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proverb, and unintermitting benevolent. to the haggard attendants of Hecate. But it cannot be said of them without Amidst this superabundant groupe, inadulation, that they have that grace of deed, we descried a few young virgins manners, that elegance of personal ad. (whose twisted hair declared thein to dress, wbich in other nations of Europe have pretensions to that title); and their is supposed generally inseparable from slender and serpentine figures gave us rank and fortune."

some hint, that the female forın divine There is properly no middle class of peo. was not quite obliterated from their race.ple in the Russian empire. All are either It must certainly not be contended, publes, or slaves. The richest merchants that a people have reached very high in are frequently slaves, or slaves who have the rank of civilization, whilst they repurchased their freedom. The manners tain a practicescarcely paralleled amongst of this class have risen in the scale of the most savage islanders of the South civilization, in proportion to the ameli- Seas. Who would believe, unless upon oration of their condition. As many of the most indisputable authority, that in them as are rich and free, vie with the the very centre of Europe, there could nobles in hospitality, their tables are exist any part of a people, thus ipsenplentiful and luxurious to a fault, and sible to all uatural modesty the jeweis of their wives would purchase The other usage to which I allude, is a considerable estate. They ditter only of a nature which one would believe ima from the manners of the same class in possible to any being in the very infancy otber countries, from the peculiar cir- of civilization. Here again I shall intrus cninstances of their own. They have duce Mr. Porter to speak for himself, not the same access and intermixture “ While I ain upon this subject (the with the great ; trade, however exten. Manners of the Peasantry), I cannot sive, is siill held in contempt by the omit mentioning a strange custom which Hussian nobility; and in despite of all they have amongst them; one very rethe light of the nineteenth century, a pugnant to nature, and to British feelRussian merchant, though as wealthy as ings even shocking to think of-Fathers a prince, is never admitted to the table marry their sons to some blooming girl of a Russian noble.

in the village at a very early age, and The manners of the peasantry, in then send the young men either to Mosco which I include their domestic practice or St. Petersburgli to seek employment, and minor morals, appear by Mr. Ker leaving their brides a few days after their Porter's account to have undergone a marriage to the care of their parents. very considerable change ; but two such Acthe expiration of some years, when strong instances of their remaining bar- the son returns to his cottage, he finds barisin yet remaia, that I deem it ne himself the nominal father of severa! cessary to give thein in Mr. Porter's own children, the offspring of his own parent, words, and therefore on his own credit. who had deemed it his duty tlius to se na

Tie one respects the iudiscriminate ply the place of an husband to the young use of the bath, by males and females at wife. This is done all over Russia, and the same time.

is never considered a hardship by the " Picture to yourself nearly an hundred parties. Indeed, so far from it, the naked women flapping, splashing, and fashion continues; and when the son bésporting in the water, with all the grace comes a resident in his native village, if of a sboal of porpoises. No idea of he have a numerous stock thus raised to exposure ever crossed their minds; no him, he sends them packing, and then thought of shame ever flushed their enjoys bimself, like a Turk in his Secheeks; but foundering about, they en- raglio, among their wives.”—These two joyed themselves with as much indiffer instances of barbarism are sufficient to ence, as when standing in all their trim do away all the extravagant representaarray, staring at the gay groupes in the tions of the French writers, with respect Summer Garden. Even on the confines to the civilization of the lower orders in of their bath, the opeu river, nay in the Russia. What must, in fact, be the very midst of it, lusty boors were filling condition both of the inoral feeling, and their water-casks for the use of the city. of the faculty of judging, amongst a pee With the women bathed many men, all ple thus horribly depraved (for so it must mingled together. The bathers are of be termed), in the very first elentents of every size, shape, age, and description, natural instinct! It bas not indeed been Women of twenty years old possessed a well established by the travellers into bosom which a painter would have given Africa, that even the Hottentots, the MONTHLY Mag. No. 184.

