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who introduced the Bill inserted a sche-| the National Gallery to a new Situation, dule identifying the number of courts to be and the Conditions of such Removal, and dealt with ?
said : – My Lords, shortly after the meetMR. DOBBS contended that the whole ing of Parliament, in answer to a question details of manor courts in Ireland were put to the Chancellor of the Exchequer in well known from the inquiry which had al- the other House of Parliament, the riglit ready taken place before a Committee of hon. Gentleman stated, according to that House, and as he believed they were a port, that there was an intention of renuisance, the sooner they were abolished moving the Royal Academy from their the better.
present residence in Trafalgar Square to a Mr. O'BRIEN said, he thought the as- new site, upon certain terms which were sistant barristers in Ireland ought to be not distinctly stated. My Lords, I conmade permanent, but deprived of any prac- sider that much misapprehension has extice at the bar. They onght to be put on isted respecting the tenure under which a similar footing to County Court Judges the Royal Academy hold their apartin Ireland.
ments at present in the National Gallery MR. MACARTHY said, he was persua. Much misapprehension appears to me also ded this Bill would be of the greatest value to exist as to the character, the duties, to Ireland, provided liberty of appeal was and the means of performing the duties added to it.
of the Royal Academy, and much misreMR. PEASE said, he thought the ab- presentation has taken place in consesence of any recommendation by the Com quence of such misapprehensions. I am, mittee which sat on this subject for the therefore, desirous to have an opportunity abolition of these courts showed that there of entering into an explanation upon was no great urgency for getting rid of these points, because I think it will be them in the precipitate manner proposed satisfactory to your Lordships, and will by the Government, and at so large an redound to the credit of the society expense.
which I have referred.
I hope, my Question pnt, " That the words proposed Lords, I shall not be charged with going to be left out, stand part of the clause." out of my province in entering upon this
The Committee divided : - Ayes 70; subject. My justification, or rather my Noes 14 ; Majority 56.
excuse may be, or must be, that in the Clause, as amended, agreed to.
course of last Session I presented a peThe remainder of the clauses agreed to, tition to your Lordships from the Royal with some Amendments.
Academy, requesting your Lordships to MR. GROGAN said, he would move a pass some Bill for the purpose of exclause saving the jurisdiction of the Re- tending the law of copyright to paintcorder's Court, the Lord Mayor's Court, ings and other works of fine art. In and the Court of Conscience of the bo- consequence of this, I have received rerough of Dublin.
peated communications from members of MR. WHITESIDE opposed the clause, the Royal Academy, and they recall to and it was negatived.
circumstances of House resumed.
my early life when I attended the lec. Bill reported, as amended.
tures of Sir Joshua Reynolds, of Mr. Hlouse adjourned at Two o'clock. Barry, and other professors, when I was
rery much associated and very convere sant with the proceedings of the Royal
Academy, and when I was intimately a HOUSE OF LORDS,
quainted with many of its members. My
Lords, there is one circumstance, and a Friday, March 4, 1859. remarkable circumstance, that distinguishes MINUTES.] Public Bills.-1* Marriage Law
the Royal Academy in this country from Amendment.
all the other academies that exist on the 2* Burial Places.
continent of Europe. There is not a
single academy for the purpose of proREMOVAL OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY. moting the fine arts upon the Continent
LORD LYNDHURST rose, pursuant to of Europe that is not supported entirely notice, to call the Attention of the House by the State ; whereas the Royal Acato the Royal Academy, and to the pro- demy here has almost from its first insti. posal to remove the Establishment from tution becn self supporting. It has been of no charge whatever to the State, and seventy years ago—that the whole system in this respect resembles many other of and code of laws were referred to and conour institutions, which would in foreign sidered by Lord Camden. I find that at countries look for aid to the Government, this time Lord Camden was the possessor but which in this country are supported of the Great Seal, and we know, accordby the energy, the vigour, and enterprise ing to the practice of those days, that the of individuals. This is a peculiar chia Lord Chancellor was in daily private comracteristic of our free State, and it does, munication with the Crown. It is thereI think, great honour to the independence fore almost impossible that a scheme of and spirit of our people. Some persons this kind should be established, and this have said that the Royal Academy is to system of laws could not indeed well be be considered as a society of private gen- constituted, without the King taking the tlemen united for the purpose of promot- advice and opinions of the Lord Chancellor. ing the fine arts; while others have said I own, my Lords, that the various docuthat it is to be viewed as an incorpora- ments under the sign manual are not countion. It is a singular circumstance, that tersigned by any officer of the Crown, and at the institution of the Royal Academy there might be some doubt raised whether there was
