruggles a long relaxation of discipline, the poor were facilitared and generally successful. have, in a manner, obtained an immuIt is now widely different. The poor,nity against the law, and were he to aton the first, and on every slight occasion, tempt a reform in his parish, it would clain with confidence, and as a right, be like running his head into a hornet's the allowance wirich heretofore they nest; and even if he were resolute to fula avoided, or received with diffidence and fil this part of his duty, it would be impain. Instead of making exertions in possible for bim to provide stocks of reproportion to their ditliculties, they now quisite materials, and proper superintenda ance of the works, without patting the less in proportion to people, and of course parish to much greater expenice, chan is dearer. That our poor have molliplied incurred by luis apparent remissness with our people is truc, but it must be in his office. Neither is the overseer admitted also, that the ineans of employo checked by these considerations alone; ing them in uscful and diversified uccise for, hy late acts of Parliament, a pations, have incicased in an equal or power is given to jusiices of the peace of greater proportion : our trades manual interfering with, and contouling his authe- and inercantile, and arts liberal and rity in points of discipline, which our ear- mechanic, are prodigiously extended of dier laws enjoined him, under penalties, late years, and have supplied employa to entire; such for instance, as that ment for numerous additional bands; and which cpowers magistrates to excuse yet these resources have not kept back paupers fruin wearing the parish haduc, the progress of poverty and increase of as directed by the Act 8, 9, Will. ill. the poor's rate. War, without doubt, c. SO, s. 2, whereby that mark of degra- occasions great waste of provisious, aud, dation has fallen nearly into disuse, and but for this waste, I am inclined to disorderly paupers go) undistinguished, as think, that our national supply of good Uchi, in every parish. And again, by and wholesome food would scarcely fall the Act, Geo. 1. c. 7, s. 4. poor pers short of our demands, except in very une sons who require parish relief, and yet productive years ; nor, perhaps, even then refuse to be maintained in the works were the laws revised and enforced, which house provided for thein, under that interdict the couversion of lands from tilAct, are to be put out of the collection lage to pasture, and the accumulation of book, and not be intitled to relief; bilt farms. We may perceive wliat were the by a subseqnent law, 36 G. II. c. 23, sentiments of our ancestors on these justices may order relief to begiven to poor evils, nearly three centuries ago, by repersons at their onil houses, whereby ferring to the statute 35 Hen. VIII. c, 13, the intent of providing such work houses the preamble of which states, “ That by is often frustrated, and the pretences of reason of the accuinulation of faris and the pauper set successfully up against the cattle, especially sheep, into few hands, authority of the overseer, tu the certain and putting such lands to pasture and not extension of relaxed discipline. The to tillage, towns hiave been destroyed, power viven to justices in these cases is, rents raised, and all manner of corn, catit is true, limited by circumstances; but tle, wool, pigs, gecse, hens, chickens, it very rarely happens, that an overseer eggs, are enhanced almost double their feels disposed to contest a doubtful point accustomed price, by reason whereof a with the inagistrate, when surc, by so marvellous multitude and number of peodoing, if successful, to incur the ill word ple be 100 able to provide meat, drink, and ist will of the poor around hiin; and and cloaths for themselves, their wives, it is truly remarked in a note to the re- and children, but be so discouraged by turn of the parish of Bushey (county of miscry and poverty, that they fall daily Herts), by the Rev. Mr. Vivian, rector to theft, robbery, and other inconrepi. of that parish-“It is inpossible not to ences, or pitifully die for bunger or cold; observe, that the want of all sbame, in and, as it is thought by the King's most applying for parochial charity, must be humble and loving subjects, that one of attributed, among other causes, to the the greatest occasions that moveth and inconsiderate interference of authority, provoketh those greedy and covetous in throwing families on the poor's rate, people so to accumulate, and keep in who otherwise would have been above their hands, such great portions and parts depending on the parish." The facility of the grounds and lands of this realın, of thus getting relief, after their own from the occupying of the poor husband. way, répresses the necessity of their vigi- meo, and so to use it in pasture and not Jance to seek out employment, and all in tillage, is only the great profit that inducement to economise their earnings cometb of sheep," &c. It then limits the among the poor, and thus parish relief, number of sheep to be kept by any per. without labour, becomes the fruitful pa- son, and forbids any one to “take in rent of debauchery and depravity. There farin any more bouses and tenements of is one writer of consideration, who, in husbandry, whereunto any lands are behis Essay on Population, refers the in- longing above the number of two sucha creased misery of the poor, of late years, bolds, or tenements ; nor two such, es. to our overabundant people, whereby cept he or they be dwelling in the sair:@ Labour is reduced in value, whilst food is parish, under the penalty of 3s. 4d. per
week, during his occupation of such and to improve it he has recourse to ilholds." I believe such an Act as this, legal practices, into which his whole famaking the penalty 101. per week, would mily is initiated, going on progressively tend to relieve the poor's rate, and re- from beating hedges and fences for fuel, duce the price of provisions, with more and pilfering louse articles, to stealing certainty than can ever be expected from poultry and corn ; poaching and smuga the well-meant endeavours of all our gling; and if, by these aids, a little exprime breeders and speculative agricultu- cess of money be gotten, it is commonly tists.