most

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most stupid race of human beings, are that splendid and useful work, I shall guilty of this promiscuous intercourse. conclude with this extract: So much therefore for the progressive ci- A Colonel, 900 rubles per annum, vilization of the Russian peasantry. To equal to about 1001. English-Licureconfess the truth, they alone seem to uant-Colonel, 680; equal to about 85). have stood still. The court has become - Major, 500; equal to about 7.01.more refined, and even the country no- Captain, 415; equal to about 601 kility more on a level with the nobility of Lieutenant, 300; equal to about 331.other kingdoms. Why is it then that Private, 3; equal to about eight shillings the peasantry alone bave stood still? - and sixpence annually. The question is, unfortunately, answered by another point of Mr. Porter's intor. To the Edilor of the Mon!hly Magazine. mation--the Russian peasantry are still ' sir, slaves, and so will reniain in despite of As many useful receipts, &c. are The good intentious of the court. The Ei sovietimes found in your miscellany, nobles will not basuly surrender their I shall be glad it any of your correspouprivileges, and the main constituent of dents will be kind enough to give me intheir wealth.

forination on the following subject. POLITICAL ECONOMY.In a cursory I have found that spirits of curpentine view of this nature, it is scarcely possi. hot, will reinove grease spots from pitble to give a sufficicnt idca of a subject per, and bot spirits of wine will also reso various. In Political Economiy the more, in great measure, the stain left by Russian governmcot, for to the govern. the turpentine. But I have always to ment it exclusively belongs, bare made regret, that a circle round the edges, considerable advances since the reign of where the turpeiitine is applied, will Catherine. The rejection of the English remain. And if more turpentine be aptreaty of commerce, and which would plied, it still kecps dissolving the grease, have been equally rejected, whether and diffusing a larger circumference on there had been peace or war, is at once the paper, which I have never been able a consequence and a proof of this sube wholly to discharge. Now I should be ject of political economiy being under- glad to know, either of a composition stood. Previous to ile accession of the which would rernove grease spots, withEmperor Alexander, the Russians bad out being liable to the above defcct, or about as much commerce as the Chic of a composition which, (without stainnese. They contented theinsels es merely ing the paper) will, on being first applied, with selling to Brush inerchants and prevent the turpentine from spreading, agents, resident in the country for that so as to enlarge the spot upon the paper. purpose. All the wholesale trade in the Níurch, 1809.

Your's, &c. eunpirc nas in the hands of resident fo

G. B. roigners. The Russian government and people have at lengths opcred their eyes To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. to their own interest; and even when SIR, peace shall return, it will be in vain to IN answer to the query in yonr expect that the former commercial rela. T Magazine, respecting the supetions will be restored.

rior preparation of coffee, by the The public force of the kingdom, its Germans, I submit the following premaintenance, and its distribution, is it parations of that beverage as inore gemain branch of political economy. Ac- neral upon the Continent, and as differcording to the account of Mr. Porter, ing from the methods pursued by the and indeed according to all other ac- English. In the first place, almost all counts, the Russian army was never in families roast their own coffee, and only a better situation than at the present prepare enough for their immediate use, period. To a poor nation, that is to say, by which incans it retains a fullness of to a nation which having lew taxes has flavour, which is considerably diminished lule specie nt command, it is an object in kecping coffee roasted for any length of the first iinportance, that the pay of of time. 2dly. The milk used in cotlee is army should be as cheap as is possi- is always made boiling hot, and a greater ble. Such is the case with the Russian quantity inade use of than in England. army. The following, according to Mr. 3dly. It is continued boiling, as long Porter, is the present pay of the Ruse as any of the coffee remajus on the sian officers and soldiers-referrmy your surface. readers, for inore detailed information, to 4th. The coffee is finally fined by pot

