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on individual schools, which had never / was found to be absolutely necessary to been presented to the House of Commons, place a limit on the expenditure for that but printed by the Department and gratu- purpose. It had now been arranged, bow. itously distributed to the schools. With ever, that these tabulated summaries of regard to the second kind of Reports, there individnal school Reports would be printed was no difference between the right hon. and sold at cost price, besides the imnieGentleman's views of what ought to be diate manuscript communication of each done, and what was done by the office at to its own quarter, which he considered a that moment except that a great deal very material improvement. But with remore was done by the office than he asked. gard to the general Reports of the Inspectors, The Reports of the Inspectors on indi a considerable alteration, which he also revidual schools were not only printed in garded as an improvement, had been prothe manner that was now asked, but a posed by the Committee of Council in the great improvement had been added. mode in which those Reports were to be Heretofore, it had been the practice to presented to the House. The right hon. keep the Reports on individual schools in Gentleman seemed to misapprehend the inthe office until the conclusion of the year, tention of the Circular to which he had rewhen they were all put together in a sum- ferred, if he supposed the Committee of mary, printed, and published in one volume, Council undertook to digest and assimilate and distributed. The consequence was, these different Reports, and make a comthat each Report did not reach the School bined Report, for which they themselves Committee to which it referred in many would be responsible. He (Mr. Adderley) eases until some twelve months after the agreed that it would be very unwise in any inspection. He, himself, as manager of Department to take such a course.

What several schools could say from his own exo the Committee of Council bad undertaken perience, that in this way the Reports, whe- to do was to address the whole of the Rether for praise or blame, were rendered port from then selves to Her Majesty in absolutely useless. Who would care whether Council, as the Poor Law Reports were adan Inspector's Report stated that a school dressed, treating as an appendix, but in bad been well or ill managed twelve or the same type, a volume of Reports adfourteen months previously, when, perhaps, dressed by the Inspectors to the Comthe master had since been changed, and mittee. The individuality of the Inspecthe conduct of the school had become mate- tors' Reports would not be lost, they rially improved with the lapse of that time? would not be digested or assimilated, but It was essential to the efficacy of these at the end of the Report of the Committee individual school Reports, whether for of Council would be printed all such ex

or approval, that they should tracts from the Reports of the Inspectors follow immediately on the inspection of as might be considered to come under its the school ; and this was now carried out, proper head. The Inspectors were very $0 that every school within a short time able functionaries, and nothing should be after the inspection, received the sentence done to diminish the value of their Repassed on it by the Inspector. The tabu- ports ; it w

was therefore important that lated summary of these returns at the the Reports of each Inspector should not end of the year was certainly also useful be published in extenso without extracting for the purpose of statistical comparison, all irrelevant matter from it which did not and convenient for Members of Parlia- come properly into a Report. The actual ment and others to refer to as a general facts embodied in each Report would be statement of the condition of schools given ipsissimis verbis, but the Governthroughout the different districts of the ment should not undertake to print any kingdom. It had, after securing the more disquisitions upon moral philosophy or important immediate returns, only been other irrelevant writing in which the a question of expense, and he was happy Inspectors might choose to indulge. In to say he had obtained the consent of his circular of 1851, the Marquess of the Treasury to this tabulated statement Landsowne complained of the extrabeing printed, and sold at cost price to vagant length to which these docuanybody who wished to obtain it. " It was ments ran, and requested that the Inspecwell known that in May last, a Treasury tors should be more concise in their obMinute was issued restricting the number servations for the future. The same cirof copies of Parliamentary Reports to be cular stated that the bulk of the volumes gratuitously distributed ; and, indeed, it interfered with their usefulness; that they



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were not convenient media through which itself, and therefore Government should not to advocate particular theories or schemes undertake the task better done without of education ; that what was wanted was them. Voluntary action would be supersedea not speculation or inference, but data and and overlaid, while the public grant would be facts for the information of Parliament. wasted where it was unnecessary, and with Similar directions were issued in 1852 by held from places where it was most wanted. Lord Lonsdale ; and their effect had been there was one point worthy the attention to confine the Reports within more reason of the noble Lord the Member for London. able limits, and to render them more If the system of national education ingermane to the subjects they had to treat. creased, as it was to be hoped it would, The Report which formed the climax of until it attained three times its present abuse rendering this interference neces. dimensions, the number of Inspectors would, sary, was a volume of 211 pages, including of course, have to be proportionately augfive maps, and travelling over every pos- mented. In that case what would happen sible subject, with disquisitions on the dif. if the country was put to the expense ference between the Celtic and Saxon of privting everything without distinction

