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most part unconnected with chemical the water, and compare them with the research; a circumstance, which, though usual state of the calcareous strata in it may invalidate my deductions, cannot which tint is found. render the facts less certain, or the object
Your's, &c. A. B. R. of my inquiry less interesting. These reinarks, which I must leave to the chemist to corroborate, are as follows: To the Edilor of the Monthly Magazine.
1. The common thint is never found, as SIR, far as I can learn, but in the vicinity of A Correspondent in your last number chalk, in which it lies bedded
: munite-ts a considerable degree of 2. I have always observed it running curiosity with respect to the comparative in dark horizontal veins along a deep bed merits of Mr. Marius's, and Dr. Jarrow's of cbaik, as if introduced by water : and the cries on population. I cannot priabove and below it, is a tinye of a rusty tend to decide this question, not having red, ficquently seen, as though produced seen Dr. Jarrola's work: but having by an oxidation of ironi,
lalely read a reply to the Essay on Pos 3. I have now in my possession a pulation, in a series of letters, and thinknumber of bollow spherical faints, more ing it a matter of some interest to the or less filed with chalk in the inside, and public to have the subject of vir. Malwill a calcareous incrustation mure or thus's reputation tully canrassed, I have less hard, on the outside, but always in- brought together in one view the chief creasing in hardness, as it approaches objections iusisted on by this anonymous the coat of flint. Some of them are solid writer, and leave it to some friend or ad. fimt, but with the same incrustation. mirer of Mr. Maltlus to ansuer them.-
4. Hints are never found with angular The whole controversy reciuces itselt to surtaces, but have their prominences all the sullowing considerations. circular, or approaching to it. There 1. Whorher the Extract from Wal. apy.cars an irregular crystallization in lace's “ Prospects of Mankind," &c. Denn, as if effected by a portion of water, quoted by the author in second leiter, is contined in a bed of chaik, and proje a labrication of his own, or wliether it is ducing, like water thrown in sınall quanis not to be found in the work from a bich tities amongst flour, a variety of forms it professes to be taken? more or less round..
2. Wheries that extract does not com5. I have a number of white opaque pietely overturn every pretension in Mr. Gints, in which the colour of clalk is re- Malthus to the discovery of a new proje tamed, and in wbich there are cavities ciple in human nature, incompatible with containing chall, but the-forination of any great deurce of improvenent in go tlint is in other respects completed. verument or morals? Or whether Wall
6. In some specimens may be traced lace has not both stated the principle of the several gradations from a štate of the disproportion, between the poner ut' pulverulent calcareous earth, to the dark increase in popula.jon, and the power of transparent substance of which gune increase in the means of subsistence, ftints are made, proceeding in distinct which is the basis of Mr. M's systein, coatinys, progressively harder, as they and whether lic has not drawn the very advance to the state of black flint. same interence froin it that Mr. Maithis
7. I have a fossil echinus, found in á has done, 17. that vice and mi-ery are chalk-pit, which upou breaking, proved pecessary to keep population down to the to be a complete flint, with a very slight level of the means of subsistence? enge of white incrustation.
3. Whether the idea of a geometrical From the above observations, I am led and arithmetical series, by which Mr. M. to believe, that Hints of this clasy are is supposed to have furnished ide precise forined, merely by the accession of water rule, or cuiculus, of the disproportion to a hed of challs. Whether the union between forud and population, is not of the carbouic acid gas with the con- strictly inapplicable to the subject; inasstituent gases of the water, or whether much as in all new and unpeopled coon any ndventitious matter mný have been fries cultivation winy go un increasing in introduced by the water in the state of a geometrical ratio, while there is an solution, or attenuation, I have not time opportunity of occupying fresht tracks up or means to inquire. I must leave it sul, according to the increased demands likewise to others to ascertain the ac- of population; and, on the other hand, curate results, after a volatilization of in all old and fully peopled countries Oils
be stationary, or nearly so, as it is im- tradiction? For was it not the object of possible that the same spot of ground Mr. M.'s Essay to sbew, that is erer ic should produce more and more every should so happen, that mukiud were to year, by additions of the same equal become superior to every gross and solásia quantity? Whether the finding out a inotive, and to regulate their whole con. rate of increase for a thing, by which it duct by the dictates of wisdom and virnever does increase, but always in a ra- tue, so that the checks to population tio either greater or less, is to be con- froin vice and inisery should cease, ther sidered as philosophical discovery; and would iminediately lose all power of whether the laying down an arbitrary and controul over this principle; and, from fituciful illustration, as a fundamental the most perfect order, virtue, and happi. theorem, mast not rather tend to perplex 1685 nothing but famine, contusion, and and contound, than to explain the sub- unexampled vice and inisery could enject
sue? Is not this to say, that, if maukiud 4. Whether the citing of parish regis- were governed entirely by rational 199ters and bills of mortality, merely to il- tives, they would have no effect on thein Instrate a general principle, without add. at all; that in proportion as we have ing any thing to it, even though, a man more command over our passions, we abould fill a folio volume with them, en shall have less; and that whenever it 'crles bim to the character of an original shall come to pass, that the comuuucity discoverer in philosophy