ting in a small quantity of hartshorn high veneration for the character of \Vashshavings; and among the lower class of ington, wish much to have this evidence cutice-drinkers, instead of using harts- canvassed; for those who love and revere boro shavings, a lump of sugar is substin Washington, it is indeed “ by no means tuted, which being placed between the pleasant to kuow," that there was the ends of a pair of fire-tongs, made red slightest grounds for supposing biin a hui, le sugar is burnt and dropped, as it Jiar, a hypocrite, a swindler, an usurer, mello, into the coffee-pot. In many parts and an extortioner. It is therefore with of Germany and Holland, the cottee is peculiar anxiety that my friends and mye adulterated, by mixing therewith chicory self wish to be informed of the name of the root, which being cut in picces, and secretary, who found it , necessary to roasted, is ground and mixed with the publish his justification; as to the books coitee; this renders it of very high colour, of the treasury, I suppose they are open and strong llavour; but perhaps to some to the inspection of the American pubpalates, this may be very grateful, and lic, some of whom will surely have the ihought to be a preparation superior to curiosity to investigate, and if possible to the English. Yet foreigners in England clear up, bis inacter. prefer the real coffee.

Though in the extract the circumstance Nov. 4, 1808. Your's, &c. of lething out the sums at interest, is

trcaled as a calurnlıv; yet in the poem To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. to which it is annexed in the forni of it SIR,

note, this accusation is registered as fact; V OUR Magazine having a very ex- but this may be a poetic license.

1 tensive sale, and being generally Even tere already patriots learn to steal circulaied through America, you will Their private perquisites from pubiic weal; much oblige nie by giving inseriion to And guardians of the country's sacred fire, the enclosed extract, from a book of Like Afric's priests they let the flame for hire. Poems lately pullished by Mr. Thomas

Your's, &c. P. Moore, the greater part of wisich consists ul strictures on America.

For the Monthly Magazine. Ertraci.--"I must decline, savs THOUGHTS on the INFLUENCE of TRADE Wastungton, in bis inaugural address upon the FUNDS, und the modes of Taxto congress, as inapplicable to myself ATION. any share in the personal emoluments THE enquiry, to which I mean to de. which may be indispensably included in 1 vote the present observations, is of a permanent provision for the executive to complex and intricate a nature, to be departmeni. * Alter such a declaracion, treated io the fullest and most elaborate it is by no means pleasant to know, that extent, within the limits wbich I propose; Washington not only receive: bis salary, nor, am I prepared to go into those debut was in the babic of anticipating the tails, which are necessary to render such Tegular periods of payment, and liad con- an enquiry complete stantly, during a space of five years. The idea is entirely suggested by the several thousand dollars of the public fact, that although the present period is juoney in his hands; he was accused of assuredly one in which trade is very slack, letting out those sums at interest, but the funds have in consequence experienthis we may consider as a calenty of ced no decline. I know it will be said, the party opposed to bim; the fact how that the operation of the sinking-fund is ever of bis overdrawing the salary, ap- the leading cause: that it is an additional pears by an extract from the books of the cause, cannot be doubced, but it appears Lieasury, subjonued to a justification to me to be very far from the sole or which the secretary found it necessary to chiet cause. publish at the time; and this exposure Adam Smith lays it down az an axiom, was one of the many huiniliations which which there is lille reason to dispute, that preceded the retirement of Washington as inuch will be given for money, as can be from the presidency."

made of it: and we know that the funds I am certain no man of common ho- rose, nearly to par, during the long peace, nour or principle, touch less Mr. Thomas followiny 1783, when there was no suuko Voore, would iusert such a charge upon iny-fund. During that peace, it seins, the memory and characıer of General that, governnient being in want of lio Washington, unless he believed it true; loans, and the money of the country and as this beliet must be founded upon encreasing very much, and commerce de some evidence, I, in common with ing carried to its utinost possible extent others, who have hitherto entertained a (as was evident, by the famous exchequer

loans

loans, to prevent bankruptcies, which an additional tax laid by the vendor,or they followed the commencement of the war) narrow the consumption, and depress the money became cheap, and there being no industry of the people. Taxes upon land are demand for it in loans, or very profitable taxes upon provisions, which again operate disposition of it in trade, the interest to the injury of trade, by auginenting the sunk of course, which it bona fide did, price of labour. Taxes upon stamps hare when the three per cents rose to 93. been reprobated by the ingenious Mr. Ben

