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the several rates of common time, and the policy of the French ruler to endea. the terms adagio, largo, allegro, presto, vour to persuade all Europe, by these &c. are also of very little avail, in ascer- means, that his troops are invincible, not taining, with precision, the point the only when they meet an equal number of musician wishes to discover. Every their enemies, but even when they have composer of musical airs would be of real to contend with double or treble their service to the practitioner, if he would own forces. This was their boast against point out the absolute rate, at which his the Russians. But later and more aumusic is to be performed; this would be theptic accounts have proved, that they no difficult task; as he would only have overwhelmed the troops of Alexander, by to mention the length of a pendulum, bringing into the field a more numerous which would make one complete vibra- army. The French ruler has pursued the tion in the time, that part of a bar called same plan in his official accounts of his a beat was performing. Thus, for in- unjust invasion of Spain, stating the Spastance, suppose I set a tune in triple nish forces to be three times the number time, and wish to have each bar per- of his own, though from SirJ. Moore's letformed in a second and a half, the cha- ters to government, lately laid before the racter I must make use of is, is; for house of Commons, in which he could from this it might be concluded, that have no temptation to misrepresent facts, there were three beats in a bar, and each it appears that the Spanish army was inof these beats must be performed in the ferior to the French in numbers, and time a pendulum, teu inches long, made even a great part of it, armed pea. one vibration.

sants. In such circumstances it is not u To explain this method clearly, much wonderful that the French should be vicmore room is requisite; but this would torious. To the French accounts of the not be a proper place for it: however, defeat and losses of the British army in those who understand what improvement their retreat to Corunna, we may oppose is intended, from this short account, the dispatches of our commanding offwill, I hope, excuse me for exhorting cers, supposing the latter to be more prothem to use their best endeavours to bable, when there are such numbers in the make it general."

army who could contradict them, if they Allow me just to add, that the method were false, without exposing themselves of adjusting the tune" in military bands to any such danger, as the French soldiers by pendularns, so as to make the music would, in such a case; for who in the correspond with the different rates of French army dare affirm that any, or any marching, has been practised some part of the bulletins are false? They have years; a circumstance which renders it reason to think it would be death to them, the more remarkable, independent of It is not unlikely, however, that the bulthe suggestions of Dr. Gregory, Dr. letins receive considerable credit through Crotch, and others, that a mode of such Europe, in almost every particular; and easy and universal application, should therefore, if they can in any instance be not long ago have been adapted by all disproved, it will so far weaken their permusical composers and performers, nicious effect. Some particulars in the Your's, &c.

French accounts of the retreat of our arApril 8, 1809.


my, appear contradictory; one account,

for instance, says that the British army To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

was reduced to 18,000 men, and an ac

count of a latter date observes, that SIR,

scarcely 24,000 men will get safe to their T BEG leave to offer a few remarks native shores. In these accounts also it 1 upon some of the late French bulle is said, that, in the retreat, two English tins, if it will suit you to insert them in generals were killed and three wounded ; your widely extended publication. It is could this be concealed, if it were so, not till of late that the French bulletins merely by the omission of their names in have come into contact with our gazettes; the returns of killed and wounded. They and if any dependence can be placed upon further assert, that two English generals the authenticity of the latter, the former were found among the dead upon the field must be full of the grossest falsehoods. of battle,one of them a General Hamilton; The French official accounts have long this must be false. They further assert, been thought full of exaggeration of the that the 498,50th, 52d, regiments of foot, losses and disasters of their enemies, in our army, were entirely destroyed. AR while their own have been either con- terwards, however, they admit that a few cealed or greatly diminished, It has been of them reached the ships; bur say that it

