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tracts its attention. And in all human in. V. I need add nothing to the admirable dustry of the intellect there must be the praises of toleration produced from Fuller same sequesterment from the gay scenes and and others in the May letter. I will only variegated lights of common nature. It is observe that I am not certain that I accept curious to mark the lively signs by which the argument of Pope, when he attempts the kind of nourishment taken is to be as- to shew the vanity of reasoning upon bucertained in all branches of the creation. man actions,The purple or golden feather of the bird tells of the field where the seed was sown. That instant'tis his principle no more;

“His principle of action once explore, It has been questioned whether butterflies Like following life thongh creatures you dissect, are tinged with the colors of the flowers You lose it in the moment you deteci." on which they feed, but it is quite within the limits of analogy that they should be. I am not so satisfied with this remark as We always find these distinctive notes with his assertion, that the quick whirls and in the works of literature. Demosthenes re- shifting eddies of mighty and impetuous veals in every page the student of Thucy- minds may be quite unfathomable by hudides, and Milton's Grecian violets peep out man skill and curiosity. But I think that under the hedges of Paradise. You can- some advances in toleration may be made, not work too much, or persevere too long, by considering that every great fact or truth, in the examination of great models. The on which actions depend, owes its appearfather of Mengs compelled him to recopy ance in no common measure to the aspect twenty times some of Raffaelle's pictures under which we contemplate it. One man in the Vatican. A noble specimen of this shall hold up a crystal in this direction, toil of genius, where the fire of the eye is another in that The same sun shall fall not lost in its watches, may be seen in upon it, but at a different angle. The Leonardo da Vinci's picture of “Donna colors it emits will accordingly vary, and Lisa" in the Louvre, which he is said to yet, proceeding from the same source, prehave been four years in completing. Nor sent similar hues in combination.

And so do the ancient artists appear to have ne- with the examination of every separate truth, glected this element of immortality. Pliny a far costlier crystal. It changes its colors, (lib. xxxv. c. 10) speaks of Protogenes, as as the ray of judgment falls upon it with a modern critic might characterize the most different degrees of intensity and fulness. indefatigable master of the Dutch school. A cloud, however faint, in the natural sky,

Sometimes, of course, in art and litera- passing over the sun, will diin every ture the lamplight is thrown away. Quin- emanation of color on the crystal, extintilian says that the poet Cinna spent nine guishing some, obscuring all. In like manyears in composing bis Smyrna, and Iso- ner with a truth. Reason is the sky. crates ten in writing and revising his Pane- Judgment is the sun. A cloud of prejudice,

A gyrics. And it is recorded of the admira- however faint, going over it, darkens for a ble Bishop Sanderson, that, in the prepara- time the lustre of the truth itself. Now tion of his lectures, he hesitated so often surely this ought to help us in the formation and rejected so much, that when the hour of a tolerating temper. It was excellently arrived for reading them, he was obliged to related of Taylor, by his friend and succesproduce, not what was hest, but what hap- sor in the see of Down and Connor, that pened to be at hand. Execution in paint- he did not consider “ it likely any one paring has been defined by a great proficient ty should wholly engross truth to themto be the genius of mechanical performance. selves;" and that he weighed the reasons But a distinction must be always kept be- of men, and not their names. Thus many tween execution and high finish; the second arrows of truth will be found in the quiver may be acquired by mere color, the first of Romanism, and one or two features of never; like the blossoming of poetical beauty under the ugly vizor of Superstition.

; thought, it must grow out of the healthful It is the misfortune of our nature that truths vigor and life of the intellect. Reynolds should be contemplated in this atmosphere destroyed several pictures by the old mas- of opinion, and that their crystalline purity ters, in the hope of finding the secret of should from this cause present an imperfect their color; which was as reasonable as if and a tarnished reflection. we should decompose the ink of one of Do you recollect the galleries at Munich, Milton's manuscripts, to learn how he ob- which were built and fitted up under the tained the splendor of Comus.

direction of Von Klenze? Well; the prin

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ciple he adopted in constructing a room for in strong contrast ; it was the boast of Socthe statues was, that they should receive rates that he had never entered a tavern. light only from one side; richly colored Believe me to be, dear sir, sincerely walls being the same time substituted for yours,

M. A. the dingy gray previously employed. You must have been delighted with the warm and emphatic tone produced by this arrangement of the Bavarian architect. But

From the Spectator. the arrangement which answers with statues, is far less satisfactory when MR. HOLMES'S SKETCHES ON THE SHORES applied to characters; yet the colored

OF THE CASPIAN. wall and the light from a single side, are the general principles of critical archi- Mr. Holmes appears to hold some official tecture.

situation under his relative Mr. Brant, our VI. I have given several examples of lit- Consul at Erzeroum; and, finding himself erary resemblance, let me add one of a very at Tabreez in November 1843, with means different character, one belonging to the and opportunity to make an excursion along fine arts of the table. Sir Alexander the shores of the Caspian, he devoted six Burnes's Peshawur friend, Naid Mahomed months to a tour, in company with a friend Shureef, whom he met at Cabool, spoke attached to the British mission. So little with rapture of some wine, of which two is generally known of the region in quesglasses sent a man to sleep. Burnes told tion, that to mention the places the travelhim that the English notion of good lers passed through, would be a mere string wine consisted in being able to drink al of names without associations, many of large quantity of it without any unpleasant which would not be found on the map. Let or soporific effects. “A bad plan,” replied it suffice to say that the explorations of Mr. Mahomed, " for a man must then drink till Holmes embraced the Persian territory on he is as large as a butt: no, no, ours is the the banks of the Caspian, from the river best plan." You would scarcely expect to Astara, the boundary of the Russian fronfind such a sentiment in Johnson ; yet he tier, to the city of Resht, and thence to Asof Bolt Court and he of Peshawur coincided trabad, the last Persian town towards the completely. “Brandy is the best," said Toorkmans. From Astrabad Mr. Holmes Johnson, “ because it operates sooner." accompanied his friend to Teheran, the capAnd in refutation of Burke's panegyric of ital : whence he himself rode “tartar” back claret, he exclaimed, “ You'll be drowned to Tebreez, and finally returned to Erzeby it before it has any effect upon you.” roum. The doctor's arrangement of three distin- The country through which Mr. Holmes guished liquors is well known; claret for principally travelled is not of a striking boys, port for men, and brandy for heroes. character either by nature or association. But Plato's theory is the most curious. Un- Shut in by the Elburz range, the shores of til eighteen, he interdicted the use of wine the Caspian are marshy, thickly intersected altogether ; after that age up to thirty, a by streams, too shallow for navigation, if moderate allowance is given ; and after there were commerce to require it, but of forty, he appears to have deemed it wise to fering impediments to the traveller from the remove all restrictions, and to let wine be general absence of bridges, and contribuidrunk at discretion. The prettiest employ- ing by their overflow to render the country ment of wine is that observed in the cele- muddy in rain, and unwholesome in sunbration of Hebrew weddings; the drinking shine. As soon as the shores are quitted, of it is accompanied with benedictions, and however, the prospects begin to improve, when the glass or vessel is emptied, it is the mountains offering magnificent scenery, dashed upon

the ground and broken as an with every variation of climate from the suemblem of the fragility of existence. With gar-cane to snow. But the social system is regard to the Roman customs of wine-drink- every where backward : at least to the back. ing we have little certain information We wardness, or as some would say the simplio are not better informed as to Grecian habits. city of the Oriental mode of living, is added But in connexion with Johnson one cir- the discomfort of a marshy soil, and the uncumstance may be noticed, which places certainty which has arisen from a society the Athenian and the London philosopher continually disturbed by clannish disputes

and the forays of the Toorkmans. Plague

PERSIAN STATISTS.

a

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has in some places still further diminished unpretending writer. He bad also a knowlpopulation. So that, what with indifferent edge of the language; and the Consul's ofweather, execrable roads, bad accommoda- fice has given him a turn for collecting tion, and a profusion of vermin, nothing commercial and statistical information; his but the love of locomotion which distin- reports upon which will have a special value, guishes the Anglo-Saxon race would have though native authorities are not very trustinduced a man to undertake the excursion, worthy. unless he had scientific or commercial objects in view; neither of which was the case with Mr. Holmes.

Whenever I have noted the amount of popAs a literary work, Sketches on the Shores ulation in a place, it has not been a mere guess of the Caspian falls into the usual error of of my own, but a conclusion formed froin the

various estimates of those of whom I have intravellers ridiculed by Goldsmith in his

quired on the subject. It is seldom, however, Journey to Kentish Town. Mr. Holmes that they know any thing of the matter ; though is too detailed in his narrative, and dwells they always make a point of not confessing igtoo much upon the commonplaces of his norance, and usually give such a reply as they journey. A very bad road, very remarka- think will please or coincide most with the ble scenery, a very dilapidated house—these ideas of the inquirer. Thus, you ask a Perare proper to be noted, because they are sian what is the population of a place: very

