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Stadholdership should be hereditary in which seems in a manner enclosed by His fainily, and even pass in the female these species of ramparts. The exTine.
pences of keeping tlie dykes in order, is W:!!iarn the Fiftli, the grandson of paid by the whole nation, and every disWilliam the Third, enjoyed the digniew friot is taxed according to thie ulliey is till 1793; the cpoch of the occupation of derives from them, and the proportion of Holland by the French arinies.
the extent of country it sheliers from the Placed between a power which, for a waters. Umier the denomination of long time had been its irreconcileable Dun, the Dutcii comprehend every sore enemy, and France, which was its natural of dyke raised tu coobne tlie Writers of a ally, Itolland could not hesitate to make river, or a lake; for which reason it is, her choice. By calling a Frencli priuce that most of the names they have given to to take the reins of their government, the their cities and towns, end in Dain. Dutch consulted their real interests, and Rotterdain owes its name to the dyke from that woment we may venture to raisci upon the Rutie, a river near predict, that this nation, which has more the towii. Amsterdam receives hier's than once established the independence from the dyke on the Amstel. It is the of the ocean, and given peace to Europe, same with Saaidam, Schiedam, Mouni. will, under a monaith, whose views are kendanı, amit many others. solely directed towards the prosperits of Cold and humidity, in general characthe cmpire which is coufided to him, re. terize the climate of Holland. Many sume that rank which she occupied at naturalists have asserted, that the cxthe most brilliant periods of her history. treine moisture of Holland contributes
In 1806, a treaty was concluded be- materially to shorten human life. The twveen France and Holland, by which a celebrated Baron Haller advances boldly, new constitution was formed, and Louis that “Iuliand is an unliealthy country, Napoleon, brother to the emperor of the and life is short." This assertion is reFrench, was placed on the throne of futed however by facts; in lfolland, as in Holland.*
other countries we have seen individuals Batavia is traversed by two consider. who have lived to a very advanced age; able rivers, the Rhine and the Meuse, and a judicions writer of our day, M. which give rise to almost all the running Walcknaer, obscrves, that the sobriety waters in the country, except the Elus, and regular uniform life of the inhabiwhich has its source in the department tants give them a longer duration of of Utrecht In the construction of their years, than ini many other countries canals, the Dutch have shewil of what where the air is more salubrious. human industry is capable, and what is The agriculture of Ilollaud consists ita recompense; but their dykes are still almost exclusively in the cultivation of a more extraordinary monument in the meadows and gardens; its low, camp, eyes of stradgers. These artiticial banks spougy soil, joined to an atmosphere are gencraily raised about thirty feet loaded with vapours, often rainy, and for above the level of the adjoining land, a long time cold; leaves scarcely any
By the treaty concluded at the Hague in 1806, the kingdom of Holland was divided as follows: Departments. Consisting of
Cbief Towns. Is The Province of Groninguen, comprising 1. Groninguen
Groninguen. 1 Wied, and West Wuldingerland. 2. Friesland - The Province of Friesland and Ameland. Leewarden. 3. Over Iss:1 - Over.Jasel and the Country of Drenthe. Zwol. 4 Guelderland - Guelderland, Kuilemberg, and Buren. Arnheim. 5. Utrecht Utrecht and Veanca.
Utrecht. 6. Holland Holland, Isselstein.
The Hague, 7. Brabant Dutch Brabant.
Bois Le Duc. 8 Zealand Zealand.
Middleburg. It is also divided into four military divisions, -The first comprises the departments of Hok land, Brabant, and Utrecht.
Hrad Quarters at the Hague,
Head Quarters at Middleburg.
