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poisons should be kept by chemists and to confine this measure to the latter purdruggists, distinct from other medicines poses. In referring to the amount of in which they deal. The objection taken deaths which occur from the inadvertent to that clause—and which I think was a use of poisons, you will find, according to sound
one-was, that the business of a the best testimony, that the articles are chemist and druggist could hardly go on few by which the great majority of those if he was compelled to keep everything in deaths are occasioned. I hold in
my the shape of a poison in a separate and hand an extract from the evidence of Dr. distinct place; and that objection was so Taylor, in reference to the years 1837 strongly urged that I thought it desirable and 1833, and one from the Registrar at that late period of the Session not to General's Report for 1857. I think the go on with the Bill. But I do not think two will give an interesting view of the same objection applies to a suggestion this subject, “and will also confirm the which was made in a Committee of the opinion I stated at the commencement of other House, and the difficulties of the my remarks—that the Act regulating the case may, to a considerable extent, be sale of arsenic has, in point of fact, had met, with reference to certain poisons, by a beneficial effect. Dr. Taylor says, in requiring the parties who sell them and answer to Question 789:the parties who keep them to have the
“I have the statistics of Guy's Hospital for the boxes or vessels containing them labelled last few years. From the return of 1837-8 it apin a conspicuous manner with the word pears that the mortality occasioned by taking “ Poison ;” and, if those poisonous articles opium was 37 per cent., and by arsenic 35 per are sold, to label every wrapper or cover cent., making 72 per cent. for these two poisons;
so that very nearly three-fourths of all the deaths in which they may be enclosed in a similar were caused by opium and arsenic ; by sulphuric manner. All the evidence before the Comacid, or oil of vitriol, 6 per cent.; prussic acid, 5 mittee went show that such a regulation per cent.; oxalic acid, 3.1 per cent.; corrosive would have the effect of diminishing, if not sublimate, and mercurial preparations, 3 per cent.;
and the rest were made up of other poisons, such of preventing altogether, the fearful acci
as tartar emetic, nux vomica and others, varying dents which through mistakes frequently from 1 to 1} per cent.; but I have given the prinhappen from poison. Such an arrange- cipal, making 894 per cent. altogether-opium, ment as that is provided for in this Bill; arsenic, sulphuric acid, prussic acid, oxalic acid, but that alone will not, I am afraid, be corrosive sublimate, and mercurial preparations. quite satisfactory. I believe, in addition That refers to the years 1837-8, and I to that, you must impose certain penalties will advert now to a period 20 years later. on the parties who break the law, and you I find in the last report of the Registrar must have persons whose business it will General that be to see that the law is observed. I have “ Four-hundred and one persons died annually therefore given power to justices in session of poisoning, and in nearly 113 cases the poison is to order any constable to enter any shop poison; by that drug 125 persons are said to have
not specified. Opium is the principal specified where those poisonous articles are kept or died-namely, 89 by laudanum, 34 by opium, and sold, to see that the law is duly observed. 2 by morphia. Thirty-four persons were killed I believe that will have a good effect in annually by prussic acid, including 15 by the inducing chemists and drugyists to keep essential oil of bitter almonds. Arsenic stands their poisons in a more distinct and sepa. The salts of lead kill 23 persons annually, the salts
next, and to it 27 annual deaths are referred, rate manner than they have hitherto done. of mercury kill 10, oxalic acid kills 13, sulphuric I onght, also, to mention that a great im. acid (oil of vitriol) kills 15 persons annually. The pression was made on the Committee of deaths from these poisons are understated, as the House of Lords by the desirability of the 113 deaths from unspecified poisons are chiefly raising the standard of education and qua- not discovered, and the death is ascribed, erro
caused by them, and in some cases the poisoning is lification among chemists and druggists ; neously, to disease. The deaths by poisons are and I think anything that can tend to raise murders, manslaughters, suicides, or accidents. that standard would assist, with other pre- They would be greatly diminished if solid opium, cautions, in lessening the number of ac- laudanum, prussic acid, essential oil of bitter alcidents from the causes in question. At
monds, arsenic, sugar of lead, corrosive sublimate,
