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nounce to you the complete Pacifica- The Measures which, in concert tion of that great Empire, and to de- with My Ally the Emperor of the vote My Attention to the Improve- French, I thought it necessary to take ment of its Condition, and to the Ob- upon the Coast of China, have resultliteration of all Traces of the present ed in a Treaty, by which further effuunhappy Conflict.

sion of Blood has been prevented, On assuming, by your Advice, the and which holds out the prospect of direct Government of that Portion of greatly increased Intercourse with My Dominions, I deemed it proper that extensive and densely peopled to make known by Proclamation the Empire. Principles by which it was My Inten- ANOTHER Treaty into which I have tion to be, guided, and the Clemency entered with the Emperor of Japan which I was disposed to show towards opens a fresh field for Commercial those who might have been seduced Enterprise in a populous and highly into Revolt, but who might be willing civilized Country, which has hitherto to return to their Allegiance. I have been jealously guarded against the directed that a copy of that Proclama- Intrusion of Foreigners. As soon as tion should be laid before you.

the Ratifications of these Treaties I receive from all Foreign Powers shall have been exchanged, they will Assurances of their friendly Feelings. be laid before you. To cultivate and confirm those Feel- I have great Satisfaction in announings, to maintain inviolate the Faith cing to you that the Emperor of the of Public Treaties, and to contribute, French has abolished a System of as far as My Influence can extend, to Negro Emigration from the East the Preservation of the general Peace, Coast of Africa, against which, as unare the Objects of My unceasing avoidably tending, however guarded, solicitude.

to the Encouragement of the Slave I HAVE concluded, with the Sove- Trade, My Government has never reigns who were Parties to the Treaty ceased to address to His Imperial Maof Paris of 1856, a Convention re- jesty its most earnest but friendly relative to the Organization of the Prin- presentations. cipalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. This wise Act on the Part of His Those Rouman Provinces are now pro- Imperial Majesty induces Me to hope ceeding to establish, under its Pro- that Negotiations, now in progress at visions, their new Form of Govern- Paris, may tend to the total Abandonment.

ment of the System, and to the SubA TREATY of Commerce which istitution of a duly regulated Supply have concluded with the Emperor of of substantially Free Labour. Russia, and which will be laid before The State of the Republic of you, is a satisfactory Indication of Mexico, distracted by Civil War, has the complete Re-establishment of induced Me to carry Forbearance to those amicable Relations which, until its utmost Limits, in regard to Wrongs their late unfortunate Interruption, and Indignities to which British Rehad long subsisted between Us, to sidents have been subjected at the the mutual Advantage of Our respec. hands of the two contending Parties. tive Dominions.

They have at length been carried to

such an extent that I have been com- registering such Titles with Simplipelled to give Instructions to the Com- city and Security. mander of My Naval Forces in those

YOUR Attention will be called to the Seas to demand, and if necessary to State of the Laws which regulate the enforce, due Reparation.

Representation of the People in Par

liament, and I cannot doubt but that Gentlemen of the House of Com

you will give to this great Subject a mons,

Degree of calm and impartial ConI have directed that the Estimates sideration proportioned to the Magniof the ensuing Year shall be submit- tude of the Interests involved in the ted to you. They have been framed Result of your Discussions. with a due Regard to Economy, and

These, and other Propositions for to the Efficiency of the Public Ser- the Amendment of the Laws, which vice.

will be brought under your Notice as The universal Introduction of Steam the Progress of Public Business may Power into Naval Warfare will render permit, I commend to the Exercise of necessary a temporary Increase of your deliberate Judgment; and I Expenditure in providing for the Re- earnestly pray that your Counsels construction of the British Navy; may be so guided as to ensure the but I am persuaded that you will Stability of the Throne, the Maintecheerfully vote whatever Sums you nance and Improvement of our Instimay find to be requisite for an Object tutions, and the general Welfare and of such vital Importance as the Main. Happiness of My People. tenance of the Maritime Power of the

HER MAJESTY then retired. Country. My Lords, and Gentlemen,

ADDRESS IN ANSWER TO HER

MAJESTY'S SPEECH, Your Labours have, in recent Ses. sions, been usefully directed to various HER MAJESTY'S SPEECH having been Measures of legal and social Improve- reported by The Lord Chancellor, ment. In the Belief that further

