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adjoining to which is the town-house with stones. Near St. John's hospital, before. a handsome front. Another edifice well mentioned, are likewise shown the remains deserving the stranger's notice, is the hos- of a theatre, but too much delaced to enapital of St. John, situated on the north ble the antiquary to ascertain its dimenside of the towni, without the walls. It sious or parts. was built in the middle of the sixteenth On the banks of the Tayus under the century: the chapel is of the Doricorder, castle are ruins of an aquecduci-bride for and the courts are raised on arcades of conveying water across the river, at a great Doric and Sonic pillars.

height, to supply the old town. The piers The walls of the city have, in the lapse are placed on projecting points of the of ages, undergone so many changes that rocks; and in several places of the bill. it is perhaps impossible to trace their va- beyond the river are to be seen channels rious dates. The part inclosing the sum- for conducting the water, with custella mit of the rock, where the ground is the aqure or reservoirs constructed, like the least uneven is composed in general of aqueduct itself, of small stones and more vast rude masses of stone, an evidence of tar. In the neighbourhood of this aquevery remote antiguity, and very unlike duct are also observable remains of an the mode of construction einployed in ancient Roman road, formed of hewir such works, as from their nature and stones. other circumstances are unquestionably Inscriptions abound in Toledo in Latin, of Roman erection).

Ilebrew,and Arabic: within the gare of the The Goths who succeeded the Romans castle is one in the foriner language by the in Spain, and after them the Arabs, Moors, people of this town to the Limperor Julius or Saracens, from Africa, were long Philippus. enough masters of this peninsula, to have it is uncertain whether there be now made very considerable alterations in the in Toledo any buildings constructed under place: indeed the Gothic prince\Vainba in the Goths, whose reign ended with Rodrigo particular, is universally believed to have in 711, when the Moors fixed themselves surrounded the town with new walls, on in the country. The convent of St. Authe remains of the old, prior to the year gustine, seated on the brink of the preci680 when he resigned the crown.

pice at the south-west corner of the town, Toledo and its environs atlord many is supposed to be founded on the palace vestiges of Roman magnificence: but all of the Gothic kings, which was afrerwards now in great decay. At the bottoin of occupied by the Moorish princes. The the hill on which the town stands, and on most remarkable part of this building is the west side, near tlie Franciscan con: the external wall, evidently a portion of vent of St. Bartholomew, are the remains the enclosure of the town, which, to of a Circus. A garcuay in the middle of remedy the irregular line of the rock, one of the long sides is tolerably entire; is in sundry places supported on arches and at the north end are to be seen the resting on pillars founded on projecuing archies which supported thic rows of seats rocks at a great depth below. These for the spectators: tlie whole constructed arches are formed of hewn stone, with of small irregular stones bound together the peculiarity that they comprehend ai. by a very hard mortar. The breadth ways more than a seinicircle, the lower of this circus is about 100 yards, and parts contracting in the shape of a horse. the length may be traced in the foun- shoe. Arches of the same form are to dations as far as 400 yards. The circular be seen in various other buildings in Tole. part at the north end was chosen for the do, and are usually supposed to be the punishment of offenders found guilty by work of the Moors. thc Inquisition : such exhibitions called Toledo continued in the power of the Autos de fe have not however appeared Moors from 714 to 1090 when it was rein Toledo for these hundred years past. covered from then by Alphonso the

Parallel to the west side of the circus, Sixth: no monuments of their architectuand near tbe north end, are the foundations ral magnificence such as those which of a building vulgarly nanied the temple adorn Granada, Cordova, and other parts of Hercules: these inclose a rectangular of Spain are however now in existence. space of ground about two hundred feat Indeed the Christian churches in Toledo cach way. They appear rather to have werc, on their arrival, so numerous that been the basis of massy columns or pilas those Mahometans had no need of erecte ters, than a continued wall, each side con- ing new temples for their mode of wortaining four: their construction also con. ship; on the contrary, they assigned to sists of a strongly cemented mass of small their Christian subjects six churches, re

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capite, and on the other side mucro. The of this and another passage of a similar length of the blade is about 25 inches, kind. that of the hilt 8: the whole length of the The lines immediately corresponding sword being 33 inches; the greatest with the subject of the enquiry are these, breadth about 24 inches.

