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and if our imagination adds to these the innumer- permanent sequence. This is true of the early inable creeks that reach out, traversing almost every vasion of the Wabash valley, and while French life square mile of the country, what nature has done for there, from the establishment of the first posts in the land in this particular becomes apparent. the first half of the eighteenth century till the AmerClosely correlated with the abundant water sup

ican invasion early in the nineteenth, affords a picply in this favored region is a soil unsurpassed in its

turesque and romantic preliminary chapter to our productiveness and a climate borrowed from the lo- history, it can scarcely be called an integral part oi cation of the valley in the heart of the north temper- it, and its influence in modifying our development is ate zone which is at once adapted to a wide range

scarcely appreciable. The story of Indiana as a of vegetation and to the stimulation of human en

State is a story of Americanized Anglo-Saxon stock ergy-a very potent factor in the development of pure and simple.

The isolated, straggling French civilization. For variety of productions useful io

life, little ethnological fragments, as it were, left man perhaps no spot on earth excels the Mississippi stranded here far from their kind, was not strong valley, and this value is enhanced by the adaptabil- enough to tincture the incoming population with ity of the soil to vegetation that is not indigenous that wonderful French race persistence that is not

, many of our products today being of exotic origin. able in Canada, and in short time they were incontiThis fertility and adaptability of the soil, says Liv- nently swallowed up. ingston Farrand in his "Basis of American His- It can be said, however, that the previous French tory," "must be regarded as among the chief con- settlement at Vincennes determined the startingtributing causes to the stupendous growth of the point of the American occupancy, and the beginning American nation."

place of Indiana politics. The treaty of Greenville, The stock that peopled our section has, of course,

in 1795, secured from the Indians along with cerbeen an immeasurable factor in the extraordinary tain strategic points on the Wabash river and a development of the country. What self-government large tract at the falls of the Ohio, for George is in the hands of an untrained Latin race is demon- Rogers Clark and his soldiers, the lands adjacent to strated by South American history. The Anglo- "the post of St. Vincennes,” to which the Indian Saxon tide that poured into our Middle West after title had already been extinguished. This reservathe Revolutionary war was not only the offspring tion, which was rather indefinite as to boundaries, in of the most staid and substantial race on earth, but

turn determined the first of the series of Indian purit had back of it nearly two centuries of training in chases that ultimately comprised the whole State. self-government. It was a race hardy, independent By a treaty consummated in 1803 William Henry and capable, jealously guarding its institutions and

Harrison secured an extension of the 1795 reservathe best that it had inherited politically. Above all,

Above all, tion, with defined boundaries, that reached some its individuals were ardent lovers of their land and fifty miles westward from Vincennes. This tract permanent home-makers. Add to this a national was the first part of the new territory to be surveyed policy evolved through the same people that fos- by the rectangular system adopted by the United tered the settlement and development of the public States government, and was the first to be thrown domain along wise lines that had been thought out open for general settlement. This and the existby some of the most patriotic and most able states

ence of Vincennes as the one town in the territory men of the age, and we have in rough outline the that was to be the future Indiana, logically deterfundamental factors of that particular phase of civ- mined the location of the territorial seat of governilization in which our State shares. To appreciate ment and the first center of American population. well the character and meaning of our local history

Incidentally, in this connection, in order to estabwe should consider these antecedent causes explain- lish in the newly acquired isolated tract surveys that ing the larger history of which we are a part. would align with future surveys to the east, that A long and interesting chapter on these preliminar- must, in turn, meet the Ohio surveys, a meridian and ies might well be written, but the aim here is to

base lines were made to intersect at the western touch upon them in a cursory way only, as an intro- boundary of the tract, and thus our survey ranges duction to our nearer theme.

ran east and west from a meridian near the middle The French in the Wabash Valley. S—The French

of the State instead of advancing westward from occupancy of the Mississippi valley, lasting nearly a the Ohio line in orderly continuation. century, or from the time of the explorations of La One great preliminary service that the French did Salle and Joliet till the French and Indian war, is for their successors was in the first explorations of for the most part, as a tale that is told, with little the country. First the professed explorers and then