in general are actuated solely by a re15. Whether, if Mr. Malthus has not gard to the consequences of their actions, arrogated to himself more 'originality that then they will immediately and inthan he possessed, his admirers have not fallibly rush headlong to destruction? done so for him, and rendered it neces. 7. Whether a writer, who can betray sary that his pretensions in this respect such a want of logic as to have composed should be strictly inquired into
á work on this confusion of ideas, can be 6. Whether the whole tenor and scope implicitly relied on in other matters, parof Mr. Malthus's first edition, which was ticularly of an abstruse and metaphysical to overturn all schemes of human perfec- nature? Or whether Mr. Malthus may bibility from the sole principle of popula- plead in his own defence, that he was tion, does not involve a direct con- led bastily to adopt this error by his too
great admiration of the speculations of Fond, as well as population, that is to Wallace, being but the dupe of another say, all vegetables and all animals, as well man's sophistry? 28 man, increase in a geometrical ratio, and 8. Whether the two following points most of them in one much higher than man. are not fully and repeatedly established, It is not the want of power in the principle though in a loose and desultory manner, of production, but the want of room that con. and mixed up with a good deal of levity fines the means of subsistence within such and some digressions, in the reply to the Watsow limits. As long as it has room to in- Essay on Population, and whether they crease and multiply, a seed of corn will pro
do not go to the foundation of Mr. M.'s Magate its species much faster than man
system-namely, the This circumstance, though noticed by Frank : lin, Setras to have bech overlooked by the
First, That if we admit (as Mr. Mal author of the Essay. The principle which "mus formerly contended), that vice determines the quantity of the means of sub- and misery are the only checks to potistence, therefore depends on the room pulation, that then very new and upporthey have to grow in, and thus keep pace trut consequences will undoubtedly tolin the progress of human life. And low froin his theory, but that the posia ne it follows that the fundamental dir.. tion, from which these extraordinary rence between the power of increase in the consequences are to follow, viz. that dacipk of population and the meins of sub- vice and misery are the only checks de sannot be expressed by a geometrie to population, is in jaland althmetical series, unless we suppose
itself (by Mr.
Malthus's own acknowledgement) utterly the spice asigned for the prúduction of food, for spread of vegetation that is the false, unfounded, and paradoxical.-S. nehote arth idelfto have been condly, that it we adapt the improved to than to supply the immee
doctrine of the later editions, and say,
doctrine of the continhabitants, and that that not vice and misery alone, but vice
Radually enlargine itself anisery, and moral restrain or prudens. to
op.cinsinue to do so by
tial motives, tnken together, are the only od strain arithmetical checks to population, that this indeed is 2.
en true, but that, with this qualification, none
of those wonderful discoveries and inge- by positive vice and misery, being in pronious paradoxes, which have excited the portion to its powers of increase, and this spleen of one half of the world, and the naturally becoming greater according to admiration of the other, will have any its actual progress, the farther the prina solid foundation to rest upon, but that ciple of population had been allowed tó we must return back (however reluc. proceed, the more dangerous it would tantly) to the common sense and vulgar become, and the more inischiefs would notions of inankind? Or, in other words, be required to carry off, or prevent it's whether it does not stricıly follow, from excesses. It seemed, therefore (on the Mr. Malthus's first statement (that old maxim of Morbo venienli occurrite) vice and inisery are the only possible to be the chief duty of the state—first, checks to excessive population), that to thin or keep population down as low à certain quantity of them is abso- as possible, to prevent this germ and lutely necessary for this purpose, that root of all evil, population, fron spreading if they could, they ought not to be its baneful influence beyond the reach of temoved, and that the total absence of controul : secondly, to keep the populathem would be the greatest mischief that tion that remained, sufficiently ricivus could happen; and, on the other hand, and iniserable, whether it does not as strictly follow 11. Whether the author of the Reply from admitting that moral restraint, i. e. has not detected the fallacy of this reareason, prudence, manners, &c. may soning, by shewing that the tendency of and do operate as checks to population, population, to increase in all cases whatthat vice and misery are no longer either ever, is not in proportion to its power of necessary or desirable, that the more increase; but to its power of increase, moral restraint, or the inore wisdom and accompanied and checked by the prosvirtue, and the less vice and misery there pect of not being able to provide for that is in the world, the better, and that if increase, which is a totally different thing the influence of moral restraint could be either from actual vice or misery? For substituted wholly for that of vice and in all stages of society, and of human inmisery, it would not be the greatest evil, tellect and virtue, so long as man retains but the greatest good that could possibly the common faculties of his nature, the take place? This latter view of the sub- tendency of population to excess, or to ject indeed is nearer the truth, but it produce mischief, must be repressed and wants that air of originality which récon- counterbalanced by the prospect of the mended Mr. M.'s first performance to the inconveniences to ensue ; and this motive notice of the public.