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did not amount to sixty meniu cach regi These thoughts have been suggested Dient. I have thought that the nuin- by the course of any late reading. Being ber of the inen belonging to these re- desirous of forming a comparative estigiments, who have returned, might be mate of the progress of different nations nearly ascertained by any inhabitant of within the last twenty years, I have natuthe place where each of these regi- rally been led to consult the recent tra. ments is quartered, and by inserting vels and tours, into those several counit in any of the public papers, make tries. By the comparison of the accuunts the truth appear, and, I hope, disprove of each, by searching the one iu supply the stalenient of the French in these para what is omitted in the other, I think I ticulars. In a paper of yesterday, it was have been enabled to form a tolerable es. mentioned, that a ballalion of ihe 52d timnte of the present state and condition regiment was embarking for Portugal, of the principal kingdomsin Europe. Thie It so; it does not appear as if they were French writers, who have a name and sysvery much reduced.

tem for every thing, denominated these The Moniteur, in its comments on our species of outline, Tablenu.r. I will not, gazettes, contradicts General Ilope, by however, say, that in two or three pages I asserting wat he did not take one French shall exhibit a picture of the progress prisoner in the battle of Corunna: the of the Russian empire, for the last falsehood of which is capable of proot, twenty years, because the word will exI presume, by our soldiers. In short, ceed the ihing; but by a cullation and I wonder that the accounts of the num- comparison, I have dianu an online, bers of the army returned from Spain which may be usctul to others, as, in sonie lias not been produced, although moved points of reference, it has been to me. for in parliament, and promised by the That I may congue niyself wiibin ministry at least two months since. Gen- some certain limits, I shall follow the meeral Stewart declared that our whole lossbod introduced in the French Tableau. in Spain did not amount to 5000 men, But to relieve the dryness of mere stateand ibe French assert our loss to be ment, I shall not be so much a French14,000; surely it would be wise in our man, to be so perfectly enslaved by my mmistry to disprove their latter state. method, as to pursue it, at whatever cost ment, it it be in their power. I sincerely of disgust and weariness to the readers. hope it is.

Your's, &c. Where the method assists me, I shall keep dpril 8, 1809

E, N. to it. Where it would destroy all vari

ely without proinoting perspicuity, I For the Monthly Magazine. shall conceive myself at liberty to depart PROGRESS of the RUSSIAN EMPIRE, during from it.

The RESONS of the EMPERORS PAUL and ARTS-It is well known that the emALEXANDER, in ARTS, MANNERS, and press Catherine was the protectress of POLITICAL ECONOMY.

all the arts properly so called. If Peter NIIE public curiosity is not so capric the Great introduced into Russia what

I cious asitis visually represented. It ever was necessary to the substance usually follow's in the direct line of public of an empire; Catherine superadded uulity, and of the proportion of that uti- whatever was wanting to its ornament. lity. Whatever is generally useful, what. The Emperor Peter drew a bold outline, ever adds to our stock of practical know- a masterly sketch; and then, passing as it ledge, will always be interesting, and will were bis canvas and his pencil to the Emalways interest us, in the exact propor- press Catherine, she filled it up, she adtion in which it is, or, may be useful. ded all the colour, the shade, and the dra

Hence, indeed, originates the superior pery. pleasure which has always been assigned The Empress Catherine, howerer, to history, Historia, says Quinctilian, stood in the same relation to the fine quoquo modo scripta delectut.” But if his arts, as the Tzar Perer to the arts of ne. torý can thus delight ns, by the represen- cessity and common use. She was the tation of manners and events long passed, founder of them, she found noching, and and therefore seen through the fog of left much: but, like all founders, she still ume, how much greater must be our left much to do. Even her long reign pleasure in the perusal of cotemporary was not sufficient totally to erase and exevents, is having those scenes and inan. tinguish all the relics of barbarian taste, nens presented, as it were to our eyes, or rather of barbarian want of taste. The which are only severed from us by thic pajniers and poets had still someilung or agre circumstance of locality.