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the coureurs de bois, employed by the fur traders, gle immediately at hand, their political future traversed our streams, penetrating to the remoter territory hanging in the balance, it was a provia parts of the virgin wilderness, and the maps left us tial thing that in far-off Kentucky there was a young

by the old French cartographers are not only curi- “Hannibal of the West,” who had the statesmanous as revealing the growth of the geographical ship to see the importance of the great wilderness knowledge of our region, but are particularly in- north of the Ohio river, the ambition to plan its conformative as to the location of Indian tribes in those quest and the resolution and ability to attain his days.

ends. This person was George Rogers Clark,g a VirAn interesting geological story, apropos here, ginian by birth, but a Kentuckian by adoption, who, which illustrates how remote natural causes may by his strength of character, had become a leader ini sometimes enter into human history, is given by the new settlements. At that time Kentucky, a Mr. Charles R. Dryer in the Sixteenth Geological province of Virginia, was the extreme western fronReport of Indiana (1888). The French in their in- tier. Between it and Canada, where the English tercourse with the Mississippi valley, as even the were firmly entrenched, stretched the territory in casual reader of history is supposed to know, passed question, in English possession by virtue of small into the interior valley from the basin of the great military forces at Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia. lakes by the rivers of the two systems, making the Clark's reasons for the invasion of this half-posconnections over various short portages at water- sessed land were defensive as well as acquisitive, for sheds where the navigable waters of opposite-flow- its savage inhabitants and the French settlements ing streams almost met. There were six or seven established there were utilized by the British as a of these trade routes, and one of the most direct, perpetual threat against the American frontier. Rewith a comparatively short and easy portage, was peated Indian depredations on the Kentucky settlefrom Lake Erie up the Maumee to the point where ments were instigated by Lieutenant-Governor Fort Wayne stands, thence about nine miles by level Hamilton, stationed at Detroit, who was even acland to the Aboit, or Little Wabash, thence down cused of offering premiums for American scalps, and the Wabash. An examination of the map reveals the garrisons at the French towns on the Wabash a peculiar natural feature at this portage. The St. and Mississippi were but bases for the red maraudJoseph and St. Mary's rivers, flowing, respectively, ers to operate from. from the northeast and southeast, unite at the point farthest west, then, as the Maumee, double curiously different to this state of affairs in the far West, and

The Federal Congress was not ignorant of or inon their previous courses and flow back to Lake

it probably would, sooner or later, have moved in Erie. The three, presenting a sagittate or arrow

the matter, but none the less opportune was the rise head form, reach into the fork formed by the

of a frontiersman like Clark, who knew intimately branches of the Wabash, thus bringing the waters

the conditions and the character of the foes to be of the two systems almost together at navigable dealt with. The elements that come into relief points. This odd situation Mr. Dryer explains in when we examine his famous campaign and its sucterms of glacial deposit, the explanation being that

cessful outcome are this unerring, fundamental comvast lakes of ice in the glacial period crowding each

prehension of conditions and men, a grim will that other from north and east heaped up their ridges of no obstacle could daunt and a sagacity that gave morainic matter in such fashion as to determine the

greatness to his leadership; and for this combination subsequent river outlets.

of qualities five great commonwealths of subsequent In view of this theory it is not fanciful to say that days owe him perpetual gratitude. the blind forces of nature, long before the advent of

Like most men who elaborate plans of magnitude, man, predetermined very definitely the little chapter

Clark did not wear his heart on his sleeve. After the of French history in the Wabash valley, and what

inception of his idea he digested it well, but shared ever relics of it may have survived in our later history. More than that , it determined at a later day undertaking he contemplated must, for its success,

it with few, one good reason for this being that the a very important trade route (the Wabash & Erie

fall as a surprise on the enemy. As revealing at canal, which followed the Maumee and Wabash val

once the slow incubation of his scheme and his thorleys) that played no little part in peopling and developing the Wabash valley.

oughness in preparing the way, as early as the sum

mer of 1777 he sent two spies into the northern terThe Acquisition of Our Territory.—When the ritory for the purpose of gathering more explicit inAmerican colonies were fighting for their independ- formation concerning the British in relation to the ence, very much engrossed with the desperate strug- Indians. His plans finally thought out, his next