must operate more forcibly in proportion 9. Whether the author of the Essay to the inconveniencies apprehended, that need have taken so much pains to prove is, according to the degree in which it is merely the eristence, or actual operation likely to become excessive. So that the of vice and misery, or the ditliculty of danger of excessive population is one bringing inankind to act from inotives of that lessens in proportion as the excess pure reason? No one erer disputed this becomes greater, that naturally corrects difficulty; but it was believed, that if itself, and can never go beyond a certaiu they could be brought to act from such point. Nor when the excess does bemotives, it would be well for them; and come great, does this arise from the Mr. Maltius, to the great joy of some previous actual state of population, or persons, was supposed to have proved from the absence of vice and misery to that this was a mistake, or that all the repress it, but from the degradation of erils in society were absolutely neces- morals, and an indifference to consesary evils. He has retracted a great part quences, on the consideration of which of his theory; but it required a degree of the true, natural, preventive check to fortitude, not to be expected even from a population depends. llence it follows, philosopher like Mr. Nialthus, to do this that the increase of population is not in in such a manner, as not to leave the itself an alarming circumstance, and that general plan of his work full of incon- the best way of preventing its excess is sistencies and almost unintelligible. by diffusing rational principles, and the
10. Wirether Mr. M. did not contrive Dotions of decency and comfort, as wideto represent the tendency ot populntion ly as possible; two positions not incul. to increase beyond the means of sub- cated in the most unequivocal manner in sistence, as something of a very alarm. Mr. Malthus's writings. ing and dangerous nature? Its tendency 12. Whether, in a word, Mr. Mala to excess, except as this was repressed thus, by giving up the necessity of rice
and misery as exclusive checks to popu- subsistence, does not overturn any of the
Philo. should look upon the thing itself, and the methods we should take to prevent it? To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. .
13. Whether, what Mr. Malthus lays SIR, down as a law of nature, namely, that THE following observations on the no one has a right to beget childrenr after remarks made in the Edinburgh the world is fully stocked, or when the Review, vol. 25, on Professor Vince's produce of the earth is not more than Essay on Gravitation, may be thought sutficient to maintain its inhabitants, and of importance by many of your philosothe lunication which he has given of this phical readers. law, namely, that no one as a right to do According to Sir I. Newton's hypothe. this, but those who are rich enough to sis, the force with which a planet is provide for thein, do not directly con- urged towards the sun, is the difference tradict each other? Since, if there were between the pressures of the fluids on the no more food left, the rich man could sides next and opposite to the sun. The not possibly provide for his children any pressures on these half surfaces (as the Inore than the poor man; and if there density of the fluid continually varies) 19 a surplus orer which the rich man has can only be found by a fuxional calculus; a command, or if the produce of the and upon examining the Professor's soearth is more than suficient for the inlia- lution, it appears to be perfectly satis. bitants, then it censes to be a law of na- factory. Now the Reviewer makes the ture, that the poor man should not be al pressure towards the sun to be as the lowed to bring children into the worlat, fluxion of the density: this is manifestly because « at nature's mighty feast there false. If a series of quantities increase is no vacant cover for them! Whether according to any law, is the difference of there is one law of nature for the poor, the first and last terms, the same as the and another for the rich? The provi- difference between the sums of the first sions of different families inust depend on half and the second half of the series the different distribution of the wealth of For something of this kind must have enthe cornminnity, that is, on the laws of tered into the mind of the Reviewer, if the land (which, however, in the present he had any meaning atuall in what he Instance Mr. M. wishes to see altered, has stated. Further, the fluxion of the
because they are more favourable to the density of the fluid is independent of the w poor than he could wish), but can have density of the planet; and yet in estimat
nothing to do with the Inws of nature, or ing the force of the planet to the sun, the imability of the earth to furnish sub- the density of the planet necessarily en
for more iban a certain number ters into the calculation, the accelerative of inhabitants.