their ancient Larbarism. The nobility,


ignorant of rule, and not instructed by the and through what interval they have comparison of inodels, judged only by passed. their eye or ear; and lie was the best This information is only to be found in painter or the best poet, who could ai- the accounts of recent travellers. There tract ile one or the other. The most are two of those who at present occupy florid paintings, and poculis of the most the public aitention : Sir John Cars, in INVBstrous images, were still in fashion in his Northernour; and Mr. Ker Porter, . the lost days of Catherine, ard the walls in bus splendid work, the Travelling of her favorite palaces wrie indiscrimis Sketches. The Northern Tour of Sir John Dately cowered with the chef-d'altres nof Carr contains much valuable matter, and the great masters, anci with dauts which personal observation; and I read it with would scarcely be ad:nitted on an English much aridity. The Travelling Sketclics sign-post, Music was precisely in the of Mr. Porier, are indiuitcly beyond my Sinc sire. The Russian innsic is cha- praise; perhaps in hook can be produced racterized by a simplicity which digene- which, without the dryness of professed rates into anotty, and by a gaiety, statistical research, contains a more fuil which,wanting disujaculess and variety, is view and surrcy of the present state of more tiequently noisy than musical. ine manners, arts, and political economy of Linpress Cail:erme endeavoured to in the Russian empire. His pencil, 100prove it, by infusing the Italian mclody. over, comes in to the aid of his pen, and The Einpress, lowevever, here come by their united results, not only the subs pielely failed; and tough there were few stance, but even the form of Rusilings but what she could coinpass, at sian lite and inanvers, is before the least in some degrcc, she left the Russian eyes of the reader. Mr. Porter has matie music wirere she found it. The ears of the public a gift, which I hope will not the Russians would neither understand nor be the last tolerate the science of the Italian opera? “ The Emperor Paul," says Mr. Ker An Italian singer was received by the au- Porter, “ with the best intentions in the dience with much the same temper, as world, but certainly with a strange way shey would have received the pope; the of pursuing thein, was an avowed prodirect countenance and even the presence tector of the arts, and particularly of of the court, was scarcely suficient to painting and sculpture. As an example protect him from insult.

for all painters, he issued an ucase, by There is another minor art, if so that which it was ordered that all bridges, may be called, which is certainly av ob- watch-houses, and imperial gates through ject of rule, in which the Russians had out the empire, should be painted in the Jittle excellence, previous to the present gayest possible manner. Every thing reign. The Russians, though generally was accordingly arrayed in red, and this an active race, and particularly the wo- colour in consequence become so much men, liad noi thac vatural distinction in fashion, as totally to destroy, and as it which is said to have characterized the where overwhelm all genius, No pic. ancient Greeks, and which in no inconsi- ture would be looked at, in which all the derable degree bas descended to their figures were not arrayed in this coposterity. They were uot naturally done lour," &c. cers; their dancing was nothing but the As the book of wliicb I am speakirregular gaiety of a people of happy ing, is of very recent publication, I am disposition. It consisted in nothing but afraid of being thought to do injustice to a wild agility, a rapidity of motion, with the able author, by availing myself too Do altention whatever to elegance or har- liberally of his information. But whomony. It was little to a Russian, when ever wishes to obtain a perfect idea of ther he moved his arms or legs, if by such the present state of the fine arts in Ruse motion he could keep a kind of gencral sia, will do well to consult the sixth Icttime with a tune of about six notes. The ter of Mr. Porter, in which he gives an savages of New Zealand dance on their account of the present state of the Rushams, and the ancient Russian seemed sian Institution for the Encourngement to perform, as if he followed the palsy for of Arts. For the sake of completing this his model.

part of my subject, I must be permitted Such was the condition of the arts of to avail myself of one extract further :painting, sculpture, musir, and dancing, at the decease of the Empress Catherine.

- hanc veniamperimusquedamusque vicissim, Let us see a bal is their present state,

This liberty we must give and takc.