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step was to bring them before the powers that could Orders are therefore given to Captain Smith 1 give the necessary authority and backing, and to secure the two men from Kaskasky. Similar conthis end he went to Virginia, where he conferred duct will be proper in similar cases. It is earr. with such men as Patrick Henry, then Governor of estly desired that you show humanity to such Virginia; Thomas Jefferson, George Mason and British subjects and other persons as fall in your George Wythe. The boldness of Clark's scheme hands. If the white inhabitants at that post and captivated while it challenged doubts. The hazard the neighborhood will give undoubted evidence and chances of disaster were great, but the possible of their attachment to this State (for it is certai: benefits to the country in the future, aside from the they live within its limits) by taking the test prepresent question of annoyance and danger to the vided by law and by every other way and means Kentucky country, after careful consideration, out- in their power, let them be treated as fellow-citiweighed the risk, and in the end the Council of Vir- zens and their persons and property duly secured ginia advised the appropriation of twelve hundred Assistance and protection against all enemies pounds for the purpose of an "expedition against whatever shall be afforded them and the commonKaskaskia,” to be undertaken “with as little delay wealth of Virginia is pledged to accomplish it. and as much secrecy as possible.”

But if these people will not accede to these reaThis advice was acted upon by Governor Henry sonable demands they must feel the miseries of and Clark was authorized to raise a force of three

under the direction of that humanity hundred and fifty men for the campaign.

that has hitherto distinguished Americans, and At this point the adventure takes on a truly which it is expected you will ever consider as the dramatic character. With a view to the secrecy rule of your conduct, and from which you are in necessary to the hopefulness of the enterprise, a no instance to depart. set of instructions which was made public, and the The corps you are to command are to receive aim of which was “to divert attention from the real

the pay and allowance of militia, and to act under object," commanded Colonel Clark to enlist seven

the laws and regulations of this State now in companies of men to act as militia, the further

force. The inhabitants of this post will be inlanguage of the instructions conveying the idea that

formed by you that in case they accede to the the purpose was for the protection of Kentucky.

offer of becoming citizens of this commonwealth Under cover of this Clark received from Governor

a proper garrison will be maintained among them Henry a private letter of instructions which read as

and every attention bestowed to render their follows:

commerce beneficial, the fairest prospects being Virginia, Sct.

opened to the dominions of both France and In Council, Wmsburg, Jany 2d, 1778. Spain. Lieut. Colonel George Rogers Clark:

It is in contemplation to establish a post near You are to proceed with all convenient speed the mouth of Ohio. Cannon will be wanted to to raise seven companies of soldiers to consist fortify it. Part of those at Kaskasky will be of fifty men each, officered in the usual manner easily brought thither or otherwise secured as and armed most properly for the enterprise, and circumstances will make necessary. with this force attack the British post at Kas- You are to apply to General Hand for powder kasky.

and lead necessary for this expedition. If he It is conjectured that there are many pieces of can't supply it the person who has that which cannon and military

stores to considerable Captain Lynn brought from Orleans can. Lead amount [?] at that place, the taking and preser- was sent to Hampshire by my orders, and that vation of which would be a valuable acquisition may be delivered you. Wishing you success, I to the State. If you are so fortunate, therefore,

Your h'ble serv. as to succeed in your expectation you will take

P. HENRY. every possible measure to secure the artillery and stores and whatever may advantage the State. One who wishes to enter intimately into the ro

For the transportation of the troops, provi- mantic story of Clark's campaign should carefully sions, etc., down the Ohio you are to apply to the read this letter as it fixes clearly and authoritatively commanding officer at Fort Pitt for boats, etc. the policy and program of the campaign-a proDuring the whole transaction you are to take gram that was carried out with little deviation alespecial care to keep the true destination of your though Governor Henry in private conversation force a secret. Its success depends upon this. with Clark implied that his written instructions

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- might be construed with a certain latitude and dis- island, at least temporarily, was two-fold—better cretion.