The usual profit of trade is estimated at tham as taxes upon justice, which is true: ten per cent. which is small, if compared but as the expence occurs but occasionally, with the risque: in some branches it is the operation is rather against petty, than more; and taking it, as a rule, that as important, litigation. In the opinion of much will be given for money, as can be the writer of this essay, a direct tax upon made of it; it follows, that, when trade is income, as upon profits, is attended with bad, the funds and the land will be re- the smallest ill consequences, because no sorted to, as better and safer modes of in- further tax is levied upon the consumer; vesting capital; and the funds thus be but the case is quite otherwise, when fixed kept up. Besides, the bankers, who are upon articles of commerce or provisions. the chief agents in these matters, having There the tax falls upon the consuiner;. no comparative field for profitable specie and as a great part of these consumers lations, will make larger investments in are the pour, the price of labour, and the government securities.

poor-rates, both rise also together. Thus it appears toine, that trade, when It requires a large annual currency of prosperous, is likely to diminish the va. specie, to pay 40 millions, than 10 per anlue of funderl property, as paying better num, and this produces a great deception interest: and as to agriculture, it is in the estimates of national means. No known that it presents no adequate means increase of revenue can persuade any of employing a capital; and, vice versá, man in his senses, that at the present pewhen trade is bad, or the profit cheap- rion England is in a more thriving pecu-, ened, through excessive competition, the niary condition, than she was a twelve funds gain.

month ago; or because a inan has more It is a matter of great importance, and to pay, that he is so much the richer in some curiosity, though, so far as I know, profis. Norisit considered tbat half the it has never been done, to know what incomes, which support expensive living, have been the annual sums for a series are paid by persons occupied in couof successive years vested in the funds, merce, and are levied upon articles of and which the purchaser continued to commerce; and that those who cry out hold at the end of the twelve-months. against trade, would without it have to This datum being obtained, and an estic make up the deficiences, by a much heamate of capital employed in trade, taken vier expence upon themselves. If they from the returns of the Imports, Exports, live in cqual luxury, the tax is levied upon Excise, and Property-Tax, being also ta- themselves as cousuiners : and if they do ken, some important conclusions might, not, government tuust look to them for in my opinion, be formed, which would the deficiency. point out to government some very es. It is the opinion of the writer of this sential truths, in the modes and capabili- essay, and it is an opinion perhaps as ties of assessments, so as to show where vain as it may appcar presumptuous, and how they can be best raised, and with that should any serious evils ensue, from the least injury.

detects, &c. of commerce, no service can Napoleon knows, that employment in bo rendered more essential, than a recommerce prevents the facility of recruit- lease of the landed and commercial intering, and the probibition distresses his ene- ests from the present form and modes of my: but, the final tendency of all such taxation; that is, a commutation to a promeasures, is to render the nations much perty tax : and a resolution to avoid in fupoorer, than they would otherwise be. ture every species of assessment, which Trade is favourable to liberty, law, police, had a direct bearing upon provisions or and many blessings; and its evils are cero marketable commodities of any kind, tainly less than those which arise from a where there was no danger of being un. feudal system and idleness, and a military dersold from abroad. This, however, is banditci.

a huge project : and may deserve a smile, Taxes upon the direct articles of trade, though the present rhodes both are and are laid in the very worst manner, because continue to be highly injurious. ibey either fall upon the consumers, with

Your's, &c. X, Y, Z.

