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Old Winter is come, all so cold and so cheer. Or, if thou art displanted there, less,

To grace the bosom of the fair. And what is there here can enliven the O, teach simplicity to them, heart?

Who never knew the peerless gem! 'Tis Friendship and Love--iwo gems shining Tell those, by Error led astray, and peerless,

That Wisdom is the only way From whom may we never have reason to which leads to purity like thinepart.

Which leads to ev'ry grace divine ! Yes, Friendship and Love-whose warm rays

January, 1809. ever Canthaw the cold frost of the pitiless mind: 'Tis Friendship and Love, with affection com



Can chase away winter, and warm the cold

CONGENIAL spirits, haste away,
JAMES JENNINGS. From where, in gloomy shades of night,

· Secure from wintry winds ye lay ;

Again revive and view the light;

Again inhale the balmy airs IN memory's dear and cherish'd hour,

That o'er the mountains' summits play, I saw thee like the beauteous flow'r,

And free from sorrows, free from cares, That twines around Affection's shrine;

'Midst odorous sweets pursue your way. In Love's pure light thy form was drest, I smild to mark thy gentle breast

By gentle zephyrs borne along, Soft trembling to the sigh of mine.

Beneath a pure and azure sky, When Sorrow, like a spoiler, flew,

We'll listen to the shepherd's song,

Or through the shady woodland Ay. And veil'd Love's opening bud with dew,

On violets will we rest unseen, · And hung the morn of Youth with gloom;

In harebells sip tlie honied dew,
I thought, though bow'd by Sorrow's wile,

And lurk beneath the herbage green,
The moon-beam of thy sadden'd smile,
More fair than Pleasure's rosy bloom.

Where primroses the valley strew.
Ev'n now, though Joy's attemper'd ray,

Beside the stream where wearied lies Delighted o'er thy bosom stray,

The village swain in rustic geer, Responsive to thy Lover's pray'r;

Invisible to mortal eyes, Yet, gladness beaming from his eyes,

We'll whisper pleasure in his ear. Love hangs upon thy smile, and sighs,

All nature smiles with gladd’ning light, . " Affection's tear hath glistea'd thine!"

The Sun displays his cheering ray,
Then, rising from your shades of night,

Congenial spirits haste away.

SONNET. Author of the Poems of " Glasgow," and VIRGINIA TO PAUL-FROM FRANCE. “ The Siller Gun.”

A MID the storied hall, and gorgeous dome, TIRST of the Spring that smiles on me,

The haunt of Fortune's fav'rites cold yet - I pay my early court to thee!

gay, But, well-a-day! how chang'd the scene, I think on thee, my Paul! who, far away, Since, erst, I hail'd thee on the green! Thro' the thick woods which sbade our naThen Life and Love were in their prime;

tive home, Then Winter smil'd like Summer-lime.

Where with Virginia thou wast wont to Now Life and Love are on the wing,

roam, Now Winter riots in the Spring;

Now sad and solitarily dost stray ; And, ev'a io Summer, nought I see

Ahl as tbou gazest on thy devious way, But drizzling sliow'rs and blighis for me; Upon the lonely cascade's sparkling foam, With frequent coffins passing by,

Thro' which you bore me; or the cocoa-tree, Sad monitors that Death is nigh!

Or many a well-known object with whose O! when that solemn hour shall come,

sight Which seals my passport to the tomb,

Ideas of Virginia must unite, Be faith and resignation mine,

Thiuk'st thou of me, Paul? I oft think of And, that sweet soother, hope divine !

chce ; First of the Spring that smiles on me,

Nor wealth, nor pow's, nor threats of

friends unkind, Again I pay my court to chec!

Sball ever chace thine image from my May no rude band profane thy sweets; No caitiji bawl thee thro' the streets ;



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ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, tina wire, communicating with the posia
WWE have in different parts of the tive side, being brought in contact with

