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Louses should be licenced at the,general, quarter-sessions of tlie peace tor the »u«uity within which they arc 10 lie kept.
In 167 J, King Charles issued a proclamation t.i shut up the coffee-houses, but in a few days suspended that pruclamnuon by a second. They were charged with being seminaries ol sedition.
The first Earopcau author who lias made any mention of coffee, is Jlnuwoll'u*,whow&> in the Levant in 15? J; but (lie tt/tl who has particularly described it, i* Prosper Alpinus, in Ins History of tiic Egyptian Plums, published a; Venice in 1591, whose description v.c have iu Parkinson's History of Plants, p. 102?; chap. 79, as follows: Aiboi- lion tuju frmctu Mo tnaia, the Turks berry drink. Alpinus in his first book of i^gypliau Phials, gives us the description ol' this toe, which be says he saw in the garden ui i captaiu of the Janissaries, which »» brought out of Arabia-Felix, mid theic planted as a rarity never seen growing in those places before. The tree, sititli Alpinus is somewhat like Enonymus, or> Spindle-tree, but the leaves of it were thicker,harder, and greener, and n!»uy* abiding on (he tree. The fruit \$ called Buna, .mil is somewhat bigger than an h»zel nut, and longer, round also and pxiuted at one end; furrowed likens, on both sides, yet, on one side, more conspicuous than the other, that, it might be parted into two: incachside »hereof lietbasinull ohloug white kernel, Hit on the side they join together, covernl with a yellowish skin of au acid tuste Hh! somewhat bitter., and contained in a tliin shell,* of adnrkish ash colour. With these berries in Arabia and Egypt, and other parts of the Turkish doiniiiions, they generally, make a decoction or drink, which is nuhe stead of wine to them, unit amrrnirrdy sold in their taphoasejor taeerns, called by the name of t»m; Patodarnua toys chouva, and J iu u• alt'cs fiauke. This.euiuk has many good physical properties.; it Strengthens a«e«k stomach, helping digestion,; and ours and obstructions of the liver ^eJryJk.Awting for some .<J*J*f*M •» great estiWi<j.arM«, tb*JtejpMa« mid Arabian «tocn in csmMAetiniidne cases, in .bcb xfcej *i>4^u#*M»*m eminent
<K-Htf,. 1084 > hjhfWa'Miat the,
Turks have a drink called coffee, mad* with boding water, of.u berry reduced into ponder, which makes the water us black as soot, and is of a pungent and aromatic smell, and is drunk warm.
The celebrated John Kay, in his History, of Plant*, published in 16y0,spcakiog of it as a drink very much iu use, says, that this tree grows only nil bin the tropics, and supposes that ths Arabs destroy the vegetable quality of the seeds, in order to confine among themselves the great share ol wealth, which is brought thither from the whole world for this commodity; from whence lie observes, Unit ibis part of Arabia might ba truly styled the most happy, and that it was almost incredible how many millions of. bushels were exported from thence into Turkey, Barbary, and Europe. He says, he was astonished that one particular nation should possess so great a treasure, and that within the narrow limits of one province; nud that he wondered the neighbouring nations did not contrive to. bring an ay some of the sound seeds or living plants, iu order to share in tiie advantages of so lucrative a trade.
W'e now come to shew by what means tins valuable tree was first introduced into Europe, and thence iuto, America.
Tie first account of this tree being. brought into Europe, we have from Boer-. haave, iu bis Index to the Leydeu Garden, pari i, p. 217, which is as follows:, "Nicholas Witsen, Burgomaster of Am-, sterdam, and go\ei;nqr_of the East India Company, by bis loiters often 'advised and desired Van HViorn, governor of Butatia, to urocure from Mocha in Arnjbia-Felix some berries of the coffee-tree: to be sown at Butavia, which he having accordingly done, and by that means about the year 1690, raided many plants from seeds, he sent one over to Governor. Witsen, who immediately presented it to the garden at Amsterdam, of which he was the founder and supporter,; it there bore fruit, which in a short time produced many young plants from the seeds. Boerhantc then concludes that the merit of introducing this rare tree into Europe, is clue to the caie and liberality of Witsen alone. ^„. ^.-^ ,—^JL^i. In the year 1714, the magistrates of Amsterdam in order to pay a particular compliment to Louis XIV- king of franc* presented to him an elegant plant of this rare tree, carefully packed up to g l water, and deieiided from tie weather 1 a curiuus luuduue, covered "jiti'
The plant was about five feet Iiigh, and an inch in diameter in tiie stem, and was in full foliage, with both green and ripe fruit. It was viewed in the river with great attention and curiosity, by several members of the academy of sciences, and was afterwards conducted to the royal garden at Marly under the care of Monsieur tie Jussieu, the king's professor of botany, who had the year before written a memoir, printed in the History of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, in (lie year 1713, describing the characters of this genus, together with an elegant figure of it, taken from a smaller plant, which he had received that year from Monsieur Pancrass, burgc-maslcr of Amsterdam, and director of the botanical garden there.