That Report alone cost £100 in which the larger staff, numbering, as the printing. There was a Report in the very noble Lord had himself proposed, as many last volume on the beneficial effects which as eighty, sent in for publication ? would be produced by education upon the gard, then, to the second or tabulated habits and morals of the people, on the Report, the right hon. Gentleman must prevalence of a taste for sensual indul- acknowledge that all which his · Motion gences, and other equally irrelevant mat- sought already obtained, and ters. Now, it could not be denied that great deal more besides. As to the the heads of a Department were respon- general Report, a greatly improved form sible for the character of the papers was to be adopted, of which the House which they presented to Parliament, and would soon have a specimen before it. If the improvement now proposed in the it should then be dissatisfied with what the mode of publishing these Reports would Government had done, the House would render them far more useful and more have nothing more to do than to agree to practically available as Reports. It would a Resolution requiring on its own responsibe a niischievous principle to lay down, bility that the Reports furnished to the that the heads of each Department of the Executive should be published by them in State should be compelled to print indis. extenso as first sent in. criminately at the public cost everything MR. M. GIBSON said, that although sent in to them by their subordinate there was not so much difference between agents. What would be thonght if the the two right hon. Gentlemen who had just Inspectors of Prisons included in their Re- addressed the House, as at first appeared, ports to the Secretary of State lengthy they were very far from being agreed. It dissertations upon moral philosophy; or if appeared from the statement of the right the Sanitary Inspectors sent in disquisitions hon. Gentleman (Mr. Adderley), that with upon homeopathy, hydropathy, and every reference to the Reports of the Inspectors medical theory extant ? The right hon. on individual schools considerable improveGentleman's Motion was based on an erro- ments had been introduced, inasmuch as neous idea of the functions of these educa- the Report on each school was communitional Inspectors. They were very able cated in manuscript to that school almost men, capable of performing an important immediately after the Report was made, so duty, but if they were treated as colleagues that the promoters and managers had the of the Committee of Council, that body opportunity of attending to any observawould be regarded as dispersed over the tious which it might contain. With respect whole country, would become exposed to to the tabulated statements it appeared pressure and solicitation from all quarters, that instead of being given gratuitously and would be considered as putting out they were now sold. He was disposed to feelers to encourage every nostrum and advocate economy, but certainly be should experiment, and would become pledged or not have complained if the Government had implicated in a most multifold and miscontinued that gratuitous distribution, and chievous manner. The tendency was thought it was too much the habit to make already dangerously great towards yielding a parade of economy in these little matters. to the pressure from rich and stirring The principal question before the House quarters where education would advance of was the manner of dealing with the general Reports of the Inspectors, and the right ment would not think it necessary to divide hon. Gentleman the Member for Hertford the House on the question. contended that they ought to be given MR. BLACK said, he thought that the entire, and in the language of the Inspec-Government were acting wisely in endeators. Now the Government, as he under-vouring to lessen the expense of printing stood, proposed to make a sort of digest of the Reports. The printing of one Report these reports, and submit them as Reports had cost no less than £5,000. Loads of from the Committee of Council to Her blue-books were sent into the library every Majesty in Council on the subject of educa- year, but the size of the volumes was alone tion, Now he infinitely preferred receiving sufficient to deter any man from opening the Reports of the Inspectors in their words them. He had had some experience in and in their own form, without any change giving instructions to authors as to the on the part of the Government. [Mr. Jimits within which they should write, and ADDERLEY: The Reports are to be given in he knew that if he fixed it at ten pages the words of the Inspectors.) But the it would probably be fifty. He was cer. Report was to be given in the shape of ex- tain condensation would raise the value of tracts, and not entire. He had a great the Reports, and would give hon. Members dread of the system of extracts, because some chance of understanding the subject passages might be excluded which if in- of them. serted, would give a different meaning to MR. PULLER said, it was impossible the Report on the whole. He was willing not to sympathize with the horror expressto admit the force of the objection that In- ed by the hon. Gentleman who bad just spectors were apt to expatiate and specu- spoken of those voluminous blue-books late on general principles rather than to with which their shelves were encumbered give the facts that came under their own and the greater part of which it was quite observation. But the Committee of Coun- impossible for any one to read, but he cil had the remedy for this evil in their could not help expressing his regret that own hands, for the Inspector was bound while the Government were loading the report according to his instructions, and table of the House with Report upon all that was now asked for was, that the Report they should have selected for a Reports made according to these instruc- special display of their economy those partions should be submitted in their entirety ticular Reports which were studied with to the House. The words of the instruction so much interest and attention by the prowere very precise :

moters of schools all over the country, and “ Iler Majesty's inspectors shall make their which had conduced so much to that great annual Reports with the utmost conciseness which improvement which had taken place in our may be sufficient to show the state and pro- national education during the last ten gress of education in their several districts, as it may have come under their own observation in the years. Those Reports were of the highest course of their inspection since the period when value. The Inspectors themselves were a their last Reports were made.”