spent at the alehouse, where congenial Relief of the Poor.—That the company and tippling soon confirm his poor-laws, in respect of relief, had disgust of regular labour. A few instances their commencement in wisdom and of this sort occuring in our parishes, and, huinanity, is certain; the belpless I am sure, a great many such cases are young and old, 'unprovided for and un- continually occurring in most country protected, have a natural claim on the parishes of any extent, must divert great community, of which they are members, numbers of the poor, yearly, out of the for succour in their necessities; a claim regular pursuit of industry, into those of to be fulfilled, and not trusted to the trespass and outrage on the community. chance of private benevolence. But If we look back to the statute 43 Eliz. though the extremes of age, as well as we shall find no provision made for pe. casual infirinity, be fair claimants of help cuniary relief, but to such of the in their distress, it becomes a question of poor as are lame, impotent, blind, some moment, how inuch further paro- and unable to work; for all others who chial relief should be allowed: it cer- cannot maintain themselves and famitainly should not be extended so far as to lies, it commands the overseer to find damp the actual exertion of the poor, by employment, and thereby enable them lolding out indiscriminately to all the to earn their living. The legislature by able and unable, willing and unwilling, a this statute meant to discourage all idlesure provision under all circumstances of ness among the able poor, both chilapparent want; for if so, the able will be dren and adults, and that the unable less solicitous to procure work, and the should be relieved according to their neunwilling will, it possible, decline it when cessities, and provided, as far as human offered; both induced, hy this very pro. foresight could do, against any failure, vision for their support in cases of real in the execution of the provisions of the need, to prefer indolence co labour, a act, by 1st, subjecting the churchsubsistence on the dole of public charity, wardens and overseers of parishes to a or rather of public contribution, given penalty, for neglecting this duty of setwith reluctance, and often with rebuke, ting the poor to work ;-dly, by enabling to that obtained by the well earned justices of the peace to tax other pawages of their own active efforts. " The rishes of the hundred; or, if those of parochial fund should be rendered a stj- the hundred were unable, of the county, mulus to industry, not a boon for the en- in aid of any parish whose inhabitants couragement of idleness." But it is could not levy sufficient sums among most certain, that a compulsory allow themselves; and 3dly, by authorising a ance of relief to the able poor, in all in- commitment to the house of correction, stances of temporary privation of work, or common goal, of such poor as would acts as a discouragement to their laying not employ themselves to work being up something in slore against a time of appointed thereto. All the means, thereextremity, as a premium to idleness with fore, which power and money could give all its evil consequences. Hence it has were placed by this act in proper bands, been said, that the very law that pro- for carrying a general plan of industry vides for the poor increases their num- among the necessitous poor into effect. ber.