“Car ceux qui s'enfuyent peuvent revenir It must be observed however that my

sur leur pas; examination of this precious relic was

Ainsi ne sont jamais mis hors de combat. rather cursorily made; for although it was, Mais ceux, au contraire, qui demeurent after certain ceremonies, applied to my sur la place, forehead and lips, by the monk who ex- Se privent de tout moyen de venger leur hibited it, any more familiar bandling of disgrace." it might perhaps have given scandal, not ON THE MATERIAL, IMMATERIAL, AND to the worthy guardian, but to a number

MIXT IIY PUTUESIS, of peasants who, hearing the relic was to be produced, hastened to avail theinselres

« Il esser apparente ed il EsszR VIR0."of the opportunity to have at least a dis

Sonn. di GRALINI. tant view of this object of their respect. I am glad to find the metaphysical subWhen we rellect that the genuine Roman ject revived by W. H. I hope and think gladius, was, according to the best ac- he is the same with Hylaus. He has excounts, to the representations on the his. prest the reasons, which prove the simple toric columns of Traian and Antoniuus in material hypothesis impossible to be true, Rome, to coins and cther authentic autho. with great perspicuity and force. But rities, a short double-cdged sharp-pointed

I would observe that, although sinple weapon, in length from 14 to 16 inches,

materialisın cannot possibly be true, the it will be evident that the decapitation of very reasons what prove it can not, are St. Paul was performed probably by the many of them strong arguments against securis, or axe, or at any rate not by an the mixt hypothesis. That matter, if it ancient Roman sword.

exist, is essentially impercipient and ille Having thus hastily viewed some of the capable of sensation as of intellectual most remarkable objects in and about

activity, seems to me perfectly clear. Toledo, for to examine the whole with Sentient matter cannot be inert matter, due attention would have required as

it must feel. It must think, at least, many weeks as I could spare days, I re- think on its feelings, and seek pleasure and turned to Madrid to prepare for the con- avoid pain. But voluntary, active, feel tinuation of my tour through La Mancha ing, thinking being, that lias its owu ends to Valencia, Barcelona, &c. on my return and chuses its means to thein, is mind, to France.

not matter, (To be continued.)

Bod, ynay and does exist, in the only sense which the phenoinenia require, or

seem to adinit, though matter seems to To the Editor of the Monthly Mugasine. have no existence. For body will then SİR,

mean the energies of inind rendered sent ** I've been so oft remembered I am forgot.” sible by certain general permanent phe

nomena, and acting by fixed laws in this TOR once the author of Hudibras

production of uew phenomena and eff might adopt the words of the author

tects; also general. of the Night Thoughts.

And this will prove the clear bounFew passsages have been so often quo- dary between imagination and fact. ted as that of Butler, concerning which

Both are pbenomena, both are believed

Ra your correspondent enquires. The Greek

real, neither has any material existence verse

independently of mind. But fact repreAragd' ó peuyan ng malso paxarilan. sents perinanent general phenomena reof which it is a diffusive translation, seems cognised as such by all minds possessing to have been as prorerbial in Greece as

the requisite faculties, and in circuar this:

stances to apply them. The man who fights and runs away

The shining of the sun is a fact. Wirb

this the existence or non-existence of mut. May live to fight another day.