“ What I can pronounce with any cere understood, as well as statuary. The Ininty, as to the present state or the fine perverse litste of the Emperor Paul, in arts is, that sculpture and architecture dced, finished a magnificent church in have been much advanced. They ap- brick, which his mother hand begin, and pear to me in a very promising state, almost completed in inarble; buiftlie taste The little I have seen of paiuting, gives of the inonarch is so ljulle in conformity me a titally opposite impression. I with that of the na 1011, that there is å have several times passed through the general wish that this part of tlie church aparuients of the Academy where the may be rebuilt. It is ino inconsiderable young men work, and, as an artist, have argument, that a nation will shortly be minuiely exainined their performances, distinguisticd for eminence in an art, but in none of them could I discern the when it already shews itself to be posgerms of the future painter. I sought to sessed of the primary principle of taste. explain this to myself, and found one verý The music of a nation may be discrie ethicient caose in the bad examples which buted into thiee classes; the popular muare ever before the eves, and which they sic, the church-music, and the scientific copy as the standards of perfcciion. The music of the theatre or opera. It has walls, instcad of being enriched with a been already said, that even to the end few excellent paintings, are disgraced of the reign of Catherine, there was nous witli myriads of vile daubings. Whomare science in the Russian music; that the we to blaule for this? Certainly not the opera was not tolerated, and that the imperial foundress or her successors. popular music was uniform, and merely The invaluable saloons of thellerinitayc, Hof unmasical. are ever open to the students of the Aca. The present state of Russion inusic, deiny. There they may stray from according to Nr. Porter's account, is vagy morning till night, inbibing from the much improved. The popular music of sublime works of Michael Angelo, and crory country, that which characterizes Raphael, the very fountain of taste and their wicient songs and burthens, seldom, improvement. These they neglect, or viviez in any considerable degree; it rather I should say, that the professors passes tium tither tu son, and is dear to never introduce them to a glimpse of the old, as liaving been renemaliered by such great originals. Why, I cannot them when young. But when a people, pretend to tell you; but so it is, and thus, in the progress of their civilization, coinc for want of the same plan, which pre- to hear music of a better tasie', when Vivis in the schools of sculpture and ar. their cars become gradually forined by cbitecture, the wilole of thie expence the melodies of the theatre, and tlie lavished on that of painting is lit:ie bere science of the opera, cred the popular ter than absolutely wasteci. When ma- nusic suffers sone change; if the oid nifest want of genius and bad instruc- tune is preserved, it is set as it were with Lions are united, nothing but disappoint- nes graces. It has thus happened ina ment can be the result. Able tcaching the Russian popular music. It has be. and industry thay gire respectable prise Cote inproveri, ihonyn it still retains ficiency to the indistinoucraic capacities; soinething of its ancient character. and it is well known that bad examples will The ctuicli-music always tollons the corrupt and destroy the finest talents." progress of the arts. Iultusia, there

Mr. Porter the proceeds to give his fore, the prescricchurch inusic is solemn, judyment upon the prudlictions of 5!2withont niululouy, and grant without teary and architechre, oi to preitit continua. Russian artists. lie prys very high . Tie tiilile of the theatres bas cqually compiments io Mr. Nilaize, onceit', imprurerteind the Russian dramatic of the Peicr:huryl aca fety. This felie bonds muy burst of singers, who are tierran has producci, by Ir. Porier's needing bir kimi those of London and account, some animirable pieces of sculp- Paris. Mr. Porter confirms these oue ture. One of his works is : colossal serrations in every page. The reader, statue of John the Baptist, Mr. Kerhosserer, may prefer bearing him speak Parter gises a descrip:ion of this, which for himself. We shail again therefore is very lavourable to the present state of aril nurscives of liis authority. sculpture in Russia.