It might seem wonderful with such a The able pauper out of work, who gets straight line of duty before parish officers, an allowance of money, for the support that this important part of the statute of himself and family, from his parish of should have become almost a dead letficers, and which, if they cannot employ ter; and yet, owing to the causes before him, they dare not refuse, is almost stated, as every overseer can confirm, compelled to a misemployment of his the requisite employment, notwithstandtime, and of course of becoming an ex. the ample power given by this act, canample to bis neighbourhood of idleness not with certainty be found, and advanand mischief. His allowance must needs tageously exercised in single parishess be in the lowest proportion to his wants, and, in consequence of it, the abuse of
granting granting relief contrary to the statute is of those poor, who are maintained under now become a general practice; but if, contract (those of 293 parishes) po to by a combination of parishes, one cene the contractor, and therefore are not tral place were established, where a con- brought to account. Were these earn. venient stock ot Hax, hemp, wool, thread, ings faithfully reported, it would enable iron, and other necessary ware, and stuif us to judge, pretty accurately, what as directed by the statute, were always at profit may be expected froin a general band, for setting to work all the able and diligent employment of oui able poor children and adults, of the sur- paupers; for, without doubt, these conrounding parishes, who apply for relief, tractors exacted the fuil condition of we should soor get rid of a prodigious their hond. number of trespassers on the poor's tund.
It was certainly never intended by the Money reliet would then cease, but to Act of the 43d of Eliz. that the able poor those lawfully entitled to it, the sick, should be placed among the unable, in blind, cripples, &c. and want of work places like our parisb-houses. The able would no longer be a pretence for asking pauper, in need of reliel, was to be found it.
in fit materials by the overseer, and set IVorkhouses. The difficulty of fulfilling to work, and the impotent poor were to the Act of Eliz. in respect of finding em- be relieved according to their necessity; ployinent fur the able paupers, seems to neither did it intend, that many of the have given rise to the Act 9 Geo. 1. c. 7, latter should be crowded together in large whereby it was enacted, that parish worklouses, in towns; but if they were workhouses might be established in sin. furnished with a parish abode, it was die gle or united parishes, and their poor be rected to be “in cottages, convenient maintained under contract; and that houses of dwelling, to be built on wastes where such work houses are established, and commons, parcel of the parish, with the paristi-officers may contract for the consent of the lord of the manor, at the maintenance of the poor of other parishes. parish expence;" and although two or But what has been the consequence?
inore families were allowed to be placed The generality of these workhouses, in one cottage, yet it could never be 3765 in number, have no means of regu- meant, that many of these impolar employolent; in others, the works "tent people should be associated there carried on appear to have produced no together, though this would bc, pere profit worthy of notice. Of this we have
of this we have haps, less irksoine to thein, than being sutticient evidence from the abstract of intermixed with an equal or greater num. returns, where the net earnings of all the ber of younger inmates. It is certain, work house poor in number 83.468. are that one great cause which some elderly stated at a sum which, on an average, people have expressed against going into amounts to about afartbing per head daily; our present work houses, has been on ac. but if we reject the unable part of them,
count of the diversity of ages and chawe shall have, at the least, 50,000 able,
racters of the inmates, from some of ini a greater or less degree, who, it pro
whom they are led to apprehend mockvided with proper means of work, and
ery and ill-usage, and theretore often ene bucklcd to it, as Lord Bacon savs, would dure the rigors of nakedness, hunger, and have earned individually from 4d to cold, rather than subunit to be so ille Od. in the same time. more than eight associated. If we contrast with this times as inuch as appears to have been antient mode of disposing of the aged and earned by such reduced number; and impotent poor, who required a parsh when we consider that the earnings of residence, our modern workhouse plan the ini-poor of incorporated parishes, and of huddling them into a contracted house of the better regulated single ones (of of confinement, with others of all ages which one of the best examples may be and both sexes, mingler promiscuously found in that of Buldre, Halits where together, and maintained in gleness, we children, even of four and five years of certainly cannot compliment the wisiloin age are employed), produced the greatest of our own times, as superior to that exhi. part of these earnings, we must con
con. bited, in this respect, in the 430 year of clude, that the inmates of very many of Elizabeth; nor even in the houses of inour common workhouses are kept in a dust
ot in d ustry of jucorporated parishes, which state of positive idleness. The carnings
us are, in general, conducted in an exem
plary manner, can we see any mark of ** See Gilpin's Account of the New Work- prudence or propriety in combining witte house at Boldre, Hampshire.