Head Quarters at Groninguen.
other resource, it is carried to a very coats, with several rows of very small high perfection, and gives considerable silver buttons, thickly put on; a blue profits. Gardening is in great esteein in cloth coat, and the waistband of their ILolland, for the Dateh are fond of both breeches is ornamented with four very fruit and flowers. Their gardeners excel large silver buttons. in the art of producing a great deal from The manufacture of linens in the a little ground. Without the help of arti- provinces of Groninguen, Over-Issel, ficial heat, they would be deprived of and Friesland, occupies the first rank in many things which give the soil of France this principal branch of industry. Those so great a superiority over that of other liners, which receive the name of lol countries. By this belp, Holland sup- land, are distinguished by their fueness, plies what she otherwise could not; and whiteness, and evenness. It is not how. in the midst of winter affords every thing ever the case, that all the linens which which can contribute to the sensuality of the Dutch export, are inade amongst the rich.': In the month of January, themselves. A very principal part is grapes are sold as high as forty Rorins the manufactured in the Duchy of Berg, pound. In a country so little favoured Westphalia, Osnabruck, and that neighby uinture, it is easy to judge how peces- bourbrood, particularly Munster; but as sary industry must be to the support of all these linens go to the bleach-tields the puhabitants. Notwithstanding its at Harlem, where they receive their sterility, Holland is, perbaps, with respect finishing dressings, the Dutch.profit by to its extent, (only nineteen hundred and this circumstance, to sell them as their twenty-eight square leagues, of which own. These bleach-belds extend from Uhree hundred and three are overflown, Harlem to Alkmaar, and the extreme ar covered with water.) the country most whiteness which they give their linens, thickly peopled. ks population is esti- is attributed to the quality of the waters mated at two millions; the province of of the downs, and of the earth on which Holland alone contains nearly one balf they are exposed. of that number. Mons. Walcknaer, Paper was a very considerable article from whom we take our calculation, of trade in Holland; the Dutch were in makes thirteen hundred and eighty in the habit of supplying France, Spain, habitants co every square nore. A chuid and Portugal, with considerable guanof this population subsists by commerce tities; but at present, owing to severad and unrivation. The two other thirds causes, they scarcely use uny other than are composed of people employed in French paper, for books of a small size, cultivation, and in rearing cattle, and and frequently for those of a larger. au trades and manufactures.
The services rendered to printing by the When you enter the babitation of a Durch are well known. The editions of Durch pensant, you are as much surprised Virgil and Terence, from the press of at the cleanliness, as at the comfort the Elzevier's, are a chef d'oeurre in this which reigns in it; it is cliefly in Hule art; but since that, printing has been on land, properly so called, in that part of the decline. Amsterdam, however, and the north of Holland, known by the some few other towns, still have some struve of the Beemster, and in West distinguished presses. Bookselling was, Friesland that you are the more struck for more than a century, # very chief with this spectacle, wbici firuns such a branch of trade in Holland. Ie was cutarist with the state of poverty and riched by the productions of France, in huiulution to which this interesting granting an asylam to men of letters, class of society is eren now reduced in persecuted by intolerance; but this adsont cotintries of Lurupe. In order chat vantave which she derived from circum. the reader may judge of the truth of this stances, has disappeared with the liberty Wiservation, it will not be extraneous to of thio press, which has occasioned the pro unidou on pensant, in easy cir- French booksellers to engross this branch amalance of Rlynland, or Delinud, of conuerce lus holiday dress.si habent
. Holland derived considerable revenues Themen in sener, with scarce any from several brunches of cultierce, ekoration, ver a small cocked bat; they which now, owing to the suite of Rurope, c h erein alk handkerchiet, or inns are almost it not wholly on the decline ,
muud their neck, which they: Her fisheries were carried on to a most ska manner anuariew extent. Ther of the white an und
rynhiak omen their the poor reinsips of whut it formuriy wins the month wed we want ju 1771, from the difcicrit ports in Hot
laur, one hundred and ten vessels were tuons, and of a good colour. It has the titled out for Greenland, and foriy for rare advantage of communicating its Davis's Streighis : in 1785 there were no flavour to tobaccos of an inferior quamore than sixty-eight: and ihe fishery lity; there is a great deal of this laiter continued on the decline till 1799, when sort in Hollandi, hut that which grows in the English intercepted the convoy on its the department of Guelderland passes return from Greenland, and completed for the worst. its destruction. Amsterdam and Rot The Duich are not, however, confined terdam enjoyed the greatest share of the to the tolsacco wbich their own sos prowhale-fisheries. The wealth of this duces; they consume a great quantity commerce is now chiefly enjover by the beside, which they get from North AmeEnglish and Americans: some few other rica, principally from Marvland; and powers biare a small part ; of this number some troin the Carraccas. The tobacco, are the Dalles, and the Portugese and both in leaf and manufactured, is exSpaniards in their colonies in the New ported in considerable quantities to GerWorld.