THE EARL OF WINCHILSEA : I rise, Measures of a similar Character may my Lords, to move that an humble Adbe wisely and beneficially introduced, dress be presented by this House to Her I have desired that Bills may be sub- Majesty in answer to Her Majesty's most

gracious Speech from the Throne. But, mitted to you without Delay, for as- before, my Lords, I commence making the similating and amending the Laws re- few observations which I have to offer, I lating to Bankruptcy and Insolvency; Julgence on the part of your

Lordships

must bespeak that kind courtesy and infor bringing together into One Set of which I have observed to be uniformly exStatutes, in a classified Form, and tended to all persons who stand in a similar with such Modifications as Experience situation to myself. I assure you, my

Lords, that it is with no ordinary feelings will suggest to you, the Laws relating of nervousness and diffidence that I have to Crimes and Offences in England undertaken that which I have felt to be and Ireland; for enabling the Owners my duty upon this occasion. I have done of Land in England to obtain for so, because I think that the matters com

municated to us from the Throne by Her themselves an indefeasible Title to Majesty are of the utmost importance. their Estates and Interests, and for Scarcely ever has there been a Speech

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is nothing like a time of peace for prepara-country—and especially the one last me tion, and that we should at this time place tioned. I must say I think that the 1 our feets in such a state of completion cumbered Estates Court in Ireland h as will insure to this country the same proved the salvation of that part of t1 superiority in reference to steam-ships kingdom, and that the man with whom ti which it has always maintained as to sail. idea of constructing the Court originate ing ships.

deserves the gratitude of the Irish nation One subject escaped my observation at for I have no hesitation in declaring the the moment, the paragraph of the Speech in my opinion it has done more to remor in which Her Majesty speaks of the great discontent and to prevent crime and misery results which have been derived from the than all the other enactments upon thi success of Her Majesty's arms in China. statute book put together. The same ad The disputes which had broken out there vantage which is enjoyed in the sister islan have now been entirely terminated, and I am anxious to see extended to England the Chinese empire has been reduced to a and that means should be given for givin proper sense of what it owes to other an indefeasible title to the owners of land nations and to this country, and to our Ally and providing a system of registration o especially, and I may add, that the advan- deeds here as well as there. tageous treaty which has been concluded My Lords, another and very importan between the two countries may be fairly subject is alluded to in the Speech fron attributed to the skilful management by ller the Throne, though it is one upon whic! Majesty's representative, Lord Elgin, of I cannot say that I am in a situation to those most difficult negotiations with which give your Lordships much information; a he has been entrusted. Hitherto it bas the same time I have no doubt that I can been found almost impossible to frame a indicate the general principle upon which treaty which should be satisfactory to us, a reform in the representation of the and yet be binding on the Chinese. I hope, people in Parliament is likely to be ef. however, these objects bave been effected by fected. I believe, then, that by the prothe existing treaty. Lord Elgin has more position which Her Majesty's Government over employed his leisure time, and has dis will bring forward, considerable classes of played the most consummate ability in ne- the community will be admitted to the exgotiating and completing another treaty ercise of the elective franchise which do not with Japan, the effect of which at this enjoy it at present. The law as it now moment can scarcely be estimated. It is stands certainly has always appeared to me also to me most gratifying to find that to be most anomalous in respect of the arduring all these transactions in China, rangements under which some persons have Lord Elgin has worked in full and cordial the right of voting for Members of Parliaconjunction with the French Ambassador, ment whilst others have it not. For examBaron Gros, and that there has existed but ple, I myself have been many years an inone mind and one heart between the repre- habitant of the city of Westminster, and sentatives of Her Majesty and the Emperor should have been eligible to represent it, of the French. In Her most gracious yet I never possessed a vote for the house Speech from the Throne, Her Majesty in which I lived. Why it was that I has directed your Lordships' attention to should have been fit to represent, and yet various measures of legal and social im- unfit to vote, I have never been able to provement. Her Majesty says,

comprehend. I simply mention the fact, “I have desired that Bills may be submitted to which I own has greatly astonished me. I you without delay, for assimilating and amending have no doubt, therefore, that the Reform the laws relating to bankruptcy and insolvency; Act is susceptible of improvement without for bringing together into one set of statutes, in destroying the principle upon which it is a classified form and with such modifications as

based. experience will suggest to you, the laws relating

But there are changes contemto crimes and offences in England and Ireland, for plated by some people which would not enabling the owners of land in England to obtain reform or improve, but destroy all that is for themselves an indefeasible title to their estates valuable in our representative institutions. and interests, and for registering such titles with Need I say that I am no friend to the insimplicity and security.”