ter is indifferent. It is a fact, that the The two others are thus:

phenomenon and its consequent sensaFor those that Ay may fight again, tion and effects permanently and geneWhich he cannot do that's slain. rally take place, But if I dream of a There is an admirable French transla- sup, if I imagine a sun at midnight when tion quoted' by 2. Grey, in lris Uudibras no such phenoinenon cau be sensible to

others

others in this climate, according to the tion, in the year 1789; particularly
general law of causes and effects, this stating the number of original nominees
is an imagination. The one produces a in each class, the deaths in each to the
vast variety of general permanent couse- present time, and the increase of the
quences; not so the other. It is not dividends respectively in consequence
therefore matter, but permanence and thereof; or rather indeed what is now
generality of effect which distinguish paid per share : for I apprehend that,
truth and reality from the solitary if this auxiliary financial aid to the re-
wanderings of imagination. Mind and venue had been conducted agreeably to
its modifications, its active and passive the letter of the statute, the adventurers
powers, seem to me demonstrably ade- now entitled to dividends theretrom
quate to all phenomena and effects in would receive more than they do or have
the intellectual and sensible universe. done for some tiine past.
I seek no more for no inore is wanted. I am fully aware that an investigation
I admit no more; for I find that more into this national measure may be indis-
is useless, repugnant, contradictory, and pensable to a perfectly satisfactory ex-
I hope that W. H. will ultimately agree position of the subject; but it is not
with me im recognizing the sublime truth, necessary for the purpose I have in view,
that mind is the sole real existence - which is merely to shew, whether there
a truth understood by Plato; and which is any consideralle ground for supposing
my Italian motco beautifully expresses. mal-administration in a government mea-
THE PLANET VENUS.

sore wbich induced so many persons to We are now in one of the Novennial embark their property in it, from the very periods, calculated by the illustrious Hal- flattering prospect held out by the origilev, of greatest illumination."

nal scheme. Last night Venus far exceeded the Bristol, Your's, &c. .. brightness of either Jupiter or "Juno. January 23, 1809. R. Rankin. And this appearance will continue and Increase for several days longer. The To the Editor of the Monthly Mayuzinc. absence of twilight at this time of the SIR, year long before Venus sets, and the ab- AS your invaluable Miscellany has, sence of the moon, concur with the posi- A for a series of years, given me much tion of Venus to produce this beautiful pleasure in its perusal, it will be an ad. Ppentance. * Your's, &c. "

ditional "gratification to contribute the Troston,

CAPEL LOFFT. smallest portion of genuine matter to the February 5, 1809.

source of information it contains. "

Permit me to relate an anecdote of

one of the brute species, which, perhaps, o the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. would never have appeared before thic

public, had not tlre relation of one partly IN answer to the wishes of your core similar, in the present work, revived the

respondent, Mr. W.Neilson, respecte circumstance in my memory, for ing the Greek English Lexicon, I begleave Some years ago, having occnsiou to to say that such a work is now ready for reside for some time at a farm-house in the presso

the country. I was much alarıned, one A printed specimen of the plan of the inorning, by the unusual bellowing of a work I have now before me, which ap- cow under the window of the apartment pens to correspond with Mr. Neilson's wherein I was sitting; looking out I per

ceived her to be one belonging to a herd, I belient it is also intended to publish which I previously understood were en ochro abridgment.

closed in a field near a mile distant: Tutort. Your's, &c. alarmed at her appearance I went out in med 9, 1809.

J. HILDITCI. order to take her back, but as soou as

I left the louse, she nth before me ap. pue Editor the Donthly Magazine. parently in the greatest concern, fre

A g uently looking back to sce if I was fola the che favor of # šunll towing: in this inanner she continued S i n your most useful Mnga aeross several fields till she brought me

out of policiting, from to the brink of a deep and dangerous
eidun correspondents, morass; where, to my great surprise, I

that eta be attained beheld one of her associates nearly-enman Boronment contine, Sveloped in Ne swanap anderneath The

Piti administra. distressed animal, alter much difficulty,

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HILDITOR

tias extricated from its perilous situa- supplied the inferior military ranks among tion to the no small satisfaction of the the followers of those redoubted chanıother which seemed to caress and lick pions, or assisted in rowing and navigait, as if it had been one of her own ting the gallies which performed the ane offsprings.