Iu 1718, the Dutch colony at Surinam began first to plant coffee, and in 1722, Monsieur de la Motte Aigrou, governor of Cayenne, having business at Surinam, contrived by an artifice, to bring away a plant from thence, which in the year 1725, had produced many thousands.
In 1727 the French, perceiving that this acquisition might be of great advantage hi their other colonies, conveyed to Mar. tinico some of the plants; from whence it most probably spread to the neighbouring islands, for in the year 1732, it was cultivated in Jamaica, and an act passed to encourage its growth in that island — Thus was laid the foundation of a most extensive and beneficial trade to the l-'.urupeau settlements in the West Indies,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
IT may interest some of your readers to be informed that the ten-tree is now in blossom here, in our parlour, and has been ever since the I8th (inclusive) of this month, notwithstanding the extreme severity of the weather, antl that (he thermometer within doors at halfpast nine this morning, in a southern aspect, was at 28. Another bud has even opened since the frost.
Petals 6, (one smaller and shorter than the rest);concave,obtusely heart-shaped. Stamens very numerous ("probably above 200), with golden summits. The whole appearance of the flower like the single broad-leaved myrtle; but longer, and more brilliant, from the multiplicity of the stnmeos, texture ot the petals, stronger colour, not quite so white. Calyx: stellate, quinquetid, nbout one-fourth the length of the petals.
The scent of the flower dtlicate and
evanescent; resembling that of fine green tea dried.
There seems little doubt that this charming plant would bear a warm and sheltered exposure in the south-west of our island, like the broad-leaved myrtle. Its affinity to the myrtle is indeed very striking: so much, that many s'pecies having been lately transferred from the genus Mi/itnt to other genera, so that it is now very thin. I doubt whether this might not be annexed to it tinder the denomination of Mj/rtus T/iea, changing its' elegant generic name, which it ought not wholly to lose, into its specific. Pond as I am of plants, I have never till now seen it in bloom.
It is long in coming into blossom. The buds appeared early iu September. The season of its flowering renders it peculiarly valuable. And had the weather been mild, I have no doubt that in some few days it would have been covered with bloom.
The flowers proceed from nenr the extremities of the branches, on solitary footstalks, some opposite, otliers alternate. My plant is near three feet high, and came from Mr. Mackie, nurseryman, Norwich, the year before this. In close moist weather it requires air, and some heat, to absorb the damp: otherwise its blossoms fall without opening. This I experienced last year. »
I cannot imagine that its beauty in a good greenhouse would be at all inferior even to the myrtle itself. It seems to form the intermediate link in the botanical chasm between the myrtle and the orange.
It is curious, that plants of so extensive use as the coffee and ten trees (the coffee perhaps one of the greatest blessings, among those that nre not really necessaries of life, that Providence has indulged to mankind, considering its beneficial qualities in use as well as its agreeable) should be among the most elegant of plants in foliage and blossom; and the coffee in fruit also. It is impossible not to rejoice that the present cheapness of coffee, though it is to he feared a short-lived cheapness, has made it, to a considerable degree, the beverage of the poor. It is strengthening, where tea is not; it is even nutritive, while ten certainly is not. Tea, however, itself, should not be without much commendation. Moderately taken, and not too hot, it may be regarded as not only innocent, but vnlutnry. It is favourable to temperance and to tranquillity of
mind. ■rind. And perhaps, of all our daily repasts, it constitutes the most generally and uuexceptionably agreeable, from which even reading is not excluded, and •here conversation can be most itself.
I find, by Professor Martyn's valuable edttion of Miller, that Liunceus received Uie true tea-tree from Earl Gustavus Kleberg, October 3, 1763, the captain of a Swedish F.ast-Indiaman, who raised it from seed during the voyage. Into inland it was imroduced by Mr. Kllis, about 1768. It ivas first treated as a -love-plant: and its first flowering in this country was m the stove of the Duke of Northumberland. Perhaps even the coffee-tree may in time be brought »o endure the green-house, instead of be:nj confined to the stove. Tmtoit-halL, near Bury. Your's, &c.
Dec. 21, 1808. Capel Lofft.
P. S. An oil thermometer, which serves
M a kind of register of great degrees of cold,
or * rtow'.j recovering its temperature, is now
oily at I7j, in the same aspect and upon the
For the Monthly Magazine.
ANALYSIS OF CCIIIOUS BOOKS.
rT^IM E has veiled so large a portion of J. former learning from our view, that tlie recovery of its "more valuable fragments may be deemed a work of almost eaual imp<irtaiicc with the prosecution of new inquiries.