body of some forty or fifty men of the Now, if an Inspector indulged in specula- highest intellectual attainments, picked tions, all the Committee had to do was to men from the universities, men who had call his attention to his disregard of their already won their spurs in the fields of instructions, and desire him to amend his literature and science, and whose opinions Report. But when a Report was accepted were entitled to respect not merely on that by the Committee of Council it ought to account, but still more for their practical be submitted in that form to the House, knowledge of the subject of education, atand to that extent he agreed with the righ: tained by visiting all the best schools in the hon. Gentleman the Member for Hertford country. The riglit hon. Gentleman (Mr. (Mr. Cowper). The power of altering the Adderley) asked, “ Were they to be put in Reports of the Inspectors might be abused, the place of the Committee of Council ?" and if the right hon. Gentleman pressed Most assuredly not. Still there could be his Motion to a division he would give it no doubt that if upon any particular eduhis support. The words of the Motion cational question the united opinion of the were, that the general Reports of Her Ma- Inspectors was opposed to that of the jesty's Inspectors, when prepared accord- Privy Council, the country would endorse ing to the instructions of the Committee the opinion of the Inspectors in preference of Council, should be laid on the table. to that of the Coinmittee of Council. Surely there could be no objection to that The House no doubt remembered how proposition, and he trusted the Govern- last year the Chancellor of the Exchequer bad expatiated on the gradual increase of of a school would have to pay for the the educational grant, a grant which then book, although, considering the difficulty amounted to more than £600,000, and which existed in many cases of supporting would probably this year be larger still. a school, every additional item of expevse Well, these reports of the Inspectors would be a hardship ; but the having to were the only means which Parliament write for the book, and to get a posthad of ascertaining how the vast sums office order to pay for it, would be pracof money so granted for education were tically so many obstacles to that general spent, and

whether the nation had circulation of these Reports, which, in his money's worth for the expenditure thus opinion, was most desirable for the proincurred. He would ask, therefore, if the gress of education. House was prepared to allow this informa- VISCOUNT PALMERSTON said, he tion to be previously passed through the hoped that the Vice President of the mill of the office which distributed the Education Committee might be disposed to money, and whether instead of having the yield to the reasonable appeal which had evidence undiluted and unaltered, it would been made to him. If he understood him be content with passages picked out here correctly, the main difference between bim and there, and dovetailed together by the and his right hon. Friend is in this, that Secretary to the Privy Council-a man of the right hon. Gentleman proposed that the great ability, but who had not had the Reports of the Inspectors should assume the same opportunities of personally inspect- shape of a Report from the Committee of ing schools himself? Would the House Council to Her Majesty, embodying under be satisfied if that process were to be gone certain heads such passages in the general through with any other important question Reports of the Inspectors as the Committee -our foreign relations for instance ? He might think useful for public information ; ventured moreover to say that if the new whereas the right hon. Member for Hertsystem were continued—is instead of feeling ford and those who agree with him are that they were working as it were under of opinion that the whole of the general the eye of the public, with fair opportuni- Reports ought to be presented, either in the ties of obtaining credit and distinction-if shape of an appendix to the Report of the their work was well done, the Inspectors Privy Council, or, as heretofore, as an inwere in future to be the mere drudges of dependent body of Reports to be luid before the Privy Council Office with no reward Parliament. He was sure the sagacious for their labours but their pecuniary sti mind of the Vi.e President must see that pends, it would not be possible to obtain there was an important difference between the same class of men to act as Inspectors, selections made from Reports and the public and so the country would be deprived of cation of the Reports themselves. With the advantage arising from having its sys- the best intentions different persons took ten of education superintended by those different views of so wide and complicated who, from their abilities and acquirements, a question as that of education, and those were most competent to perform that duty. in the office of the Committee of Council This was evident from the able remon. who had the task of selecting passages from strance which had been drawn up by Mr. the Reports, while meaning to give the best Brookfield, and which had been signed by and truest information to the public, might almost all the other Inspectors. He would choose their extraets according to their not detain the House by dwelling at any particular opinions, and involuntarily onit length on the other subject comprised in passages which many Members of Parliathe Motion of his right hon. Friend the ment might deem of great importance. Member for Hertford, he meant the de- It was much better, therefore, that the tailed Report of individual schools, as the Reports should be given in full, than right hon. Gentleman the Vice-President that they should appear in the shape of of the Committee of Council had consented selected extracts classed under different that those Reports should in future be heads. But the Vice President had given printed as heretofore and sold at cost a picture of the helplessness of the office price. At the same time he must sny, to which he belonged that almost excited that the selling them at cost price would compassion. The Inspectors, it seemed, not, in his opinion, be nearly so useful as pour down upon the Committee of Council the gratuitous distribution which had been whole volumes upon moral philosophy, the allowed heretofore. It was not merely the history of races, the question of sensual three or four shillings which the manager enjoyments—surely a strange matter to VOL. CLII. [THIRD SERIES.)