y last two or three volumes of the the upper surface of the alkali, a vivid Monthly Magazine, given an account of action almost instantly took place; the the discoveries made by Mr. Davy; these put-ash fused at both points of electrizaaccounts being frequently taken from tion : there was a violent effervescence memory, hy a person who has diligently at the upper surface; at the lower, or attended the lectures of the Royal Iusti- negative surface, there was no liberation tution, would necessarily be imperfect. of elastic fluid; but small globules having We intend, therefore, in this and some a bigh metallic lustre, similar, in visible subsequent articles to lay before our rea- characters, to mercury, appeared; some ders a more exact analysis of what has of which burnt with explosion and bright been done by this learned professor, and flame, as soon as they were formed, and in the order in which he cominunicated others remained, and were inerely tarthe same to the Royal Society of Lon- nished, and finally covered with a white don. Mr. Davy first described the me- film, which formed on their surfaces. thods pade use for the decomposition of “These globules," says the professor, the fixed alkalies; and he found that “nuinerous experiments soon shewed to the powers of electrical decomposition be the substance I was in search of, and were proportional to the strength of the a peculiar inflammable principle, the baopposite electricities in the circuit, and sis of pot-ash." He ascertained that to the conducting power and degree of the platina was not at all connected with concentration of the materials employed. the result, for the same substance was In his first attempts at the decomposition produced when other metals, or charof the fixed alkalies, he acted upon aque- coal, were employed for completing the ous solutions of potash and soda, satura- circuit. ted at the comuion degrees of tempera Soda, when acted upon in a similar ture, with the Voltaic batteries, but in manner, exhibited an analogous result, tiese cases; the water alone was affected, but it required a battery of stronger powand hydrogen and oxygen disengaged ers. The substance produced from potwith the production of much heat, and ask, which is now denominated “Po. violent effervesence. As water appear- tassium," remained Huid at the temed to prevent the decomposition, he used perature of the atmosphere, at the time potasha in igneous fusion, and some bril- of its production : that froin soda, called liant phenometa were produced, and "sodaam," which was fluid, in the de when the platina spoon, on which the gree of heat of the alkali, during its for potash was placed, was made to commu- mation, became solid on cooling. The Dicate with the negative side of the bac- globules often burnt at the moment of tery, and the connection from the posi- their formation, and sometimes violently live side was made with platina wire, a exploded and separated into smaller glovivid and constant light appeared at the bules, which flew with greata velocity opposite point there was no effect of through the air,in a state of vivid combus. inainmation round ir; but aëriform bub- tion, producing a beautiful effect of conti* bles, which, instamed in the atinosphere. nued jets of fire.

C pore round the potash. He made some In speaking of the theory. Mr. Dary

attenpts no collect the combustible mate observed, that the metallic lustre of the me but without success : and he only at substance from potasli, immediately be * mined his obiect, by employing electrici. came destroyed in the atmosphere, and

the .coramon agent of lusion and that a white crust formed upon it. This composition.

crust is pure potash, which immediately Polish hen perfectly dried by igni- deliquesced, and new quantities were qon i a nou-conductor, but with the formed, which in their turn, attracted. shtex addition of moisture becomes moisture from the atmosphere, till the & zoud conductor and in this state it whole globale disappeared, andasstmed radi fties and decomposes by strong the form of a saturated solution of pot

me Having placed ash. Water is likewise decomposed in O CE of pure pot ask on an insu- the process for it is demonstrated that ate of platina conected with the the basis of the fixed alkalies, that is,

m e the battery, and a pla. Potassiun" and "Sadaum," act upon




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this substance with greater energy than and is found unaltered after distillation. any other known bodies. Hence the It is a perfect conductor of electricity. minute theory of oxydation of the basis When a spark is taken from the Voltaic of the alkalies in the air is this:-oxygen battery from a large globule; the light gas is first attracted by them, and alkali is green, and combustion takes place at formed; this alkali speedily absorbs the point of contact only. When a water; this water is again decomposed; small globule is used, it is completely therefore, during the conversion of a glo. dissipated with explosion accompanied bule into alkaline solution, there is a cone by a most vivid flame. It is an excellent stant and rapid disengagement of small conductor of heat; but resembling the quantities of gas. From the facts related, metals in all these sensible properties, it of which we inention only a part, it is is very different from any of them in speinferred by Mr. Davy, that there is the cific gravity, being only as 6 to 10, comsaine evidence for the decomposition of pared with water, so that it is the lightest potash and soda into oxygen and two fluid body known. peculiar substances, as there is for the With respect to chemical relations; decompositions of sulphuric and phos-' it combines with oxygen, slowly and with phoric acids and the metallic oxydes ine out Hanie, at all temperatures below that to oxygen and their respective bases. In of vaporization ; but at this temperature the analyses, no substances capable of combustion takes place, and the light decomposition are present, but the alka- is of a brilliant whiteness, and the heat lies and a minute portion of moisture; intense. When a globule is heated in which seems in no other way essential lo hydrogen gas at a degree below its point the result, than in rendering them con. of vaporization, it seems to dissolve in it, ductors at the surface: for he has ascer- for the globule diminishes in volume, and tained that the new substances are not the gas explodes with alkaline fumes generated till the interior, which is dry, and bright light when suffered to pass inbegins to be fused.

to the air, When brought into contact The combustible bases of the fixed al-' with water, it decomposes it with great kalies, seem to be repelled as other com- violence; an instantaneous explosion is bustible substances, by positively electric produced with bright flame, and a solution fied surfaces, and attracted by negative- of pure potash is the result. When a ly electrified surfaces, and the oxygen globule of this substance is placed upon follows the contrary order: or, the oxygen ice, it instantly burns with a bright Aame, being naturally possessed of the negative and a deep hole is made in the ice, energy, and the bases of the positive, do which is found to contain a solution of not remain in combination when either potash. of them is brought into an electrical state Theory: The phenomena seem to deopposite to its natural one.