those, who are properly placed there, such MONTHLY Mac. No. 181.
as can exert no industry, who not only only about 144,829 of the adults (allow. occupy space, and render the air less ing 20,000 such among the in-poor), and pure, but engage the time and attention the children under five years of age, were of many who would be otherwise advan. disabled from labour, leaving 386,248 tageously employed. In truth, those adults and children, of which two-thirds, workihouses, ivith iomates of all ages, or perhaps thuce-fourtlis, may be deemand all unemployed, can be deemed lite ed able to get their living, if properly tle better than sensinaries of sloth, filih, employed, and the remainder to earn and mischiet : in such places vice must something in aid of it, un permanent rebe prevalent; tlie old of buth sexes bare lief. Why they were intitled to this, is leisure, and too often inclinativni, to difficult to be comprehended. It could corrupt the young; and the latter, not be for want of work; fur that, like unused to work, will never readily take to casual sickness, and accidents, is the it after a certain time; they will preter plea of the occasional por for terwporary sloth and casual subsistence by crati, relief. In short, it serves to demonstrate, through life, to regular subsistence that an institution is indispensable, whereby labour. Neither does any plan of by all pretences for relief inay be brought cinployment, if it could be carried on to the test or truth, and the public cease with suine profit, in our ordinary parish to be imposed out by the cunning and auda. houses, seem likely to save the younger city of paupers, or by the weakness or residents from the contagion of ill exam- partiality of overseers; such an institution ple, since it would divide these sivall as would enable every paristo-officer in communities into too many parts, were the kingdom to say to its able paupers, those of different ages and sexes com clamourous for relief for themselves or pletely separated. The regulation, how. their able children, There is work for you, ever is indispensable to the well-doing the relief which you require must be ob. and well-being of associated paupers, and tained by labour, wholly or in part; but has been so ordained in all our best-con- for reliet in money, you are not intitled ducted houses of united parishes; but if, to it by law, nor am I by law authorized with the disadvantages enumerated, we to grant it-you must work, or starve. take into account the annual expenditure on these work bouse poor, which, For the Monthly Magazine. according to the abstract in the year On the NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL CIA1802--3, amounted to the sum of RACTER of the TEA TREE. 1,016,4451. or at the average rate of I RESPECT botany; I love it : and 121. 3s. 6d. per head, what shall we say according to my leisure I study it. to the present system of management, as At the same tine that leisure is little far as it applies to the house's so wretch- and interrupted. And I am not a buedly conducted? It were certainly bet. tanist, but a botanophilist, a lover of ter to allow the inmates the same amount botany and of plants. It may be said, of money, as out-poor, than expend it so why then propose to remove a plant improvidently on them in places miscalled into another genus ? Had I been a workhouses.
botanist, I miglit have made the remoral Of the Out-Poor. The number of ouls at my peril, it is true, if not justified lig poor, or those maintained out of work- the principles of the art: as a lover of houses, is, according to the abstract, botany, I merely proposed it to those classed as follows:
qualified to judge. Those on permanent relief
I shall not much urge that the di vince Adults, --... - 336,199
tion to which your correspondent adieris, From 5 to 14 years, 194,914
is not always very clear, conspicuous, and Under 5 years, - - 120,236-651,349 certain : nor that I do not ihink that it On occasional relief - .. 305,899 is very obviously apparent in the tea
tree; though I might say both. Total nuinber of out-poor - - 957,248 I shall not urge that the 12th and
Of these 166,829 are stated to be dis. 13th classes, which depend on ilus disabled from labour by old age, perma. tinction, the icosandra and the polynent illness, or other infirinity.
andra, are of such near kindretl, that This bouv of out.paupers cost for their botanists of no mean estimation were, I relief and maintenance 3,042,0411. per believe, not long since inclined to thrnw annum, on an average sl. 3s. 7 d. per downl the barrier, and unite them to head; a very large sum, considering that one class. But I shall say this, that I am