oil of vitriol, and oxalic acid were only retailed the same time that would be a measure upon the production of a medical prescription. rather for improving the character of Quack medicines, overdoses, and improper medithose who compound and dispense all cines are stated to have caused 183 deathis in five drugs and medicines, rather than a mea
years." sure which is intended for regulating the These statistics are sufficient to show the sale of poisonous articles. I am anxious House that of the number of deaths which
occur from poison many arise from accident. these requirements as well as with the But there is another point to which it is trade of the chemist. I propose to get necessary to draw
over the difficulty by providing that, where mon notion prevails that it is possible to any poisonous article is required by a medidiminish the number of deaths occasioned cal prescription; or where opium is asked by poison, where the poison is given to for in small quantities, the stricter proviothers for the purpose of taking away life, sions of the Bill shall not apply. "The or where it is taken by persons themselves subject is one of considerable difficulty, and with that view. But with regard to self-I invite the serious attention of the House destruction, I am convinced that you can- to it, in the hope of framing such a meanot, by any regulations, altogether pre- sure as will meet completely the end we vent that form of the evil. It is a crime have in view. The right hon. Gentleman which people, if prevented in one way, will concluded by moving for leave to introcommit in another. With regard to mur- duce the Bill. der by poison, there are provisions in Leave given. my Bill which may assist in detecting Bill to Regulate the Keeping and Sale the perpetrator ; but I cannot hold out of Poisons, ordered to be brought in by any hope that it will have a material Mr. Secretary WALPOLE, Mr. HARDY, and effect in stopping that crime. If you refer Lord John MANNERS. to the Registrar General's returns, you Bill presented, and read 1°. will find that eight-tenths of the cases of self-destruction are by the halter, drown.
COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT ing, or the knife--and there are only twotenths which can be referred to poisons and
(INDIA). other causes.
Therefore, it would mislead the House if I held out any hope of being MR. W. EWART said, he wished to move able greatly to diminish the number of sui- the re-appointment of the Select Committee cides by the provisions of this Bill. And “ to inquire into the progress and prosas to murders, it may occasionally facili- pects, and the best means to be adopted tate detection and promote evidence, but I for the promotion of European Colonizado not pretend it will do more. Its chief tion and Settlement in India ; especially in object is to regulate the keeping and sale the Hill Districts and healthier climates of of poisons, so as to prevent the deaths that country ; as well as for the extension which occur by accidental poisoning. The of our Commerce with Central Asia.” The other question which I have to submit to hon. Member proposed that the Committee the House is, what things should be in- should consist of eighteen Members, whom cluded in the schedules of the Bill as he named, stating that among them were poisons. In the Bill of the other House three new Members. there were twenty-three articles in one MR. W. VANSITTART said, he must schedule, and I do not know how many in object to any increase in the numbers of the other. It was utterly impossible, with the Committee. Two vacancies had ocsuch schedules, that the business of a curred in the Committee since last Session chemist could be carried on. Nor was by the appointment of the hon. Members there any necessity to include all these for Guildford (Mr. Mangles) and Leominster articles in them. According to the state-(Mr. Willoughby) to the Indian Council ; ments I have already made, it will be per- and the hon. Gentleman not only proposed ceived that the cases of death by poison to fill up these, but to appoint two additional arise from the administration of a very few members. He was sure every hon. Gentlearticles, and I have therefore cut the num- man who had sat on the Committee must ber down from twenty-three to thirteen; and agree that the Committee was too numerous 1 shall be very glad if any hon. Gentleman already. The noble Lord the Secretary of will point out to me how that number can State for India might justly complain that be further reduced. The only article about as yet he had derived no benefit from the which I entertain a difficulty is opium, be deliberations of the Committee ; but if the cause it is one of those things which are same system of procedure were followed constantly asked for by the poorer classes this Session as had obtained last year, he of people in small quantities ; and if you was afraid they would again separate withput a difficulty in the way of giving it in out drawing up a Report. small quantities to persons who desire it, MR. CHEETIAM said, he wished to exyou may interferu inconveniently with press his opinion that one of the hun. Members for Manchester ought to be on the vernor General of the British Possessions Committee.