pend on the strong attraction of the po· Alier Mr. Davy detected the bases of tassium for uxygeu; and of the potash for the fixed alkalies, he found great difficul- water. The heat which arises from two ty in preserving and confining them so as causes, decomposition and combination, to examine their properties; but he is sutñciently intense to produce inflamfound that in recently distilled naptha mation. The production of alkali in they might be preserved some days with the decomposition of water by potassium, out much change. The basis of potash is shown by dropping a globule of it upon at 600 of Fahrenheit possessed the general moistened paper, tinged with turmeric. appearance of mercury, so as not to be At the pionient that the globule comes distinguished from it, but at that degree into contact with the water, it burns, of temperature, it is ouly imperfectly and moves rapidly upon the paper, as it fluid ; at 700 it is more fluid, and at in search of moisture, leaving behjud it 1000 its fluidity is perfect, so that diffe- a deep reddish brown crace, and acting rent globules will run into one. At 500 upon the paper as dry caustic potash. it is soit and malleable, with the lustre of So strong is the attraction of potash for polished silver, and at the freezing point oxygen, and so great the energy of its ac. it becomes harder and brittle, and when tion upon water, that it discovers and broken into fraginents, exhibits a crys- decomposes the small quantities of water tallized texture, which by means of the contained in alcohol and ether. Potash microscope seems composed of beautiful is insoluble in ether; but when potassium, facets of a perfect whiteness, and high the basis, is thrown into it, oxygen is fur. inetallic splendor. At a heat approach- nished, and hydrogen gas is disengaged, ing reduess, it is converted into vapour, and the alkali as it forios renders the

ether ether white and turbid. In ether and Potassium readily reduces metallic alcobol the energy of its action is pro- oxides, when heated in contact with portional to the quantity of water they them: it decomposes readily flint and contain, and hydrogen aud potash are green glass, with a gentle heat; alkali the constant result.

is immediately formed by oxygen from Potassium thrown into solutions of the the oxides which dissolves the glass, and mineral acids, inflames and burns on a new surface is soon exposed to the the surface. It readily combines with agent, the simple and inflammable solids and We shall in our next, give a more dewith metals, with phosphorus and sulphur, tailed account of the decomposition of forming compounds similar to the me- soda; and shall now present the reader tallic phosphurets and sulphurets. When with a sbört analysis of the application it is brought into contact with a piece of the gas from coal to economical pur

of phosphoras, and pressed upon, there' poses by Mr. William Murdoch. This - is a considerable action; they become gentleman by means of coal-gas com. fud together, burn, and produce phos- pletely lighted up last winter, the cotton phate of potash. When potassium is manufactory of Messis. Phillips and Lee, brought into contact with sulphur in at Manchester, the largest in the kingfusion in the atmosphere, a great inflam- dom, The light used, was ascertained to mation takes place and sulphuret of pot. be equal to that produced by 2500 mould ash is formed. The sulphuretted basis candles of six to the pound. In this inbecomes oxygenated by exposure to the stance the coal was distilled in iron reair, and is finally converted into sul- torts, which were kept constantly at pbate. When one part of potassium is work, and the gas 'as it rose was conveyadded to 8 or 10 parts of mercury at' ed by iron pipes into large reservoirs, about 600 of Fahrenheit, they instantly where it was worked and purified, preunite, and form a substance like mercury viously to 'its being conveyed through

in colour, but less coherent, and small other pipes called mains to the mill. 1 portions of it appear as flattened spberes. The burners, where the gas was cousu

When a globule is made to touch a glo- nied, were connected with the inains by bale of mercury about twice as large, short tubes, each of which was furnished they combine with heat; the compound with a cock to regulate the admission of is fluid at the temperature of its forma- the gas to each barner, and to shut it off tion, but when cool it appears as a solid when requisite. The burners were of metal, similar in colour to silver," : If the two kinds: the one was upon the prinpotassium be still increased the amalgam ciple of the Argand lamp, and resembled becomes harder, and brittle, When the it in appearance, the other was a small proportions are 1 of potassium and 70 of curved tube with a conical end, having mercury the amalgam is soft and mal- tliree circular apertures of about the both

lenble: If the compounds are exposed of an inch in diameter, through which i fi air they rapidly absorb oxygen; pot. the gas issued, forming three divergent

ash wlich deliquesces is formed, and in jets of fame, somewhat like a fleur dea lew brinutes the mercury is found pure lis. This tube, from its shape and ap. andunaltered. When aglobule of amalgam pearance, was called the cockspur burner. is thrown into water, it rapidly decompo- In the whole building there were 271 artes it with a hissing noise; potash is gands, and 633 cockspurs, each of the formed, pare hydrogen is disengaged, former giving a light equal to four canand the mercury remains free. The dles, and each of the latter a light equal

netion of potassium upon the infamına- - to 21. All together require an hourly cl ble oil compound bodies, confirms the supply of 1250 cubic feet of gas, produ

other thets of the strength of its attrac- ced from cannel coal. tion for osygen. On recently distilled The whole annual expence, allowing naptha it has very little action; but in 5501, for apparatus, is reckoned at 600/.