an Incorporated Society of this Academy is to be considered an instiBritish Artists then in existence, consisting tution, patronised and under the support of of a numerous body of professional gen- the Crown in its private or its public chartlemen. In consequence, however, of dis. acter. My Lords, I do not think it very putes among that body and the disorders material to enter into these nice distinc. consequent upon them, some of the leading tions. What I am stating relates to the members applied by memorial to George frame, the constitution, and the circumIII. for the purpose of establishing an stances under which the endowment was academy under his patronage. After some placed. Now, my Lords, a word or two consideration, the King assented to their in respect to its local position. The Royal request, and established the Royal Aca Academy was founded in 1768. Three demy, exclusively under his protection and 'years afterwards, in 1771, it was transsupport. A code of laws was prepared ferred from its original place of residence under the inmediate superintendence of in Pall Mall to the old palace of Somerset the King, and he himself devoted a con. House, by the authority of the Crown. It siderable portion of time to their con- remained at the old palace of Somerset sideration. Many alterations were pro. House until the new building was erected. posed; but at last the code was complete, That building, or series of buildings, was and it was then handed over under the erected under the authority of an Act of Parsign manual to the Royal Academy; so liament. That Act of Parliament pointed that the Royal Academy exists, not as a out the particular offices which were to be private assemblage of individuals, but as accommodated in this building; I think they an establishment under Royal authority, were to be ten in number ; and it provided and under the sign manual. As for that on the site of the old palace such other these laws I may describe them in a buildings and offices should be erected as few words. The society consists of forty His Majesty should think proper to direct. Academicians and twenty Associates, and It was under this reserved" clause that His it is provided that when there is a vacancy Majesty directed that that part of the preit shall be supplied by election, that elec. sent building which fronts the Strand should tion to be conducted by the Royal Acade- be erected for the accommodation of the micians. But no person is allowed to hold Royal Academy, the Royal Society, and the office of Royal Academician except the Society of Antiquaries. The keys of with the assent of the Crown, and before that part of the building intended to be he is placed in that situation he must have occupied by the Royal Aademy, were dia diploma from the Crown, pointing out his rected by His Majesty to be handed over rank and position in the society. Part of to Sir Joshua Reynolds, who was then the the system is the establishment of a very President. It is clear that at that period extensive and gratuitous school for the in the apartments which were assigned to the struction of students in the fine arts. Cer- Royal Academy were held as part of the tain professors are appointed, four or five old palace of the Sovereign, and at the will in number, and also certain officers who are and pleasure of the Sovereign. They connecessary for carrying on the establishment. tinued in the occupation of those apartI remember hearing mangyears ago-nearly ments undisturbed for a period of nearly sixty years. At the expiration of that and the instruction of the students ; among time it was found convenient to transfer others, a professor of sculpture, a prothe Royal Academy from the position they fessor of architecture, and a professor of then occupied, in order that other offices anatomy--all branches of art necessary should be established on that position ; but for an artist, the importance of which is on that occasion a special engagement was duly recognized. These and certain other entered into between the Crown and Par- officers receive stipends on a very moderate liament, in which the Royal Academy scale for the discharge of the duties dejoined. By virtue of that agreement, and volving upon them. But the great object with the consent of the Crown, the Royal of the institution has reference to the Academy was transferred to the National schools. The schools are on a most libeGallery in Trafalgar Square. It was stipu. ral establishment. Any of Her Majesty's lated at the time as part of the arrange- subjects have a right to claim and to ment that they should hold those premises receive gratuicous instruction there ; noprecisely on the same tenure and with the thing more is requisite for that purpose same rights and privileges as they formerly than the production of a certificate of held the premises in Somerset House. His good moral character and of a qualification Majesty consented to this arrangement, in drawing. With those qualifications they Sir Martin Archer Shee being at that are admitted to the schools and are intime President of the Academy. Thus the structed gratuitously during as long a period matter stands as to the right of the Royal as they think proper to remain. Many Academy to the apartments they now hundreds of students have been instructed occupy. . They do not hold them of the in the schools connected with the society. nation, but of the Crown, and at the pleasure At this very moment the number of students of the Crown. I pass over that part of the is something like 400. Your Lordships subject. I have stated that the Society is may ask what has been the result of this self-supporting; the source from which they instruction ? The answer is most satishave derived their income is the annual factory. During the last fifty years by exhibition. The profits of that exhibition far the larger proportion of eminent artists have advanced by degrees to their present in this country have been taught in those amount. The average for the last ten schools. Two-thirds of the present Royal years has reached the sum of £7,000 a Academicans had their education in those year. From the very first the Academy schools. I have a list in my pocket of the has conducted itself in the management of names of those to whom I refer ; but I that fund with great discretion. They have could