in the East Indies, dated Allahabad, 30th MR. W. EWART explained, that two of June, 1853, inclosing a Letter from The the new members were proposedin the place Lord Harris, dated Government House, of two others who had retired in conse- Madras, 19th June, 1858 ; also a Letter quence of appointments in India. The from The Viscount Canning, date Allahathird was Colonel Sykes, whose appoint- bad, 2nd July, 1858, inclosing a Letter ment was considered appropriate in conse from the Lord Elphinstone, dated Maquence of the interest he represented. theran, 16th June, 1858; also Two Letters
MR. WALPOLE said, it was certainly from The Viscount Canning, dated Allahathe custom when a Committee was reap- bad, lith August, 1858, inclosing a Letter pointed to confine it as much as possible to from Sir John Laird Muir Lawrence, those
persons who had shared in its previous G.C.B., dated Murree, 31st July, 1858, labours. By the regulations of the House and also inclosing a Letter from General fifteen was the usual limit to the number of Sir Colin Campbell, G.C.B., and also a a Select Committee ; but the hon. Gentle- Letter from The Viscount Canning, dated man, without assigning any reason, pro- Allahabad, 15th September, 1858, inposed to increase the number of this Com- closing a Letter from Henry Bartle Edmittee to eighteen. Perhaps the hon. Mem. ward Frere, Esquire ; in return to the ber had better postpone the nomination of Thanks of this House and to the Resothe Committee for a day, to give an op- lutions of the 8th of February, 1858, portunity for its consideration.
communicated to them in obedience to Mr. W. EWART said, he had no objec. Orders of this House of the said 8th of tion to accede to the proposition of the February : right hon. Gentleman.
The said Letters, being read, were Motion agreed to.
Ordered to lie on the Table, and to be Select Committee appointed.
entered on the Journals. House adjourned at half-past Seven
PRINCIPALITIES OF MOLDAVIA AND o'clock.
the permission of the House he wished to HOUSE OF COMMONS, put a question to bis noble Friend the
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Wednesday, February 9, 1859.
concerning the Convention signed in Paris
in August last, relative to the organization SUPPLY.-RESOLUTION.
of the Principalities of Moldavia and WalResolution, “ That a Supply be granted lachia. He wished to ask his noble Friend to Her Majesty,” reported, and agreed to, whether the election of one person to the Nemine Contradicente.
office of Hospodar of the two Principali. Committee appointed for Friday. ties was not inconsistent with the letter as House adjourned at a quarter after well as the spirit of that Convention? The Twelve o'clock. third Article declared:
“The public powers shall be confided in each Principality to a Hospodar and an elective Assembly, acting in the cases provided for in the pre
sent convention, with the concurrence of a HOUSE OF LORDS, Central Commission common to both Principali.
ties.” Thursday, February 10, 1859.
The Article 22 said:MINUTES). First Sat in Parliament.—The Earl “The budget of income and that of expenditure
of Ripon-after the Death of his Father. prepared annually by each Principality under the Public Bills.—1« Trading Companies Winding- ted to the Assembly, which may amend the saine,
direction of the respective Hospodars, and submitup; Coalwhippers.
shall not be definitive until after having been voted
by it." VOTE OF THANKS TO GOVERNOR GENERAL OF INDIA, &c.