nual caravance against the Turks. The Every observer of the animal creation, modern brights, like most of the old must be aware, what a regular degree of worn-out governments of Europe, inisubordination exists among herds of cat- tated their predecessors only in a vain tle that have been long accustomer to ostentation and parade. They performed ruminate together; the instinct of the no prodigies of valour; gained no trophies cow, in this respect, is by no means the of conquest; but still, the" ponip and cirleast predominant. When a farmer cuinstince," of a continual war against makes bis first selection, he, of course, the infidels, supplied pretexts for ops has a great variety of the same species, pressing the industry of the native Mailand (if we may presume to judge tron tese, and for precluding them froin ai. analogy) endued with a diversity of dis- most every species of tratlic, especially positions; hence, for some time it is en- that which might have been beneficially iertaining to behold the many disputed carried on with Barbary and the Levant points that arise among the candidates Hence the agriculture and commerce of for precedence, before the business can Malta alike languished. At present, the be ainicably adjusted; for it is very ob- scene is changed ; Malta is become one of servable, they always walk in lineal pro- the greatest depots of merchandize in the cession, preceded by a chieftain, or lead- whole Mediterranean: and the natives, er, which is unanimously acknowledged in the midst of a war peculiarly levelled by the whole herd; the rest follow in or- against the commercial intercourse of the der, according to their contested deci- world, have acquired habits of industry, sions, each being most tenacious of her and developed sources of profit, to which allotted station; which did not escape they were formerly total strangers. that accurate delineator of nature. It is no less curious than amusing, to Bloomfield, who, in his “ Farmer's Boy," view the diversities of dress and appear. makes the following beautiful allusion; ance among the motley crowd which bu« The right of conguest all the law they siness daily assembles on the Marina, or know:

shore of the harbour of Valetta. Besides Subordinate, they one by one succeed; the English soldiers, sailors, and merAnd one among them always takes the lead : chants, (many of whom have their wareIs ever foremost, wheresoe'er they stray, houses placed there), oue sees BarbaAllow'd precedence undisputed sway; resque traders wrapped in their long with jealous pride her station is maintain'd, shawls, and adorned with waistcoats of For many a broil that post of honour gain'd."

most splendid embroidery, with white or But a tacit responsibility seems to de- green turbans, black bushy beards, yelvolve their leader, for the care and wel- low zipsy-like countenances, and dark fare of the whole, which has been fully sparkling eyes. They generally sit with exemplified in the preceding aneedute: pipes, a yard long, in their mouths, or the concerned cow being the premier walk up and down very leisurely, while of the herd.

they wegociate matters of business. Their 'To account for this wonderful degree settled gravity is contrasted with the noise of instinct, in this part of the animal of the Maltese bontined and porters, who speores, is beyond ny penetration;I are a lively set of people, having much leave the subject for matured philosophy more of the Italian than of the African to investigate.

Your's, &c. character, although some of them eviRedman's Row, Mile End, J. IIOLCROFT. dently appear to be of the latter origin. Februury 6, 1809.

These men wear the peculiar dress of the

lower classes of Maltese, a berrettu, or For the Monthly Magazinc. cap, red or black, a checked shirt, comSKETCHES OF MALTA.-No. L. mouly tucked up to the elbows, a coarse A STRANGER, on his arrival at this cotton waistcoat and trowsers, generally A celebrated Island, cannot but be omamented with a set of globular silver greatly struck with the change of charac- buttons, a girdle of various colours bound ter which its jubabitants hare undergone, round the loms; their feet are either since the time of the Order. In the bare, or protected by a rude kiud of early periods of their subjection to the sandals; and to protect them from rough -ancient Kuglies of St. Jolin, they merely weather, they wear in the colder seasona

grego,

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