Iu this view the attention of the Anlurnary has been more than once turned Hi Uie analysis of curious books, in which the history or the manners of former period* are illustrated. 'T^
Among those which relate to rural yy8. *»rc*ly any will be found more ■otmsting than the work
•Wfeogtishe ^"SS"' ^Diversities, <be Names, tlie Natures, and the Pro»>crtie*: ; A short Treatise, written in £■*»*, %jj JobadoeVCaius, of late inc. ■fcrfc, Jjgttor of Phjssicke in the Uni*e' "^^wFCa&britfge, and newly drawne rahaoi Fleming, StuLendon by Rycharde
My forhed is hut hanlde and lure,
But yet my body's beuti.ull,
And not to tyne usplcccitull.
01 dogges receaur the trampling fecte. Yet is it swept and kept ful cleene.
So that it yeeldes a sauoux sweete.
Ab. rit* Followed by a Latin dedication, in Fleming's name, to Dr. Perne, dean of Ely.
The book itself appears to have been written at the express request of Corn ad Gesiwr, whose name has beeu so lung and so well knowu to readers of natural history.
"All English* dogges," says Caius,
be eyther ot a gentle kinde, seruiug tlie game ; a homely kind, apt lor sundry necessary uses; or, a currishe kinde, meete for many toyes." The treatise, however, is divided 'mto fire sections, ia which the different sorts of dogs, nccordmg to their employments, are euuuaerated.
The first section contains the Cava Venatki, " which serve the game and disport of hunting; comprising, tire harrier, the terror, tlie bloudhounde, rjie gasebouude, tlie grehounrlc, the leuiner, or Ivemmer, the tumbler, and tlie stealer.*
Tlie second section' comprises tl>e dint* Aucmmtorii, or "gentle dogs, which serve t|ie disport of fowling, including tlie land-spaniell, or setter; t!ic waterspaniell, or finder; and the fisher."
Tlie third section treats only "of the delicate, neate, and pretty kind ofdogee* called the Spanish gentle', or comforter-" which appear m have been the lap-do« of the time. *^
Tlie fourth includes the Canes Rtntici, or coarser dogs—" ii,e shepherd's dogge, and the mastivc, or bnnjogue; which last," says the author, "hath sundry names deriued from sundry «ircuuistanccs, as, the keeper, or watchman, thu butchers dogge, the inessiugeror carrier, the mooner, :he water-drawer, the tinker's curr, and the fencar,"
And the fifth section, contains the "curres of the miiiujrejl and rascail sort, —the woppc, or wartier; ilia tunwspete, and the daunsor;" followed by n short concjusiou, in which the cross breeds of the time are enumerated, vi*.
lions are probably tliose of the l.loorjhound, the better, and the mastive, or bandore, the second, witli a portion ot' the last of which we shall extract.
"J/(f Dogge cult,'il the Setter, in Lai hie, Index. "Another sort of dogges be there, serviceable for fowling, making no noise cither with (bote or with tounge, whiles they followe the game. These attend diligently upon theyr master, and frame their conditions to such beckes, motions, and gestures, as it shall please him to exhibite and make, either going forward, drawing backward, inclining to the right band, or yealding loward the left. (In making mencion of fowles, my meanin» is of the partridge and thequaile ) 'When he hath founde the byrde, he (ceepctli sure and fast silence; he stayeth his steppes and wil procecde no further; and with a close, couert, watching eve, layeth bis belly to the grounde and so creejctli forward like a worme. When he approacheth neere to the place where the birde is, he layes him downe, and with a inarcke of his pawes betrayeih the place of the byrde's last abode; whereby it ist supposed [hat this kind ofdogge is called index, setter, being in rieede a name most consonant and agrcable to bis quality. The place being knowne by I he meanes of the dogge, tiie fowler immediately openeth and spreadeth his net intending to take them; which being clone, the douge at the accustomed becke or u'ual signe of his master, ryscth up by and by, and draweth neerer to the fcnvle that by his presence they might be the authors of iheir own ensnaring, and be ready intangled in the prepared net • which conning and artificial indcuour in a dogge (being a creature domestical! or housllolde servaunt, brought up at home with nlfallsofthe trencher and fragments of victtialls,) is not much to be mnrtiailcd at, seeing that a bare (being a wilde and skippishe beast) was stene in Kngland, to the astonishment of the beholders, in the yecre of our Lorde God 1564, not ontly rhimicing in measure, but playing with bis former feete uppon a tabherct and observingjust number of stroke* (as a practitioner in that arte,) besides that nipping "and pinching a dojge with his teeth and clawes, and cruelly thumping him with the face of his feete'. This
• The confidence between thi» anecdote and that rdaling to one of tho hares which Cowp«fthe pod endeavoured to domesticate, u remaik.1!1 It,
is no trumpery tale, no trifling tnye (as I imagine) and therefore not unworthy to be reported; fori reckon it a requi'ttall ot my trauaile, not to drowne in the seas of silence any speciall thing, wherein the proindence and effectual working of nature is to be pondered."