protection from hostile bands of Indians and the Thus empowered and provided with money for the more effective guarding against desertion, which expenses of the expedition Clark, with characteristic danger would probably follow the announcement of energy, proceeded to the execution of his plans. His the commanders real plans.

the commanders real plans. The sagacity of the first base of operations was a western settlement on latter surmise was not at fault in this, as the sequel the Monongahela river some distance above Pitts- showed. . burg, known as Red Stone or Red Stone Old Fort. The settlement on Corn Island consisted of a suffiHis officers were appointed and commissioned to cient number of rude cabins built from the timber raise recruits in western Pennsylvania, Virginia, growing on the island and it took on the character Carolina and the Kentucky country, and in this pre- of a real “settlement” by virtue of the families that liminary business the first serious difficulty de- had thus far accompanied the expedition, which veloped. It must be remembered that the real rea- were now apportioned ground for gardens, and an son for this recruiting was not divulged. Secrecy, interesting passage in Clark's Memoir is to the be it repeated, was essential to success, and the in- effect that when word was carried back to the people structions made public by Governor Henry cori- on the Monongahela “great numbers moved down,” veyed the impression that the force to be raised and that this was "one of the principal causes of the was for the protection of Kentucky. The proposi- rapid progress of the settlement of Kentucky.” tion to draw off from the other parts of the frontier Clark lingered at Corn Island the better part of "for the defense of a few detached inhabitants who June, 1778, still hoping to swell his little force, but had better be removed” met with an opposition that with disheartening results. According to William threatened to nip the whole scheme in the bud and H. English, who is the leading authority on all rethat probably would have stopped short a less de- lating to this campaign, “it is probably a fair contermined leader. As Clark himself expressed it: clusion that Clark brought with him to the falls “Many leading men in the frontiers

about one hundred and fifty men; that thirty-five bined and did everything that lay in their power or forty were added to his forces while at the falls; to stop the men that had enlisted, and set the whole that he left not exceeding ten guards on Corn Island frontier in an uproar, even condescended to harbor and took with him on the Kaskaskia campaign about and protect those that deserted. I found my case one hundred and seventy-five men. It is possible desperate—the longer I remained the worse it was."* that the officers should be added to the number, but Out of the men that Captains Joseph Bowman and

it is the author's belief that the effective force with Leonard Helm had succeeded in recruiting "two- him in the campaign against Kaskaskia did not at thirds of them was stopped,” we are told, those that any time exceed two hundred, which was certainly were left numbering about 150. Clark, however, less than half the number he at one time expected."* was not to be thwarted, and equipping himself with Clark's own words reveal at once the situation boats and supplies at Pittsburg he put down river and the character of the man. “I was sensible," he

I with his little force, accompanied by several adven- says, "of the impression it would have on many, to turous families from the Pennsylvania country, bor- be taken near a thousand (miles) from the body of rowing hope from the information sent him that one their country to attack a people five times their of his recruiting officers, Major William Smith, number, and merciless tribes of Indians, then allies would join him at the falls of the Ohio with nearly and determined enemies to us. I knew that my case two hundred men, from the Holston river country, was desperate, but the more I reflected on my in what is now eastern Tennessee. But he was weakness the more I was pleased with the enterdoomed to bitter disappointment-a part of one com- prise." pany was all that ever appeared of Major Smith's To quote Mr. English again: "He had encountwo hundred men.

tered unexpected obstacles and disappointments At the falls of the Ohio, Clark established his sec- from the time his recruiting commenced. He had ond base of operations on a long, narrow island estimated that the complete success of his enterprise afterwards known as "Corn Island,” that then lay required a force of five hundred men.* above the falls where the Pennsylvania railroad and here he was with less than two hundred. bridge now spans the river. The falls, as being

It was a turning point, not only in his life, the dividing place between the upper and lower but, possibly, in the destiny of his country, for if river, was deemed the logical point for a permanent the expedition had broken up then who knows what defensive post. Clark's reason for settling on the would have been the future of the vast territory *Clark's Memoir.

*Conquest of the Northwest.