Again the 44th Article declared that:LETTERS OF ACKNOWLEDGMENT. “ The Commander in Chief shall be appointed The L 'RD CHANCELLOR acquaint alternately by each Hospodar when there shall
the . lle must ed the House, That he had received a be a Moldavinn or Wallachian by birth. He may Letter from The Viscount Canning, Go- be superseded by the Ilospodar who appointed
him. In such case the new Commander in Chief Now, it might be that the Jews, of whom shall be appointed by the other Hospodar.”
there was a large number in the PrinciThere were various other Articles, from palities, would be deprived of all politiwhich it was quite clear that it was intend- cal rights under that Article of the Coned by the framers of the Convention that vention. And this, notwithstanding the there should be two Hospodars, one for provision that these rights might be exeach Principality. It was well known that tended to other classes, by legislative enactthere was a difference of opinion among ment, for he apprehended the Jewish inthe Powers parties to the Treaty of Paris habitants there must be prepared to enin 1856, some of them desiring that the counter a somewhat strenuous opposition, two Principalities should be united, others when they asked for a participation in that they should be kept separate. The political rights enjoyed by all the rest of recent convention at Paris, he appre- the people in the country, inasmuch as the hended, was the result of a compromise metropolitan was president, and the diocesan agreed upon all the Powers; and he trust. Bishops ex-officio members of the Elective ed those Powers would enforce the bona fide Assembly in both Provinces. He could fulfilment of the conditions on which they hardly suppose that his noble Friend, who guaranteed the political existence of those not long ago joined in advising Her Majesty newly constituted States, and would not to assent to a Bill enabling Her Majesty's permit them to alter by any subterfuge the Jewish subjects to sit in Parliament, had relations in which the Principalities stood recommended Her Plenipotentiary to agree towards each other under the Convention. to a clause in the Convention which went That Convention was signed not more than to exclude the Jewish inhabitants of Molsix months ago, and therefore could not davia and Wallachia from the enjoyment be considered as either old or obsolete. It of political rights in those Principalities. was not many days since Her Majesty in. He hoped his noble Friend would give some formed Parliament, in the Speech from explanation of the meaning of that clause, the Throne, that the Rouman Provinces, and be able to say that there had been no as the Principalities were now called, were intentional violation in it of the principle proceeding to establish, under the Conven- of religious liberty. tion of August last, their new form of THE EARL OF MALMESBURY said, government : but this statement had, it that a few nights ago his noble Friend appeared to him, been falsified, by the crossed the House, and had with great Assembly of Wallachia electing the same politeness informed him that it was his person as Hospodar who had been al- wish, unless it should be attended with inready elected for Moldavia. He could not convenience to the public service, to put doubt that the Powers would take the a question to him (the Earl of Malmes. measures requisite for carrying into effect bury) with respect to the Convention signed the spirit of the Convention ; but it would at Paris in the month of August last, in be satisfactory to the House to be made reference to the future government of the acquainted with the view which his noble Danubian Principalities whether it was Friend (the Earl of Malmesbury) took of not inconsistent with the spirit and letter the matter to which he had pointed his at- of that Convention that one person should tention. He did not wish to enter into be elected Hospodar of the two Provinces any discussion of the provisions of the of Moldavia and Wallachia? He, in reConvention, or of their adaptation to the ply, told his noble Friend, and, as he condition of the people of Moldavia and hoped, with equal politeness, that it would Wallachia, but he nevertheless wanted to be inconvenient for the public service that ask the meaning of one of its Articles, the he should answer the question ; and he forty-sixth, which declared that
was somewhat surprised to find that his “All Moldavians and Wallachians shall be equal
noble Friend, after having received that in the eye of the law, and with regard to taxation, answer, should still persevere in putting and shall be equally admissible to public employ- his question in the presence of their Lordments in both Principalities."