the that has been exposed to the but that of candles, to give the same wit ngan oxydates, and alkali is formed, light, would be 2000l. supposing candles hoch oniles with the naptha, into a one shilling per 15. only. This calcula

www somp that collects round the glo- tion was made on the supposition that bolOn concrete and fxed oils, when the light was used only two hours per head, t acu slowly coaly matter is day, through the year, but if it be requi deponid, lidla pro is emlved, and a red three hours: the cost will be 6501 p orted. By heat it rapidly dea for gas, and 30001. for candles. At first"

there was some inconvenience from the

for gas, and 30001 to


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smell produced, but this is entirely done ton-mills are so much exposed. Mr. away, and it being tree tiom the danger re- Murdoch claims the first idea of applysulting from sparks and snutbng candles, ink, and the tirst actual application of, diminishes the bazard of tire to which cut- this gas to economical puposes.


MR. DAVID THOMAS'S (FEATHERSTONE added to the urn and percolator, and

BUILDINGS, for a perforated l'essel, Pers may be regarded as a part of the latter. colutor and firane, for making or pre- The frame or stand is calculated to eleparing Potable Cofice.

vate and support, at a proper height for E invention clained by this spe. drawing oil its contents, a vessel dis1 fication consists of a perforated charged by means of a cock, when not urn, or vessel which may be made of va. constructed in the common form of urns, rious forms, a percolaior, and a frame, whether adapted to this or any other pure which may be used collectively in a pose. portable förın, or separately. The prin The Patentee reserves to bimself the cipal part of the machine is an urn, füra exclusive right of modifying and varying nished with a cock for drawing oil its the application of these principles, inveucontents, which is the receiver of the tions, and improveineuis, according to beverage, prepared from the material cucunstances, in such manner as way coffee, by means of hot or huiling water, best suit the form of the vessel or its apinade to pass through it. To render the pendayes, as well in respect to the perorn eifective, since filtration into a close foration as to the percolator and frame, vessel would soon be impeded by the wbether atfecting their respective forms compressed air, a number of small per- or situation. forations are inade in the upper part of it. These are calculated to release the MR. WILLIAM SHOTWELL'S (FORR.) for confined and Frified air, being open certain Improvements in the manufuca while the percolation is going on, and so ture of Mustard. contrived, that they are covered at the This invention consists in taking mus. same time, and with the same cover as tard bran, or the offal of mustard, after the large aperture or mouth of the urn, as much mustad four has been taken upon the removal of the percolator. By out as is done by the usual method, these means the uru becomes a close This bran or offal is wetted with water vessel, when the percolation is comple- and ground, and then immersed in wated, from which neither the 6ner quali- ter, will the inost ponderous parts fall ties, nor essence of the coffee, nor its to the bottom. Tlien, while the flour is heat, can escape by eraporation. The suspended, all that is above the bran is next part of the inrention is the percola- to be drawn into a flannel, or other tor, or small box, which contains and strainer, placed over a vat, which vat ConQnes the coffee in its pulverized state, is to have a luch at its bottom; the and prevents its rising and mingling with strainer serves to filter the mustard, and the water, when poured in the cylinder: prevents any particles of braa froin pass. it is the medium through which the water ing into the vat. In this vat, the mus, passes into the urn, where it assumes the tard-flour is suffered to precipitate, and character of potable coffee. It is fur- the water is drawn off from the flour as nished with a cover pierced through with close as possible, and may be used for very small holes, which is fitted to it, succeeding parcels of the same sort of either independently of the cylinder, or bran, as often as it is found to answer. fixed to the latter in that part which is During the process, the air is to be kept contiguous to the percolator. In either from the mustard, to preserve its pancase, its office is the same, namely, to gency. confine the coffee, so as to prevent any 'To make dry mustard from the bran, portion of the water from passing into after as much inustard-flour has been tar ibe receiver, but through the whole keu from it as is done by the usual mass. The bottom of the percolator is modes, the patentee takes the coles of pierced or bored in the same way as its Indian corn, breaks them stuall, mires cover. The cylinder is a tubé super thein with the mustard bran, grinds bem

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