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northwest of the Ohio river, or where would have might be waded, and a little before day himself and

, been the present boundaries of the United States? the greater part of the company slipped down the

He realized that inaction was now his bank and got to the opposite shore before they were greatest danger, and that an immediate movement discovered by the sentinels. Vexed at the idea of against the enemy was the best and only way to their escape in the manner they did, as one of my hold his forces and win success."

principal motives for taking post on the island was It was not until the eve of the day set for de- to prevent desertion, and intending to set out the parture that Clark divulged to his men his real next day I was undetermined for [a] few minutes object. He says:

what to do, as it might take a party several days to "After my making known my instructions almost overtake [them), and, having no distrust of those every gentleman espoused the enterprise and plainly who remained, the example was not immediately saw the utility of it, and supposed they saw the dangerous but might prove so hereafter; and recolsalvation of Kentucky almost in their reach; but lecting that there was a number of horses [belongsome repined that we were not strong enough to put ing] to gentlemen from Harrodsburg, I ordered a it beyond all doubt. The soldiery in general debated

strong party to pursue them, and for the foot and on the subject, but determined to follow their offi

horse to relieve each other regularly, and so put to Some were alarmed at the thought of being

death every man in their power who would not surtaken at so great a distance into the enemy's coun

render. They overhauled them in about twenty try, that if they should have success in the first instance they might be attacked in their posts with

miles. The deserters, discovering them at a dis

tance, scattered in the woods; only seven or eight out a possibility of getting succor or making their retreat. Some dissatisfaction was discov

were taken. The rest made their way to the differered in Captain Dillards company, consequently the

ent posts; many who were not woodsmen almost boats were well secured and sentinels placed where perished. The poor lieutenant and the few who reit (was] thought there was a possibility of their mained with him, after suffering almost all that wading from the island. My design was to take could be felt from hunger and fatigue, arrived at those from the island down on our way who would Harrodstown. Having heard of his conduct (they) ] not attempt to desert, but got out-generaled by their would not, for some time, suffer him to come into lieutenant, whom I had previously conceived a very their houses nor give him anything to eat. On the tolerable opinion of. They had, by swimming in the return of the party the soldiers burnt and hung his day, discovered that the channel opposite their camp effigy. "

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INDIANA IN BRIEF

A Comprehensive Outline History of the State in Detail from the Earliest Period to the Present.

By GEORGE S. COTTMAN

The French Period.-The exact dates of the first French explorations of the Mississippi valley are so variable, as given by various historians, that it is hardly worth while to give any as really authentic. According to the researches of Mr. J. P. Dunn, who may be accepted as careful and thorough-going, La Salle, the first white man in this region, probably “traced the entire lower boundary of Indiana in 1669-70,” by way of the Ohio river, and passed through the northwest corner of the State in 1671 or 1672. From this time until 1679 (still drawing upon Mr. Dunn) there was no recorded exploration of Indiana, though it is argued that in that interval more or less fur trading was carried on in this region. The portage between the St. Joseph and Kankakee rivers, where South Bend stands, was first used by him in 1679, while in 1682-3 "he was all through Indiana and Illinois.” Who was the first to traverse the Maumee-Wabash route by way of the site of Fort Wayne is not recorded, but it was probably used by the fur traders at a very early date, as the Wabash threaded

a rich and extensive fur country, besides being one of the most direct highways to the Mississippi. The first post planted in this valley was Quiatanon, which was a fort as well as a trading post. There has been controversy as to the exact location of Ouiatanon, but according to Prof. Oscar J. Craig, formerly of Purdue University, who has written a monograph on the subject, it is now pretty well established that it stood on “the west side of the Wabash river and four miles below the present city of Lafayette." The date of its establishment is given as 1719 or 1720. Its purpose was to “counteract the influence of the English and to keep ascendancy over the Indians.” The logic of the location was that at this point on the river "the lighter barks and canoes that were used in the carrying trade between Canada and the southwest

were changed for larger ones, to be used on the deeper waters of the lower Wabash and the Ohio"-the same cause, practically, that operated in the locating of Lafayette more than a century later. The post took its name from the Ouiatanon

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