troduction of such sweeping and destrucNow, all these are very important ques- tive measures under the name of reform

ons, and I believe that if the measures as have recently been propounded to us. recommended by Her Majesty are adopted I believe that the object of these Trithe result must be highly beneficial to the bunes of the People in bringing for

may be allowed to observe that I feel the able quality ; but even forbearance must more strongly disposed to entertain this have its limits, and your Lordships will hope because I am of opinion that the agree with me in thinking that a proper entente cordiale which is said to exist on course has been adopted in sending instructhe side of the French Emperor is not a tion to the commander of the naval forces mere matter of words, but of truth and in those seas to demand, and, if

necessary, reality. The concession which His Ma- to enforce reparation for the wrongs and jesty has made to our feelings with regard indignities inflicted on British subjects. to the slave trade and his abolition of the My Lords, there is another point of vital system of Negro emigration – a system importance to which Her Majesty in Her which however guarded must, as Her Ma- Speech invites our attention, the state of jesty expresses it, unavoidably tend to the our navy. A great naval country like this encouragement of the slave trade and ren- could scarcely watch with too great vigider nugatory all our efforts to suppress it lance over the state of its navy. If it ap-furnish hopeful indications of the pro- pears to Her Majesty's Ministers that our bable success of our good offices for the navy is not in that efficient state, either in preservation of peace. Her Majesty says point of number or equipment, which the further that

improvements of late years introduced by

steam navigation have rendered necessary “ This wise act on the part of his Imperial Majesty induces her to hope that negotiations now in to enable it to contend with the fleets of progress at Paris may tend to the total abandon- foreign nations, upon'the national element, ment of the system, and to the substitution of a I an certain that the people of England will duly regulated supply of substantially free labour.” come forward as one man, and through This concession appears to me equally

their representatives will vote the suns grateful and honourable on the part of His

necessary to reconstruct it upon such a

footing that it shall be competent to Majesty, and I look with the utmost confidence to the friendship existing between The reason why such large sums are from

protect this country against all assailants. the two Sovereigns in the present situation time to time demanded for this purpose is, of affairs on the Continent. I am certain that Her Majesty may interpose her good which are continually brought forward both

account of the great improvements offices with the best effect, not only as the

as regards guns and ships. The introducSovereign of this great country, but as a lady whose individual character derives element to our consideration ; it is impos

tion of steam has introduced an entirely new weight from the highest virtues and cellencies. I do trust then, that Her Ma- sible to say how much further it may yet jesty's interposition will be effectual, and of steam power has proved most expensive

be extended, but certainly the introduction that the present threatening appearances to those Powers who maintain strong na. will pass away as a summer cloud.

vies, for their old stock in trade has become My Lords, there is another part of Her totally useless, and may as well be sold for Majesty's Speech which is less satisfactory fire-wood. Such being the state of things, --that paragraph I mean which relates to the Republic of Mexico.

Her Majesty

it is necessary that we should keep our

eyes fixed upon what other nations are says

doing for the development of their navies. “ The state of the Republic of Mexico, distract- Other nations, I am told, are introducing ed by civil war, has induced me to carry forbear, improvements and rebuilding their ships ance to its utmo:t limits in regard to wrongs and indignities to which British residents have been upon the most improved models, and upon subjected at the hands of the two contending par

a scale of such magnitude, that unless we ties. They have at length been carried to such an not only follow in their track, but fully extent that I have been compelled to give instruc- keep pace with them, we shall find that tions to the commander of my naval forces in those instead of being the first naval Power of seas to demand, and, if necessary, to enforce due the world, and holding the command of reparation.”