not trouble your Lordships to read set apart a sum for accumulation with a them all, and to read a few would be inviview to the perpetuity of the establishment. dious; but I will repeat in distinct and I know, my Lords, some persons suppose precise terms that th: most eminent men that the members of the Royal Academy that have figured in the arts of this country may apply this fund as they think proper. have been educated in those schools—that Some think they have distributed a por- two-thirds of the present Royal Academi. tion of it among themselves. Nothing can cians were so trained and so educated. be more unfounded. They have no power There is another circumstance worthy of whatever over the fund. They cannot dis mention. Not long ago it will be recol. pose of any part of it without the consent lected that premiums were offered for of the Crown. Upon one or two occasions cartoons to be employed in the decoration they have advanced large sums towards the of the Houses of Parliament. Eleven preaid of the country in times of emergency. miums were so assigned, and more than In 1798 they voted £500 for that purpose two-thirds of them were awarded either to ir aid of the Government. They voted students of the Royal Academiy or to perafterwards a similar sum for a similar ob- sons who at some former time had been ject ; but the Crown refused its consent, students of that society. I happened to and the money was not advanced. I have be in Paris at the time of the exhibition shown, therefore, that these funds are held there of works of industry and art. А. not for the purposes of the members of the room was allotted there to the leading Society, but that they must be disbursed schools, including the English ; and I have according to regulations provided for their reason to know that many foreign artists application. For what purpose is the fund of eminence expressed their admiration of then to be applied ? There are cer
ain offi- our
of art there, and their cers appointed with the view to the schools surprise they had known so littlo of the English school. I think, then, that so far other artists admitted in greater numbers. as relates to the duties of this society, and I will not enter upon that subject, because, the mode of their performance of them, I as it is understood that more extensive have given most satisfactory evidence. buildings are about to be erected, that My Lords, besides what I have stated as complaint, if well-founded, can be removed to the application of the society's funds, 1 in future. Another point to which I wish must mention that there are medals and to allude is an olojection which is somepremiums awarded to students who attain times made that favouritism prevails in the a high degree of proficiency, and that there selection of the members. Where elecis also a fund appropriated to defraying the tion is not made by the public voice it is expenses of promising young men in tra- impossible to say that 'favouritism may velling on the Continent for the purpose of not sometimes exist ; but here it is held in visiting the Schools of the Ancient Masters, check by the voice of the profession, who with the view to their improvement. My bave always their eyes directed towards the Lords, there is another application of their proceedings of the Academy, when an elecfunds, which I am sure will meet with tion takes place, and
is still further conyour Lordships' hearty concurrence. There trolled by the influence and authority of is no profession which affords more imme- the Sovereign, who must be satisfied of diate pleasure and delight than the pro- the propriety of each nomination, for no fession of the arts ; but, unfortunately, person elected can hold office until his pecuniary reward to any extent does not election has received the sanction of the always accompany exertion in that voca- Sovereign and a diploma of appointment. tion. Occasionally from advancing life But this I will say, that during the last and its failing energies, sometimes from fifty years no artist of eminence has lived loss of sight, those who devote themselves in this country willing to become a member to it are unfortunately reduced to poverty of the society who has not in course of and distres3. The Royal Academy also time been elected a member. There have appropriates a portion of its funds to the been one or two exceptions, the reasons for relief of persons of that class, and of which I will not enter upon, because they widows of artists who may have been left are of an unpleasant character ; but I say destitute. These are charitable objects, generally in broad terms, that every artist but they are not confined to the members of eminence who has existed in this country of the institution, the aid is distributed freely during the last half century has been a to the profession at large ; and a much member of the Royal Acadenıy. My Lords, larger sum is given to those members of I feel considerable satisfaction in being the profession who are not and never were able to state these facts to your Lordships, connected with the Academy than to those and through you to the country. Now, who are so connected. I find that about one word before I sit down upon the pro. £400 a year is subscribed for the relief of posed change of site. I believe that as persons connected with the institution, and far back as 1830 it was suggested that upwards of £900 for that of persons in the it would be proper to remove the Royal profession not so connected. I think your Academy from its present position in order Lordships will feel that that application of to afford more room for the National Galthe funds in the manner I have described lery, and I think in 1854 Lord Jolin Rus. has been a correct, beneficial, wise, and sell proposed to advance £40,000 to enable prudent application, and that the adminis. the Academy to procure another residence. trators are deserving of our thanks for the What was the result of that offer I do not