force being as the moving force, divided Whether as a rule of common by the quantity of matter in the planet, prudence every innn did not know, that or by its magnitude and density conhe hould liave more difficulty in majo- jointly. Tbese palpable blunders, into mining tle and family than in shifting which the reviewer has fallen, can be for himself only quite as well before as imputed only to his total ignorance of the tince the publication of Ms. Malthus's subject. Besides the absurdity of Le Y? W e
Sage's hypothesis, it is not true as ask L. These questions, fairly answered, will, serted by the Reviewer, that any two bom Impect, encar to establish the three dies will, upon that supposition, be urged t w on.ch lettenwriter undertakes towards each other by forces varying into prone." Pins, that Mr M.' reason- versely as the squnres of their distances.
whiter i menit inight be, was I have noticed two strong propensities in a m Secondly, that, as applied these Reviewers: one, that aliendeavour
atenda of the pefectibility of ing. to discover errors xwbene there are hand, a dvideat contradicion. nore, and to conceal merit where there
igoneral and practical is any; the other, to make their Review Lact, the postign laid down a vehicle for propngiting their own opi
apmportion be- mons.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Every object used by the painter, conSIR,
sidered separately, may be perfectly faINHERE is perhaps no subject con- miliar to the speciator, while at the same
T nected with the philusophy of the sime the grouping attitudes, or concomihuman mind, which has been less inves- tant scenery, may render the whole a real tigated, or which appears to promise novelty. But the great source of all its less success than those powers of inven- beauties is nature, and their merit contion in music, that correspond with what sisis in the fielity of the resemblance; is termed genius- in poetry. The great since the most remarkable imitations in object of the present essay, is to prove this art, as well as in poetry, can aspire mote a spirit of enquiry into so mysteri. to nothing more than the character of acous a faculty of our nature, without pre- curate first copics. tending to have discovered an adequate Thus then we have seen that the founsolution of the difficulty, or to contri- tain-bead of these two arts, is, the wide bute in any material degree to the stock theatre of created forins. But where of public information.
shall we discover the great archetypes of For the success which has attendent musical creation? To what original shall the examination of poetical genius, we we trace the retlections in the mirror of are perhaps indebted tu the certainty of a musical imagination? I answer, to nathose data upon which the disquisition ture likewise. To what extent, we sball depended. The imagination of the perceive in the sequel. poet, according to Plato, * (who has been Music is a pleasing succession or com. followed in his opinion by Aristotle, bination of sounds. Its ultimate end, Longinus, and the whole host of subse- like that of poetry and every imitative quent philosophers,) is a general mirror, art, must be pleasure. The production in which myriads of objects, whose ori. of that pleasure is proportioned to the ginal must be sought in the wide expanse faculties of the musician to unite or inof the universe, are represented in the vert in an agreeable manner the customost faithful and vivid manner. Consi- mary succession of sounds in nature, dered in this view of a mimeticart, poetry without intringing upon the laws wbich exbibits no insurmountable difficulties she has established to render them deto those who would trace it's origin in lightful. the mind; and it follows, that, if poetical Natural sounds may be considered as genius is in this manner derivative, its simple or compound, and are produced poners will be in the direct ratio of the by animate or inanimate bodies. accuracy and retention of its perceptions. I. Animals are almost all endowed These may be afterwards summoved, by nature with the power of expressing like the supernatural ministers of sorce- aloud, in a manner peculiar lo thenry, in an endless variety of shapes and selves, their pleasure, anger, or dis. combinations, to instruct, terrify, in- tress. These vocal utterances have eveflanie, or einbellish. These appear to ry one of them a distinct character and the profune and uninitiated, widely re. appellation; and in most instances the moved from the round of possibilities, terms employed to express the sounds, and the creation of a mind almost di- are themselves descriptive of their effects vine, since the page of true poetry is on the auditory nerve. able to excite a constant surprise not II. In the same manner the inanimate only by an imitation of the many forms, parts of nature furnish us with a vast actions, and outward habitudes of na- variety of sounds, from the separate or ture, but even by the representation of combined operations of fire, air, water, things the most remote, of sentiment, and numberless artificial bodies. To character, and spiritual existence.
these we give the epithets cracking The combinations of external forms in rattling, rustling, grating, crenking, painting are infinite. The whole world dashing, rumbling, cluttering,' &c. &c. is no less the school of the painter, than while the former are distinguished of the poet; but with this distinction, by the following: roaring, groaning, that in the communication of thought bellowing, whining, howling, wiling, and sentiment, the painter is confined chirping, shouting,' &c. Sc. to those which are connected with cer- The specific character of all these tain modes of forin. Suill its powers of sounds will be found to range them anexcuing astonishment are wonderful. der a yeneral hend without any difficulty.
These heads or classes may be reduced • D: Repub. lib. x.
to the following: