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to that assertion that the proprietors pay , Creole to pay something towards what enan extra sum to obtain elsewhere the labour riches and exalts the country in which we which you say they can find more con- have made him a freeman ? Well, Sir, veniently at home. Is that human nature ? then I venture to think there are realiy no Do men do so even in the West Indies ? grounds for this Committee. So far as the Dues Barbadoes do so ? No! Barbadoes West Indies are concerned, there are no sends for no immigrants, because Barba- petitions from them demanding this inquiry, does has a sufficient population, and that nor are there any special measures for population is eminently industrious. But their benefit proposed. So far as informadoes the absence of immigration keep up tion is concerned, it is given to you every wages ? No! Wages in Barbadoes are year in blue books as numerous and as lower than those in any of the colonies to bully as the most passionate student of which emigration has been admitted. Com-blue-books could desire. And we are now pare the average wages of Barbadoes even printing for Parliament papers upon nearly with those at Jamaica, where you say the all the subjects to which the hon. Gentleplanter wishes to drive so hard a bargain man bas referred. But it must not be with the Creole. Wages at Barbadves supposed that we shrink from inquiry. And since emancipation have ranged at 1s. I£d. I make the hon. Gentleman two proposals: per day to iod.
At Jamaica they have 1st. Let him wait till the papers about to ranged from 1s. 6d. to ls. And in be printed for the use of hon. Members colonies where immigration is admitted are on our table; if he then wants more freely, a man, be he Creole or Indian, can information, let him specify the points in obtain by task-work at least 28. a day. which those papers are defective; if the But is the immigrant a competitor for Government cannot give it, then let him labour at less wages than are current with move for his Committee upon those points; the native. No; it is provided that the and we will see if those points do really immigrant shall receive as a minimum the need a Parliamentary inquiry, in which current rate of wages paid to an uninden- case we will concede it. 01, 2dly, if he intured labourer, and these wages cannot be sist on a Committee immediately, I will low if, as we have seen, they enable the grant it, provided he thus defines its incoolie to return home in a few years with quiry-namely, “ To inquire into the prewhat to him is affluence for the rest of his sent mode of conducting immigration into life. But it is said, • At all events, for the West Indian Colonies, and the best this importation of labour the planters means of promoting that object." I think should pay exclusively; the population that is fair; but if he take my advice he will should not be taxed for the labour that, wait for information before he decides on competes with their own.”. Sir, I grant moving for any Committee at all. at once that the planter should pay the say, in conclusion, a few words to the friends greater portion of this expense; that is a of the Anti-Slavery Society. I have fought condition which both my predecessors and by their side in my youth, and now, when myself have kept steadfastly in view. And. I think they have been mis-informed, I according to the Jamaica Act, the planters still believe that our object is the samepay two-thirds; but that is not all. The namely, to give complete and triumphant money applicable for the payment of the success to the sublime experiment of negro first immigration is the sum of £50,000 emancipation. It becomes them above all remaining on the Imperial guaranteed loan men to do their best to render prosperous of £100,000. The repayment of that loan the Colonies in which slavery has been is to be effected by an export duty, and an abolished. Every bundred weight of sugar export duty falls on the producer, that is, produced by the immigrant at Jamaica iz a the planter. But granted that a portion of hundred weight of sugar withdrawn from the expense does fall on the general com- the market of Cuban slaves. Will slave munity, if the im nigration conduces to its states follow our example, unless capital prosperity, it may fairly be expected to fourish under it? Can capital flourishi un. contribute towards it. Increased prosperity less it has the right to hire labour wherever is always followerl by increased civiliza- labour is willing to be hired ? I warn them, tion; more money is required for schools, that if by any indiscretion of over zeal on for religious worship, for public works; our part one West Indian Colony becomes every individual in the country rises higher vitally injured, it is we who shall rivet the in the scale in proportion as it becomes bonds of negro slavery wherever it yet more prosperous; is it unjust to call on the desecrates a corner of the earth.
Let me But a
MR. LABOUCHERE: Sir, I rejoice to exercising it only on the greatest and not Bay, especially at that time of night, that I on light and unnecessary occasions. That do not feel the least disposition to trespass being the case, I ask what reason can be more than a few minutes on the attention given as to the necessity of any inqniry into of the House ; but having recently filled the general condition of the West Indies ? the situation which is now occupied by the From my knowledge of the Colonies, I right hon. Gentleman (Sir E. B. Lytton), have no hesitation in saying that it would I feel it incumbent on me to address a few be adverse to the feeling of the British words on the present occasion. I think West Indies. Jamaica has a great popular the House must have observed of recent constitution—a great popular Legislature; years, a great alteration in the mode in and I think they will consider any inquiry which colonial subjects have been treated into the affairs of that island on the part within its walls. 1, at least, can remember of this House unnecessary. I see no good when no class of subjects was debated in such an inquiry, and, seeing much evil, with more acrimony -indeed, it was often I cannot but join with the right hon. the favourite battlefield when domest c Gentleman in hoping that my hon. Friend policy did not present any point particu- will not press that part of his Motion on larly tempting for those conflicts. the present occasion. The general picture much beiter feeling has of late years arisen of the West Indies at this moment is exupon these questions. I am bound to ac-tremely gratifying. There can be no doubt knowledge that during the two years I had they have struggled through that period the honour to be Secretary for the Colonies of distress which long weighed on them. I received from Gentlemen who were op. Some are in a state of great prosperity. posed to me in general policy nothing but They are all in a state of improvement counsel and assistance. I do not recollect both as to their agricultural and their moral that a single hostile Motion was made by and social position. I hope the two races, any hon. Gentleman, and both from my black and white, are becoming amalgasense of duty to the Colonies, as well as mated, and acting in greater harmony tothe recollection of that circumstance, I gether. I know that black and white trust I shall always endeavour to view co- lawyers sit side by side as barristers in lonial subjects entirely free from party bias. their courts of justice. I know that official On the present occasion I am glad to say situations are held by men of colour, and that I am able to express an almost com- when I had the honour of holding the seals plete coincidence of opinion with the right of the Colonial Office, I always rejoiced to hon. Gentleman. I agree in hoping that find a man of colour, of character, and my hon. Friend who has brought forward ability, to whom I could give an appointthis Motion with such ability, and in a If those causes are left to operate manner so becoming liis name and position. I think the House may rely on an improved will not, on the present occasion invite the condition of the Colonies, both socially House to undertake an inquiry into the and morally, being produced. The general general state of the West Indies, which I state of things with regard to the sugar am sure is unneces
essary, and may be mis- trade is very curious and interesting. I chievous. I think this House should be believe it is the fashion to say that the sparing of inquiries into the state of our West Indies, as sugar-producing colonies, Colonies. I have never said, and I will are almost entirely ruined. But, with the never say, that this House should not keep exception of Jamaica, there is as much a vigilant eye upon the British Colonies as sugar produced and exported from the rest well as upon every other great interest of the islands as there was in 1831, becommitted to it, but I do say that very fore the Emancipation Act. I say, with sparing interference is wise. "This House the exception of Jamaica, and I cannot may depend upon it that there is growing attribute the falling off in agricultural up in the Colonies a jealonsy not only of prosperity of that island to the causes unnecessary interferenee on the part of the assigned by the right hon. Gentleman. Executive, but on the part of the Legisla- I believe the great, if not the sole ture itself. They think justly that they cause, has been the unfortunate mismaare able to manage their own concerns nagement of her own self-government better than we can manage them for them. by which her finances have been ruined This House may epend upon it that
ey and her affairs confused. A wretched conwill best preserve the supreme authority stitution has induced jobbing and conin the last resort respected and revered, by fusion, and resulted in most disastrous
consequences. I am glad to find that the from China? No doubt, if a system of foundation has been laid, by the improve- Chinese immigration could be established ment of her constitution, for a better state under proper safeguards, it would be of of things, and I trust that Jamaica will, ere great advantage to the West India Islands. long, resume her natural position at the But there are difficulties in the way. One head of the West India Islands. Jamaica of them is the alleged impossibility of inused to send to this country 1,500,000 suriny by fair means the introduction into cwt. of sugar ; now she sends not quite our Colonies of a due proportion of Chinese 500,000. But the void in her exportation women. The attention of the late Gohas been filled up from another source. vernment, and doubtless that of their sucThe Mauritius has taken the place of Jamai. cessors, was turned to this point ; and the ca and now sends us about 1,500,000 cwt. Earl of Elgin had special directions to make In fact, wherever you find an adequate inquiries into it as far as his other and supply of labour, whether it be in the Mau- more pressing duties would permit. When ritius, in Trinidad, Demerara, or Barba. one of the West India Islands had espress. does, there you find the cultivation of sugir ed a wish to send out an agent to China to succesfully conducted, and the whole com- assist in promoting the same object, every munity in a state of prosperity. The lesson facility was offered on the part of the taught by this—and I hope it will be borne British Government to the mission of that in mind not by us alone but by the whole officer. I will only add, that if the hon. world—is, that the question whether free Member who has made this Motion will labour can compete in a tropical climate follow the advice of the Secretary of State with slave labour depends upon the suffi. for the Colonies, and confine the proposed ciency with which that free labour is sup- inqniry to the subjects to which I have plied ; and happily in our own colonies the referred, I have litile doubt that it will be experiment has worked satisfactorily. My attended with useful results. belief is, that by encouraging by all legiti. MR. CROSSLEY said, that feeling mate means the introduction of free labour- deeply interested in the question of the ers into your own sugar-producing posses. abolition of slavery, he had listened with sions, and taking care that they are not much satisfaction to the speech of the right checked in their career of improvement, you hon. Gentleman the Secretary for the are doing far more to put down the slave Colonies. He had lad the advantage of trade and slavery than can be accomplished visiting the Slave States of America, by all the squadrons you may fit out and all where he found the slave owners extremely the treaties you can devise. I sbould look anxious to have his opinion as to whether with the utmost alarm at the carrying out he had not found the domestic instituof the views of the well-intentioned but tion" much better than he expected. He mistaken men who ask as a boon for the endeavoured to persuade them that it was coloured races, above all people in the more for their interest to give the labourers world, that you should check the supply of day wages and make them independent, free labour for your own colonies. Succes- instead of having to purchase them at a sive Governments have carefully watched high rate and then to hold tire whip over the whole system under which this immi- them to make them work. They allowed gration has been conducted, in order that the truth of his remarks, but replied they the interests of humanity might not be had no choice and no chance of acting on neglected, and that, as far as could be this suggestion, that slave labour was all done under a highly artificial and compli- 'that they had to depend upon. He thought cated set of arrangements, the claims of the right hon. Secretary for the Colonies the planter upon the Coolie should be had shown that more work was to be done reconciled with the right of the latter to and greater economy effected by free labour protection in his comparatively defenceless than by slave labour; but there was a feeling position. One other point of great moment in the country that there was great hardship is, whether free labourers can be taken connected with immigration—that it was from the coast of Africa and carried to our only slavery under another name.
It was colonies ? My own opinion is that any at- very important that this should be set right. tempt to effect this on the part of England He (Mr. Crossley) thought the planters or any other country will only end in a themselves ouglit to pay the whole exrevival of the slave trade in another form. penses of immigration, just the same as if Another question of great importance is, either agriculturists or manufacturers in whether a supply of labour is obtainable this country required labour from abroad
they must pay for it themselves and not which had occurred lately had afforded an come upon the public purse for any opportunity for the introduction of this portion of it.
He would advise the hon. measure. Member for Newport to accept the pro
Leave given. position of the Secretary for the Colo- Bill ordered to be brought in by Sir nies, in order that this immigration might STAFFORD NORTHCOTE and Mr. ATTORNEY be conducted in a proper manner, feeling GENERAL. sure, as he did, that the best way to put Bill presented and read 1°. down slavery would be to allow colonial produce to be raised by free labour.
MARRIAGE LAW AMENDMENT BILL. MR. CHICHESTER FORTESCUE
THIRD READING, said, he also would urge upon the hon. Order for Third Reading read. Mover the propriety of accepting the first Motion made and Question proposed, piece of advice offered to him by the Se- " That the Bill be now read the third cretary for the Colonies, and of resting time.” satisfied with the information already before MR. BERESFORD HOPE wished to the House, together with that which would take another opportunity of entering his speedily be produced in addition. There protest against and declaring his conwas no sufficient ground for the proposed scientious opposition to this Bill. It proinquiry, which, moreover, was not demanded voked the opposition of all the women of by any general feeling out of doors. Ex. England, and of all the thinking people aggerated and unfounded alarms had in throughout the United Empire. It was deed been excited by a small body of that said when this Bill was before the House somewhat dangerous class of persons called on the last occasion, that the clergy of philanthropists ; but the free immigration London were in favour of it.
He had no of Coolies had been a great blessing to our answer to make to that statement at the West Indian colonies, and the correction time, but now he had an answer. That of any abuses in the working of the system evening he had presented a petition from might safely be left to the vigilance which the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, was constantly exercised both by the Im- urging that the marriage of a man with a migration Commissioners and the Indian deceased wife's sister was contrary to the Government.
Word of God and the law of the Church. MR. E. EWING observed, that Deme- Another petition had also been presented rara had the finest soil for the cultivation by him from Sion College, a corporation of sugar, and all that the colony wanted to of the clergy of London, which alleged enable it to beat the slave owners of Cuba that if this Bill passed the law would be was a sufficiency of labour. He did not destructive of the social interests of the think that a system of differential duties people, and to the discipline and doctrine would do the planters any good.
of the Church of England. He had also Mr. BUXTON said, that he would presented a petition from the town of accept the first proposal of the right hon. Leeds, signed by nearly the whole of the Baronet the Secretary of State for the clergy, and of the same purport as those Colonies. He would study the Papers to which he had alluded. Hostility to the which were about to be published, and if measure however was not confined to those they did not afford information, would re- classes. The feeling of the country was new bis Motion.
against the passing of the law.
He was Mution, by leave, withdrawn.
satisfied that even should the Bill pass that House it would not become law. He
begged to move that the Bill be read a COUNTY COURTS BILL.
third time that day six months. FIRST READING.
Amendment proposed, to leave out the Sir STAFFORD NORTHCOTE, in word "now," and at the end of the Quesmoving for leave to introduce a Bill to re- tion to add the words “ upon this day six peal the 32nd section of the County Courts months.” Act, 9 & 10 Vict., c. 95, and to make Question put, “That the words 'now further provision in lieu thereof, explained stand part of the Question.' that that clause had reserved the jurisdic- The House divided :- Ayes 137; Noes tion of certain officers of the city of West- 89: Majority 48. minster and borough of Southwark, and Main Question put, and agreed to. that the deaths of two of these officers Bill read 3, and passed.
MANOR COURTS, &c., (IRELAND) BILL. nine out of ten of the courts there would be COMMITTEE.
no title to compensation. He did not see Order for consideration, as amended, the advantage of maintaining bad courts read.
when there existed good courts where the Bill re-committed.
causes could be tried. He had not set out House in Committee.
a schedule, because a great many of the Mr. COX said, he must object to the judges of these courts would not receive House going on with this Bill at so late an compensation, which the fact of putting hour. It was understood that no impor- them into a schedule would have admitted, tant matters should be considered after and the provision that those which had had twelve o'clock, and it was now a quarter real business during a year would receive past that hour. His objection was one that compensation would have been abused by went to the whole Bill, and he should move the getting up of business for the purpose that the hon. Chairman report progress.
of getting into the schedule. Motion made and Question put, That Mr. J. D. FITZGERALD observed, the Chairman do now leave the chair." that on a former occasion he had sug.
MR. WHITESIDE said, that though it gested that in place of abolishing the was past twelve o'clock they had seen most courts and giving compensation no new important business transacted after that judges should be appointed. It was mathour. The hon Meniber had put forward ter of complaint that the extent to which a Motion which originally was the Motion the public finances would be charged unof another hon. Member, and the matter der the Bill was not stated. In a great had been fully discussed on a former occa- many of the courts the emoluments were sion.
considerable, and compensation, if given The Committee divided :-Ayes 6; at all, must be in proportion. If the Noes 95 : Majority 89.
hon. Member for Finsbury went to a diviMR. COX said, he would then propose sion, he should feel bound to support his to expunge certain words in Clause 1. The Amendment, the effect of which would Bill, he said, proposed to give to an un- be that these courts would expire gralimited number of persons an unlimited dually, without one farthing of expense amount of compensation. That was a most to the country. Having been unable to objectionable provision ; but if the Attorney obtain any information from the GovernGeneral for Ireland was prepared to state ment as to the number of courts, he had the number of courts which he intended made inquiry himself, and found that there to abolish, and the sum which would be were numerous officers of these courts required to compensate the Judges, he claiming to be in the receipt of £50 to would not further oppose the progress of £350 a year. The courts were not so the Bill.
wholly inefficient as Mr. Whiteside repreClause 1, line 9:-- Amendment pro- stated that he had issued 10,000 processes
sented. The judge of the Antriin court po ed “ To leave out from the word • Act’toCourts,' his decisions.
in one year without having any appeal from in line 12, in order to insert the words ‘no senes. chal or judge shall hereafter be appointed to any
Mr. SPAIGUT said, he would not Manor Court in Ireland, and upon the death of any share the responsibility which would be in. person at present holding the office of seneschal curred by perpetuating these courts. In or judge of any Manor Court, or on his ceasing to giring evidence as to the working of these hold such office by resignation, removal, or otherwise, the Manor Court of which such person was courts, one gentleman said that the jury judge or seneschal shall be abolished, and no ac- did not always deliberate, but sent to tion or suit shall be conumenced or prosecuted the plaintiff ior a quantity of punch, therein.'”
refusing to give their verdict until they MR. WIIITESIDE said, that "every got their drink. In another instance a Judye on the Bench of Ireland for the last gentleman went into one of these courts thirty years had declared against these and found the judge, jury, and witnesses courts, which encouraged perjury and small speaking Trish, and on inquiry discovered litigation. Many of the courts sat in pub- that the judge did not understand English. lichouses, and the men who gave most MR. JOIN LOCKE observed that he money for drink got the most verdicts. It bad no doubt but that the courts in ques. was only proposed to give compensation tion were quite as abominable as they had according to the business done in the last been represented. Why, he asked, had year, and he believed that with respect to not the right hon. and learned Gentleman