manner in which they have exercised their know, except that it was never completed ; rights and performed their office. My but this I do know, that it was not very Lords, there are one or two objections favourably received by the Royal Academy, which have been made to which I wish to and for a very obvious reason. They have refer before I sit down. It is sometimes always considered themselves to be under complained that the walls of the Academy the immediate supervision of the Crown. and the Exbibition are too much confined if they consented to receive a sum of to Royal Academicians, members of the money from the public purse they consociety. Whether that be the case or not sidered, and properly so, that they might I cannot undertake to say, nor whether be called upon from time to time by the the exhibition would be better and more House of Commons to make returns, to be profitable if the works of Royal Academi-examined, and to assume a political chacians were reduced in number and those of racter quite foreign to the tranquil state so necessary for the well-being of art. There. This usual clearness and precision the varifore I am sure the offer could not have ous arrangements which have been made been accepted by them. But other offers from time to time between the Crown and have since been made, and now it is pro- the Royal Academy, My noble and posed that a site should be granted in fee learned Friend has referred to the benefito the Royal Academy upon part of the cial influence exerted by the Royal Acaground occupied by what is known as Bur-demy; and, without entering into details. lington House. No situation can be better I think the principle is now recognized on for this purpose. They are grateful for all hands that, while the Royal Academy that offer; but still they fear what I have has no right to claim exclusive possession before suggested, that a grant from the of this or that particular building, yet it nation, unless an equivalent was offered by has a right to claim on the part of the themselves, would place them in the posi- public that they shall have some means tion I have just mentioned. Their object provided for carrying on their labours, from is, and always has been, to remain solely which I readily admit the public have for a under the control and supervision of the series of years derived the greatest benefit. Crown. Therefore what they now propose I believe my noble and learned Friend has is this—they will accept the grant upon only done justice to the zeal with which the condition that they on their part shall these labours have been undertaken, and to be allowed to expend an amount equal to the services which the society rendered to the value of the site in the construction of the fine arts in this country. I should not buildings necessary for the Academy, to have risen now, as there is no particular be permanently applied for the purposes of point involved in the remarks of my noblo art. Thus the grant from the nation will and learned Friend, but that I think it is be paid for by that equivalent, because expedient your Lordships should be put in both the land and the buildings to be possession of what is the real position of erected upon it are to be devoted in per. the Government and the Royal Academy petuity to a great public object. I think towards each other. Your Lordships are that if this kind of arrangement can be aware that for a series of years there has carried out it will not affect the position of been a growing feeling that the building the Royal Academy, and they will remain, constituting the National Gallery, occupied as before, under the immediate supervision, partly by the national collection of pictures control, and government of Her Majesty. and partly by the Royal Academy, was I was anxious, my Lords, to make this insufficient for both purposes, and that it explanation, because I was sure, as re- was desirable to separate one portion from garded the conduct and management of the other. For a long time the question the Academy, I could say nothing but has been agitated whether the National what would redound to the credit of that Collection should be removed and the Acabody. I think also your Lordships will demy left in possession of the original site; not object to the view they take as regards but the result of inquiries by Commissions the proposed change of site, that the ac- and Committees appears upon the whole to ceptance of a grant should be conditional be that there is no site better calculated upon the arrangement which I have men- than the existing National Gallery for tioned. What is the precise sum they will the exhibition of the pictures which belong expend I am not prepared to state at to the nation. That being the case, it was present; but I imagine it will be some thought that some other place should be £40,000 or £50,000, which will be a com- found for the Royal Academy, and the plete equivalent for the land to be granted society has had under consideration the to them. I am sorry to have troubled offer of other sites for a building. In that your Lordships at such length, but I was state of things the late Government purglad to have an opportunity of addressing chased the valuable property called Buryou upon a subject which, from the posi- lington House, with the gardens and courttion I now stand in, and in which from yard attached. In order to give some the earliest days of my life I have stood in idea of the extent of space required, I may relative to these matters, naturally pos- state that the superficial extent of the sesses great interest for me.
National Gallery is 13,000 square feet, THE EARL OF DERBY: I am sure the while the superficial area of Burlington IIouse is indebted to my noble and learned House and grounds is 143,000 feet, or Friend for the statement which he has nearly eleven times as much. It must not, addressed to us. He has explained with however, be supposed that there are not VOL. CLII. TIED SERIES.]