many, and the north of Europe. The The produce of the fisheries was inn- manufactory of it was for a long time an portant tu Holland; it is ascertained, that object of great importance to Holland; It supporier at least twenty thousand the city of Amsterdam alonc, at une pefamilies; the number of re-sels which riol, employed no less than three thou. sailed ammually from the several ports sand lands; but this branch of trade bas employed in the fisheries, was estimated also much decayed from what it origiat tive or six hundred. :
nally was, • The East and West India tradle, was Pipes, pens, tiles, bricks, and earthenalso a mine ot'wealih tollolland; they had ware, are the chiet articles now manua cuosiderable share of it. The East and factured in Holland; the pottery of BerWest India Companies still exist; lout gen op Zoo, is in great estination; reprived of ber colonies by the English, and that of Delft likewist, which gives its Holland derives nu benefit from the lew name to the yellow ware.' World.
If we attentively exainine what were • The principal interior trade of Hol- the sources from which Hollanıl derived Jaud, is certainly that with Germany. ber riches, it is easy to observe, that, be'I le navigation of the Rhine, luckily, sides the principal causes which have gives the Dutch an opportunity of en- contributed to paralyse the commerce of grossing the trade with the different the country, there are others which are countries that river passes, and also of independant éven of these circumstances. the other rivers in Germany, which The great increase of money, angmenting empty their waters into the Rhine. It the price of labonr,could not fail to affect opens to them an easy communication those manufactories which were already #lih the departments of the Saarre, the lessoned by the crection of similar ones Rhine and Moselle, Mount Tonnerre, in the neighbouring states, during the and Francfort, which, before the war, last century. lu is well known, that in they supplied with the productions of the Denmark, Sweden, and Russia, certain norrland south. At this period, Cologne branches of industry were unknown, even engrossed the principal fratlic of the at the conclusion of the 17ih century. Rhine from that river, the Dutch re. The East India Company chiefly left the ceived their timber for building; which eilects of this decrease. The progress cone down in immense tuais every which the Engliato made in India, and year from Andernaclı, to Dort. Tlie that of the French, Danish, and Suerisha consumption of this article in Holland, Companies, lesend its trafic, and conmay easily be guessed ar, hy giving a sequently the reiurns and profits. Flance at its shopping, at the bonilings 'To! ulvirlo supported the trade of much stand upon piles, at the dykes, Holland, down to the period of the and the muliitude of millo lich serve French rernlution, was ille iminense for so many different purposes.
capital to be doned in that country. Am Tobacru is an article of somc conse- sterdom brrame the general bank, und quence, eren now; that of Amersfort, prescribed the course of exchange on and i's vicinity, in the department of Europe; the facility with which the l'rrecht, is no superior quality, and merchants cuid draw upon their correhot is the firs! place in tradle after that spondents in that city, for the amount of of Virginia. The leaf is large, soft, uuc- the goods lley sold, has preserved in
Holland certain branches of compierce, carried on in that language, which daily which otherwise would not have tlou. becomes more in use. The French will, rished.
most probably, be the principal language Religion.-By the new constitution, of crummunication with all polished naevery religious sece is equal in the eve tions, as for a long time was the Latin. of the law; and their respective ministers "The spirit of philosophy which distin are all equally excluded from any of guished the eighteenth century, coit. the functions dependant on the govern- tributed not a little to this. Strangers ment. The provincial synods are ume learned French to read Racine; they will in number, forming a total of fifty-thrée study it to read the Encyclopédie. . classes, to which are attached fifteen W hile our unhappy emigrants spread hundred, and seventy preachers. The our language every where, the French Roman Catholics have three hundred armies penetrated into Italy, Holland, churches, which are attended by four and Germany. They continued there hundred priests, without including the for a long time; they mixed with the conquered countries. The Arminians people they had conquered; and as the are spread through the provinces of Guel- French ve not fond of learning strange derland, Holland, Utrecht, and Fries- languages, strangers are obliged to learn land; this society consists of thirty-four theirs. Many neighbouring states, owing comununities, at the head of which are to the success of our arms, have become forty-three preachers. The other 'sects French, and our langunge has therefore chiefly tolerated in Holland, are the Lu- become to them a national one. French, therans, the Anabaptists, the Moravian English, and German, are most combrethren, distinguished by the name of ionly spoken over Holland.. i the Evangelical Fraternity: the Greeks, Justice. - Justice is administered in Armenian Christians, Quakers, and the Holland as to the civil law, like most other Jews.
countries; but the criminal jurisprudence Ofnd the states of Europe, Holland is does honour to human nature, without the one where the Jews havc, for a long encouraging disorders. "The Dutch time back, been admitted to a civil ex- judges never forget that the criminal is a istence, they are divided as elsewhere, mun: as incorruptible as the law, they into German and Portuguese Jews. The pronounce with severity, but always with Inrter are the richest; their manners are regret. There is no country in Europe more polished, and they are further re- where fewer crimes are committed; and moved than the Germans, from the vices justice bos rarely occasion to make use and customs with which this nation is of extreine rigour. Continual employreproached in certain parts of Europe. ment, no doubt, contributes to this preBy n decree passed in 1796, the Jews, servation of good order, as well as the bke the Catholics, have acquired certain vigilance of the magistrates. The mapolitical rights. Atusterdam owes a great nagement of their prisons leaves nothing part of its Hourishing situation to the to wish for: in this instance, Holland Portugucse Jews: they are looked upon offers a most perfect model. There are as the innst enlightened among the Is- houses of continement for every sort of -Taelites, and at this day we could enu- crime. That known by the name of the prietate duany men of science and learning Werkhuis, at Anisterdain, is a pattern in amane bem. We shall conclude this its way it is a large building divided Article with a reflection, which Sir Wil- into two parts, one of which is called the
him Temple made on Ilolland. “There Rasphuis, for the prisoners are employed may be countries were religion dnes in rasping dying woods; it serves to emare mod but trim pretty certain there ploy those who have been guilty of perty are none where it does so biule lurin." crines: the other, known by the name
I uge The Durch langunge is a otthe Spinhuis, is approprinted to females dinteat ur the German. Though it may ap. of n dissolute and vicious life. a falin na strangers : veruit is infi. The town of Bergen-op-Zoom con
Hy more rich in substantives than any tains a prison exclusively reserved for. Beratungong Ancient or madern; the the militars, who have been guilty of
de Nane excepted. The whole of crines; they are employed om pablic L
s can be expressed in Dutch, works. le basoting a single word from the Charitis-Thé establishments of this
lain. The French, 18. how- mature are very nuttierous throughout ich ja me that all pogociations Batavia. There is not a town silvich has
and aud other states ang nut its Werkhuis, or is nrplian-boune;
and many villages have them likewise. It is to this economy, the Dutch must Several dispensaries have been establishattribute the beauty and utility of their ed, where medicines are distributed gratis public works; the inuliiplicity of bridges, to the poor; and there is a central hos- of high roads. This economy enables the pital for the vaccine inoculation. Speedy community at large to pay the taxes, assistance is given to persons foned which by this means are less sensibly telt, drowned, which in a country su intern han elsewhere. In ne country are comsecicd by water, too frequentiy happens. mereiat engagements more religiously obIn fact, cvery day gives rise to some in- servcd, and no where are domestic vite stitution of public utility. An establish- tues bield in higher estimation. Far froin ment, destined to the support of disabled blaming in the Dutch those qualities peamen, was inuich wanging in liollaud, which they have paintained, even to the His Majesty, King Louis Napoleon, bas very day we write, we should on the conlately commanded that a large building, trarv applaud their for having preserved at Delishaven, on the banks of the Meuse, that spirit of order, which is inseparable .which formerly belonged to the East from real economy, and render thein the India Compaur, should be appropriated justice which is their due. to this most essential purpose,
The French abandon the smiling banks Cauructer of the Dutch.- Fidelity and of the Loire and of the Seine, lo inhabit good faith for the distinguishing cha- those of the Spree and of the Neva; pacteristic of a Hollander. He is natui- but is not the case with the Dutchman. rally phlegmatic,laburious and persevering lle is only happy avoidst bis shipping and in bis resolutions. It is suflicient to look canals; and il, iluvigli interested motives, over the annals of the revolution of the he is induced to leave his native soil, he United Provinces, in order to form in delights to find in his new country, a judgment of what a nation is capable of similar local siruition, and its accustomed andertaking, whicli wishes to shake ofilie habits; it is for this reason that Balaria, yoke of tyranny; and in our own time we trum is low, dat, marsliy position, makes have seen the Dutch, united with the hiin forget the immensity of space which French, vying in courage with the latter, divides bion from the Texel. “ Tbe to drive from their territory the enemy, Durchi, (savs Monsieur Garrat, in his wbo sought to be masters of it. We have Memoir relative to llolland,) bave, I may beheld the Dutch worthy the descendauts say, built Ilolland; they almost appear to of those Batavians, who for a long series of say tu themselves, what we have done is . years were the adiniration of all Europe. weli." We do not now describe then as a peu- Bread is not, as in Frauce, the principal ple, io whom avarice has stifled every foud of the people; it consimtes but noble and generous sentiment. We a spall part of their daily wants; A must not, borever, confound that eco. whule Duich family will not consume in JOUY on which public as well as prisale a dav, as much as a native of the former fortune repends, with that sordici ava- province of Limousin would scarcely rice whiclı destroys every liberal idea. think enough for his subsistence.
It is true, however, that the manners Besides the grain of which bread is of the Dutch are much changed witbina usually made, the people make use of century. We do not see them toiling buck-wheat and barley, whether ground, i cessantly, with the loss of ease and con- or wholc; of this there is a very great furt, to heap up wealth, in order to leare consumption. Poinwes are much cul. it to their heirs; but it is no less true, tivated also. that Holland is still the country where "The English custom of eating meat luxury has made the least progress. It half raw, is not usiopied in Holland; anx! is but very rare, that their expences can they foliow the general custom of inoot equal their revenue; and when that is the nations of Europe, to give it that degree case, the Durch think the year very of cookery, nccessary to facilitate bouda badly employed: this inode of living mastication and digestion. The Dutola takes away from a man's credit and re- cunsume a vast quantity of salted neat, pulation, as much as a wanion and pro- which is lield in higher estimation, than fuse extravagance dues in other parts of perlaps any where; their mode of curing Europe. A Dutcliman, theretiore, is it being so excelleni. Tlie hains of thin lost in the opiniou of the public, when it country, but particularly those of Gud. is known that he has dissipated his for- derland, are in bigli repate among io. tune, either through unforeseen circum- reigners. They cousume large quantities slauces, or his own misconduct.
of gecse and wild-ducks. Wsuerer