“ 'The wind blow pc:fectly frip; and The churches and princes of Perctzthie peuple having fue tod, we wille burgh, such as have been finished by the thirin soncthang to cor decir spirits. present race of architects, are equally Onr present had the desirci crct; out proots that architecture begins to be they entertained both themselves til os,



through the remainder of their voyage, Manners.—The Russian manncrs have by singing, with much simplicity and undergone a considerable change since ease, several of their national airs. The the reign of Catherine. That Empress, strains are wild, and possess many plea. by her encouragement of foreigrers, and sing and melancholy passages, yet the particularly of Frenchmen, at her court, whole bore a strong tone of melancholy had introduced a politeness and refineand abruptness. Such indeed is the ment, which had totally eradicated all general character of these northern traces of the ancient Russian barbarity. songs. I think that the monotony which Peter the Great attempted in vain to dwells so long upon the ear, with one or change some part of the national habils two plaintive notes, is the cause of their of his subjects, but Catherine succeeded, deep melancholy impression. I have The point of distinction was, that Peter remarked this effect in old Scottish laattempted it by edict; Catherine, by the meuts, and also in the wild dirges of the gradual influence of example. The one Irish peasantry.

wished to compel, the other seduced. With respect to the church- Catherine, therefore, left her court and music, “there is something peculiarly nation perfectly European; she forined impressive in the whole of the church then to pleasure, and through pleasure service. In the boors we see a to refinement. simple and devout ardour; they pray In any enquiry into the manners of the and cross themselves, avith an earnestness people, the subject naturally distributes which is peculiarly gratifying. It is im- itself into four points; the manners of the possible in seeing them, not to conceive court, of the nobility, of the middle class, the most favourable sentiments of them; and of the peasantry. for however ignorant they may be in The present ruiners of the court of other respects, when once they know the Russia, are perfectly those of every other nature of the Almighty Being, and are court in Europe: whatever remained of sensible of standing in his omniscient the ancient barbarism, has worn away; presence, a salutary awe fills their mind, and under the present emperor, the and integrity is the natural growth, as court of Petersburgh is at once magnifithe corn is from the ground in which the cent and refined. The accounts of Mr. seed is sown. The church-inusic is fine, Porter upon this head, must give every has much simplicity, and is all vocal. one a very high idea of the progressive Those who chant are not seen, which civilization of Russian manners; so late gives a more charming effect to their as the last years of the Empress Cathevoices. The most celebrated church in rine, the most avowed profligacy, the most Petersburgh, for fine singing, is the Mal. gross and open licentiousness disgraced tese chapel, and there it is of the most a couit professing itself Christian; and the exquisite melody."

Empress herself, notwithstanding her Mr. Porter likewise gives a similar French manners, was frequently in out. description of the music of the opera and rageous opposition against all the forms theatres; but it might be deeined un- of civilized life and refined manners. pardonable to give such length of ex. Potemkin and he Orlovs, in the midst tract. It will perhaps be thought that of their magnificence, had a brutality I have already availed myself too libe- and a barbarism, which seemed only rally of this gentleman's confirmatory suitable to a nation just fresh from the observations. But it must be remem- woods. All this has now passed away, bered, that we live in days when au- and Petersburgh lias become what Paris thority goes farther than reasoning. was before the revolution,

The Russians of the present day. The manners of the nobility who are equally excel in the dance. According not constantly appended to the court, to Mr. Porter, they fall not a whit behind have still soinething of their original chathe French, except that they have more racter. “The nobles," says Nr. Porter, personal modesty. This latter quality, “deem no profession honourable, but indeed, as far as it respects any delicacy arms. The study of the arts and sciof personal display, is confined to the ences is left to slaves, or at best to slaves higher ranks; for a Russian woman of the made free. The Russian nobility," howlower order, according to Mr. Ker Por- ever, continues Mr P. “are characterized toy, has no idea that there is any part of by a noble frankness, which reminds one her person, which it is required to keep of the ancient barons of Europe. They from the age of lier lover, or even of want nothing of the more substantial strangers

social qualities; they we hospitable to a


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