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enter into the education of the younger | order to prevent its running into an abuse. generation—and other subjects entirely With reference to the statement of the unconnected with the duties of their office. right bon. Member for Hertford (Mr. CowThe Committee, in the opinion of its Vice per), that the Government were attacking President, had no alternative but either to a useful branch of expenditure in this case, lay that huge mass of matter before Par- he might say that the same rule had been liament, or to select such passages as they applied, as far as possible, to all departmight deem it important for the House ments of Government; that was to say, and the public to know. It appeared to to restrict as much as possible unnecessary him, however, that there was another prioting, and as far as possible gratuitous course which might be pursued with ad. distribution. And with regard to gratuitous vantage. The Committee of Council had distribution, and to sales where sales could the appointment of the Inspectors who were be commanded, he hoped that what had under their control, and might, if they been done was satisfactory. The diminupleased, require them to send in their Re- tion of unnecessary printing was, of course, ports under separate heads, with such limi- a matter of great delicacy to arrange. tations and restrictions as they might Everybody felt that it was of the utmost choose to impose. If the Inspectors, in- importance that the ungarbled views of the stead of obeying their instructions, should Inspectors should be laid before Parliament, persist in writing voluminous Reports upon It was, however, one thing to say that that a variety of subjects, why should the Com should be done, but it was another thing to mittee not say to them, “ Gentlemen, you give those Gentlemen a roving commission are too good for us ; you are above your to go about the country and write and print work ; you may set up as professors in voluminous essays upon all sorts of subjects. some university, but you are no longer fit If, however, a gentleman of reputation, with to be Inspectors of schools under our direc. the taste and education of these Inspectors, tions ? ” Surely every department con- were requested to write a Report generally ducted with proper vigour and decision upon the state of education in his district, should be able to control its own officers, he would, no doubt, feel himself bound to and compel them to furnish the information write something that was worth reading, required without adding to it matter unfit and be apt to diverge into questions with and unnecessary to be laid before Parlia- respect to which information was not rement. The reasoning of the Vice Presi. quired. His right hon. Friend did not prodent certainly was not calculated to con- pose to digest the Reports of the Inspectors, vince anybody that the arrangement he but to give those gentlemen such instruchad adopted was either necessary or con- tions as would induce them to digest their venient; and he therefore hoped, as both own Reports as they sent them in, and sides of the House seemed to be agreed confine those Reports to such matters as it upon the other points, the right hon. might be desirable to lay before the House Gentleman would either acquiesce in the and the public. If that were the object of Motion or give an assurance that he would the right hon. Member for Hertford, then revert to the old system of laying before the difference between the two sides of the Parliament the whole of the Reports, taking House resolved itself into nothing. His care, however, that the Inspectors did not right hon. Friend would find no difficulty in wander beyond the limits preseribed to framing instructions that would bring the them by the Committee of Council. Reports within the narrowest possible com

SIR STAFFORD NORTHCOTE said, pass, and at the same time furnish all the he wished to say a few words upon the information that might be required. subject before the House, because to a LORD JOHN RUSSELL said, he did certain extent he represented the depart- not understand from the hon. Gentleman ment through which a pressure had been whether he meant to comply with the wish put, not only upon the Committee of Coun- of his right hon. Friend. But whatever incil, but upon all the other departments of structions the Committee of Council might the Government, to do what they could think fit to give, some confidence should to diminish the great expense incurred in be reposed in the Inspectors. It would not printing. That expense was really very do to throw a slur upon the Inspectors, as considerable, amounting to something like being utterly unfit to have any discretion. £150,000 or £160,000 a year. Of course if they were told to bring their Reports not such an expenditure as that required the within the narrowest possible compass, but most careful control and supervision, in within a very moderate compass, and to re

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