OBSERVATIONS

For the Monthly Magazine sum of 5,348,2051. and that 4,077,8911. OBSERVATIONS on the POOR LAWS, and on of the money, so collected, was vx

the most effectual means of providing pended in the maintenance and relief of for the POOR.

the parish poor; a sum more than comO many endeavours have been made perent, one would suppose, to satisfy

by eminent men to amend and im- every demand which their real necessiprove the Poor La•vs, with a view to the ties could require, or the punic be exbetter regulation, and less expensive pected to fultil, and yet it does not apmaintenance, of the paupers of this king. pear to have atforded correspondent be dom, that the public are pretty gene nefits, cither then, or since, to the conrally discouraged, by past disappoint- tributors or partakers; these remaining ments, trom-altending to parnphlets es dispusted with the restraint, and those pecially treating about the Poor. Under wich the irregularity with which the this impression I have preferred the chan. whole system is conducted. The innel of your widely circolated Magazine, crease of this parochial tax had been grafor subinitting my opinion on this sul- dual till of late years, but latterly it has ject to public consideration. It is but a advanced with rapid strides, having in. few years ago, that a late eminent States. creased, within the last twenty years, man failed in his project on this part of 3-5ths; and within twenty-seven years national policy; and another eminent 2-3ds. 'Is this sudden auginentation of Senator has in the last year no less dis- the clalins of the poor, with the mass of appointed the public expectation. The wretchedness in its train, any substantact seems to have been, that these gen- tial proof of the prosperity of the kingciemen took a wider range of investiga- dom, when so much of the rental of the tion, and were desirons of embraciug re- land is required to sustain those persons medies which appeared to people, who who cannot, or will not, in so industrious had thought less on the subject, as too a nation earn a subsistence for themcomplicated for successful execution.-. selves and tainilies? The true criterion But it is not only of late, that men of of a nation's prosperity is not to be great talents have worked in this vinc- taken from the glare which surrounds yard, without producing fruit worthy of the great and the wealthy, from the dise their labours. Numerous others, in past sipation of those a little below them, nor as well as in modern times, have medic from the 100 common ostentation and extated anxiously on the state of the Poor, travagance of the middling people ; but and in their writings reprobated the mis- from that infallible index, the manifest conduct of our parochial management; comfort amongst the coinmunity at large, the laws, notwithstanding, bave still every where to be seen, felt, and under continued to be inefficient; the manage- stood, national prosperity being truly ment of the poor more difficult and coin: an aggregate of individual happiness, plicated; and the charge of their main- each class liaving wherewithal to obtain, tenance progressively and more grievous- enjoy, and cominunicale the things suited ly expensive. Since matters are thus to its station, and the poor, in particular, circumstanced, it is no wonder, that the able to procure all ibe necessaries of whole people should be united in opinion, lite, with a little more for exigencies, by honerer differences may continue to ex- the current wayes of their labour. But ist on particular points, that the poor. this cannot be the case, whilst a poor laws, as they now operate, are at variance Dian's pair of shoes absorbs his whole with the welfare of the coinmunity. week's wages; whilst wholesome meat

The Legislature too appears to have and beer, and, in short, whilst all tlie participated in this public sentiment, and articles of food and raiment, are at their an act was passed in the 43d year of his present irigh prices. It is most certain, present Majesty, for procuring returns that to these ligh prices of all the nefrom all the parishes of England and cessaries of lifc, most of them doubled Wales, relative to the expence and within 30 years, is chiefly owing the

ninintenance of their poor respectively, rapid increase of the poor's rate, not for the purpose of forming from them only as having multiplied and enlarged the the best judgment; and an abstract of direct claims on this fund, but also as these returns was printed, by order of having reduced, from extended poverty, the House of Cominons, July 10, 1804. the nuinber of contributors towards it. By this public document it appears, that The wages of husbandry work are withche poor's rate, for the year ending at out doubt, in general, below their just Easter, 1803, amounted to the enormous standard according to the times; and in so

far

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