the sea, we shall be reduced to a posiIt is, indeed, I believe, but too certain that tion of inferiority, and probably, when British subjects have been subjected to we are in the most urgent want of ships great wrongs and indignities at the hands we shall have to set to work to build of contending factions, and the distraction them. My own opinion is that we ought of civil war is but too faithful a descrip- always to have a navy at command, so tion of the state of Mexico at this moment. powerful as to give complete confidence Forbearance is no doubt a most commend in the country; and I would urge that there

on

is nothing like a time of peace for prepara- | country—and especially the one last mention, and that we should at this time place tioned. I must say I think that the Inour fleets in such a state of completion cumbered Estates Court in Ireland has as will insure to this country the same proved the salvation of that part of the superiority in reference to steam-ships kingdom, and that the man with whom the which it has always maintained as to sail. idea of constructing the Court originated ing ships.

deserves the gratitude of the Irish nation; One subject escaped my observation at for I have no hesitation in declaring that the moment, the paragraph of the Speech in my opinion it has done more to remove in which Her Majesty speaks of the great discontent and to prevent crime and misery, results which have been derived from the than all the other enactments upon the success of Her Majesty's arms in China. statute book put together. The same adThe disputes which had broken out there vantage which is enjoyed in the sister island have now been entirely terminated, and I am anxious to see extended to England, the Chinese empire has been reduced to a and that means should be given for giving proper sense of what it owes to other an indefeasible title to the owners of land, nations and to this country, and to our Ally and providing a system of registration of especially, and I may add, that the advan- deeds here as well as there. tageous treaty which has been concluded My Lords, another and very important between the two countries may be fairly subject is alluded to in the Speech from attributed to the skilful management by Her the Throne, though it is one upon which Majesty's representative, Lord Elgin, of cannot say that I am in a situation to those most difficult negotiations with which give your Lordships much information; at he has been entrusted. Hitherto it has the same time I have no doubt that I can been found almost impossible to frame a indicate the general principle upon which treaty which should be satisfactory to us, a reform in the representation of the and yet be binding on the Chinese. I hope, people in Parliament is likely to be efhowever, these objects have been effected by fected. I believe, then, that by the prothe existing treaty. Lord Elgin has more-position which Her Majesty's Government over employed his leisure time, and has dis- will bring forward, considerable classes of played the most consummate ability in ne the community will be admitted to the exgotiating and completing another treaty ercise of the elective franchise which do not with Japan, the effect of which at this enjoy it at present. The law as it now moment can scarcely be estimated. It is stands certainly has always appeared to me also to me most gratifying to find that to be most anomalous in respect of the arduring all these transactions in China, rangements under which some persons have Lord Elgin has worked in full and cordial the right of voting for Members of Parliaconjunction with the French Ambassador, ment whilst others have it not. For examBaron Gros, and that there has existed but ple, I myself have been many years an inone mind and one heart between the repre- habitant of the city of Westminster, and sentatives of IIer Majesty and the Emperor should have been eligible to represent it, of the French. In Her most gracious yet I never possessed a rote for the house Speech from the Throne, Her Majesty in which I lived. Why it was that I has directed your Lordships' attention to should have been fit to represent, and yet various measures of legal and social im- unfit to vote, I have never been able to provement. Her Majesty says,

comprehend. I simply mention the fact, “I have desired that Bills may be subunitted to which I own has greatly astonished me. I you without delay, for assimilating and amending have no doubt, therefore, that the Reform the laws relating to bankruptcy and insolvency; Act is susceptible of improvement without for bringing together into one set of statutes, in destroying the principle upon which it is a classified form and with such modifications as

based. experience will suggest to you, the laws relating

But there are changes contemto crimes and offences in England and Ireland, for plated by some people which would not enabling the owners of land in England to obtain reform or improve, but destroy all that is for themselves an indefeasible title to their estates valuable in our representative institutions. and interests, and for registering such titles with Need I say that I am no friend to the insimplicity and security.”

troduction of such sweeping and destrucNow, all these are very important ques- tive measures under the name of reform tions, and I believe that if the measures as have recently been propounded to us. recommended by IIer Majesty are adopted I believe that the object of these Trithe result must be highly beneficial to the bunes of the People in bringing for

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