In the account "of the mastive or bandogge, called in Latine, Vilblicus, or Cal/icrwniis," we have one or two anecdotes of Henry the Seventh, which are certainly not related by the generality of historians who have written on his reign.
"Our Englishmen," says Caius, " (to lh' intent that theyr dogges might be the more fell and fearce) assist nature with arte, vse, and cust„u,e, for they teach theyr dogges to baile the b«rre, to bait the bull, and other such like crucll and bloudy beastes, (appointing an overseer ol I Ik game,) without any collar to defend theyr ihrotes; and oftentimes they traine thein op in lighting and wrestling" with a man, having for the salegarde ofhis lyfe, eytlier a pikestaffe, a clubbe.or a swourdc.,' and by vsing them to such exercises as these, theyr dosues become more sturdy and .strong. The force which is in thcrii surmounteth all beltefe, the fust holdc which they take with their teeth exceed, cth all credit: ibrec of them against a beare, fowre against a lyon, are sufficient, both to tryc tnasteryes with them, and vtteily to overmatch tlicm. Which thing Henry, the seventh of that name, king of Kngland, (a prince both politique and warlike), perceiving on a certaine time (lis report runneth; coinmaunded all such deggts (how many soever they were iu number) to be hanged, beying decpely displeased, and ennceauing greate disdaine, that an yll fanoured rascall curre should with such violent villainy assault the valiaunt lyon, king of all beastes. An example for all suljcrtes worthy of remembrance, to admonishc them that it is no advantage to them to it bell against the regiment of their ruler, but to teepe them within the limits of loyaltie. I rccde an history aunswerable to this of the selfsame Henry, who having a notable and an excellent fayre falcon, it fortuned that the king's falconers, in the presence and bcaiing ofhis mace, highly commended his majesty's falcon, saying, that it feared not to intermeddle with.-m eagle, it was so venturous a byrde and so mighty; which when the kiuge hnrde, he ed that the falcon should be killed
without delay, for the selit- same reason (as it mav sucuie) which was rehcrscd iu eonclusfrw
lurcher; but has no conjecture lor the g.uehouud._ The leviner, or lyetmner, he supposes, was the same with whot is mr called the Irish greyliouiirl. Unr author Cuius, Iinye or lieye (fiir Such wus the litigllsh ofhis uaiuc)-nppears in his time to have united the first honours of literature with those oi n.o<|iczno. Ile oats born at Norwich in 1510; studied, nrst at ,Gonvillc-hall, in Cinnlmdge; and alierwards became one of the puptls of the celebrated Johannes Mfmllllus, ll _Paduus where, in 1542, be gave public lectures on the Greek text ofilriswtle. I -. . _. Ilis~Iab0ur|,i|\wiig correct editions 0fQuIen.nnd (jelsus. gave him a deserved ~ in his o-vu country, which reutuged him very early ~l`rom the practice towitto the Iirst physician he served queens Mary
perhaps one ofthe best specimens that con be selected from it. “ Your huntsniuu early in the morning beliwc he bring rcorrli your houndes, must gnc to the water, and seeks hir the
new swagiug ol nu otter, and in the mud'
or grauell tintlt: nut the scaling of his fir ite, so shall he percciue pertcctly whether hee gnc vp the water or downe: which done, you inusotiilte your hounds ln the plnce where he lodged the night livliwe; and cast your tniylersoff upon the trayle you thinke best; keeping your vilielps still in the couples: for so tl¢y must he entred. “ Then must there be on either side' of the water two mon witli otter speares to strike him, if it bee a grciit water: but if it be a small writer youimust litrbcnr to strike him, for the better makin; of your lxoundcs. A “The ottery is chiclly to' he hunted with dow bounties, great inoutlied, which to a young man is a very eai-nest sporte he will vent so oltc and put up ouer wuter, at which time the liounilcs will spend their monthes verie lnstcly: thus may youhmze good sport at an utter two or three lioures if you list. “ Au otter sumetitnen wilbe trayled a milevor twnhetbre he come to the holt where he lyeth; and the earuestnes ol' the. sporte heginueth not till hc hee fbund; at wluch time some mustlruune up the miter, some-downc, to see where he rents, and to pursue linn'\\~irh great earuestnes till he belcild. Butthe best hunting nt`him is in a great viutcr when the bauke is full, for then he cannot haue so great succour iniliis holes, ns when :it is at an ehbe; _and he malt:-tli the best spnrte in a :noon-shine night, for then he and not days" Tris
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