ships, inasmuch as he had naturally supIt then proceeded to qualify that declara- posed that he would not put it after he tion, by stating that,
had learnt that it would not conduce to “ Moldavians and Wallachians of all Christian it should, under present circumstances,
the promotion of the public interest that confessions shall equally enjoy political rights. The enjoyment of those rights may be extended to
receive an answer. He was sorry to have other religions by legislative arrangements.” again to inform his noble Friend that it
would not be convenient for the public to explain that, if those alterations in the service that he should give any opinion law to which he asked their Lordships' with respect to that particular clause of assent received the sanction of both Houses the Convention which related to the elec. of Parliament during the present Session, tion of Hospodars for the Principalities. he hoped that he might then be le, before Looking at the events which had taken the termination of the Session, to introduce place, it was more than probable—he a Bill for the consolidation of the whole of might even say that it was nearly certain the Bankruptcy law, and he did not despair —that the Conference would again as of yet accomplishing that object. With semble, or, at all events, that the Powers regard to the present measure, their Lords who had signed the Convention would ships would find that the alterations which have to consult together again and to de- were proposed in the state of the present termine the meaning of that and some law were all of minor importance and other of its clauses. Under these cir- related principally to details.
He would cumstances, he was sure his noble Friend now endeavour to explain to their Lordships would see that it would not be desirable how the law stood with regard to the for him (the Earl of Malmesbury) to an- regulation and winding-up of Joint-stock ticipate, by any specific declaration of companies, so that the nature of the meaopinion in their Lordships' House, the dis- sure which he now proposed might be more cussion which would probably take place perfectly understood. Until the year 1844 elsewhere. The same observation would there was no Act of Parliament which apply to the question his noble Friend had regulated associations of large numbers of put to him with respect to the eligibility persons for trading purposes.
Such asof Jews to political offices in these Pro-sociations were dealt with just as private vinces.
partnerships, and hence great inconvenience
was found to result, when their affairs TRADING COMPANIES WINDING-UP BILL. got into the Court of Chancery, from
the necessity of summoning so many THE LORD CHANCELLOR presented individual partners, and of introducing a Bill for the Incorporation, Regulation, so many interests ; which rendered it and Winding-up of Trade Companies very difficult to deal with these comand other Associations. It would not panies. In 1844, therefore, was pass.. be necessary on the present occasion ed an Act for the incorporation and regu. that he should trespass at any great lation of joint-stock companies, by which, length upon the time of the House, be- under certain restrictions, parties were encause it would be found that his state- abled to associate, to register that associament would be chiefly historical and re- tion, and thereupon to sue and be sued ferred mainly to a consolidation, with very through a public officer. In the same year few alterations and amendments indeed, an Act was passed to facilitate the winding. of all the existing laws upon the subject. up of joint-stock companies unable to meet On the introduction of the Bankruptcy Bill their engagements.
This was accomplishthe other evening his noble and learned ed through the medium of the Court of Friend the Lord Chief Justice complained Bankruptcy, and the Act might be called very much that he did not propose to con- the creditors' Winding-up Act. In 1848 solidate, as well as to alter and amend the
was passed another Act, which might be law on the subject. Now, he might per- distinguished from that just mentioned as haps explain that there was a very material the shareholders' Winding-up Act. Under difference between the present Bill and that that Act any shareholder might petition which he submitted for the amendment of the Court of Chancery for an order to wind the Bankruptcy law. The latter measure up the company, and then followed various had for its object a complete alteration of provisions, an official manager being apthe system as contained in the Bankruptcy pointed, all the shareholders being made law of 1849, and in introducing it he ven- contributaries, and calls being made upon tured to say, and still was of opinion that, them, until all the debts of the company when you were making a very great altera- were as far as possible satisfied. The cretion in the law, it was not desirable, until ditors, however, were no parties at all to you knew whether the amendment you this winding up under the Act of 1848. proposed would be accepted by Parliament, If bankruptcy had intervened before the to consider the system as complete, and to petition for winding up was presented, propose consolidation. But he had intended there could then be no petition of this