ofien he answers, “Bussceor est" (it is many); striking in themselves, and suggest some showing pretty clearly that he knows nothing information or excite some kind of sympa- about it. On pressing him more closely, he will thy, if it is merely in a dislike to bad quar- perhaps reply, “It is three thousand.” Oh!” ters. A particular account of the country you say, “that is very little for a place like and its appearances day by day becomes te- this; there must surely be more." dious, because the general result is the only belli," (certainly,) is the answer ; "there must thing the reader cares about; and the au

be altogether six thousand :" and turning to thor forces him to strike the average, in- the Sahib knows every thing better than even

any one who may be standing near,

" See how stead of doing it for him. Nothing but ar- we ourselves, Marshallah!” Thus, at your tistical skill can render mere description suggestion, immediately doubling the amount, interesting for long; and in this quality with as little hesitation as he would have Mr. Holmes is deficient. His style is lit- halved it had you observed that you thought eral; so that unless a thing has stirring life it too large. or animation its sentiment escapes him. The ruins of princely palaces, public monuments, fortifications, or useful buildings, Governor; who seemed rather a dull person,

In the morning we received a visit from the scattered over the country, and which must though very polite and civil. He asked a great suggest melancholy reflections on its former many questions regarding the Feramoosh prosperity and present decay, excite little Khoneh, as they call the Freemasons' Hall in or nothing of this feeling in the reader. London; which is a complete mystery to all They are too much in the inventorial style. the Persians who have heard of it. Very ofSuch passages do not, indeed, predomi

ten the first question we have been asked is, nate in this volume, though they are numer- What is it ?»

“What do they do at the Feramoosh Khoneh?

They generally believe it to be ous enough to injure its effect. A great a most wonderful place, where a man may acpart of the sketches of Mr. Holmes consists quire in one day the wisdom of a thousand of pictures of Persian life, shown in char- years of study; but every one has his own peacters, incidents, or the social economy culiar conjectures concerning it. Some of the from which the travellers often suffered. Persians who went to England became freeThese are so new and striking in them- masons; and their friends complain that they selves, that they combine the interest of fic will not tell what they saw at the hall, and can

not conceive why they should all be so uncomtion with the solidity of fact; and, though inunicative. not, perhaps, throwing any absolutely new light upon the Asiatic character, possess much freshness from the remoteness of the Alter tea, the Beg left us to ourselves for region and the rareness of visiters; Fraser, about an hour; when he returned, accounpasome two-and-twenty years ago, having been nied by his two brothers, Nooroollah Beg and the only traveller there since the time of chief of the Shah-sevens, and some other

Shookroollah Beg, a brother of Mehmet Khan, Hanway. Mr. Holmes is also a good hu- friends; and dinner immediately followed. А mored traveller, cheerfully bearing the tray containing a chillo and pillo, radishes, hardships of the way; and an unaffected, I tried eggs, a stew of meat, and a bowl of sher

PERSIAN IDEA OF FREEMASONRY.

PERSIAN APPETITES AND EATING,

more.

bet, was allotted to each two persons; and, at tons, placed as close together as possible ; the word “Bismillah,” (in the name of God,) round his waist he wore a belt of gold lace; the company fell to in silence, unbroken du- and over all a dark, plum-colored cloak. He ring the whole time save by the sound of the was very polite and affable; hoped that we various jaws in process of mastication. Hands had been well treated in his territory, and were thrust deep into the greasy dishes, rice asked many questions regarding our journey. squeezed into balls and swallowed with aston- He inquired after all the English he had known ishing rapidity; and in less than a quarter of in Persia; and the conversation turning on an hour little remained of the immense piles India and the East India Company, he begged which had been set before them. Water was to know whether the report he had heard that then brought in, and each guest slightly wet- they had killed the “Coompanee" was the fact ted his fingers, afterwards wiping them on his or not

. We presently ascertained that he al. pocket-handkerchief or his coat, as the case luded to the death of Sir William Macnaughmight be ; which ceremony had scarcely been ten. performed, when our Shah-seven friend and We had heard that the Shahzadeh was a one or iwo others, loosening their belts, imme- great drinker; and his weak and blood-shot diately lapsed into a state of torpidity. My eyes seemed confirmatory of the report: but companion and myself had made a plenteous I could not suppress a smile, when tea was meal, but our dishes appeared comparatively brought in, to see his servant draw forth from untouched. The Persians are very large eat- the recesses of his pocket a black bottle of ers, particularly those of the lower classes: rum: we of course accepted a little in our five of our servants, who dined together, de- tea, while the Prince held out his already voured every day about twenty pounds of half-empty cup, which the servant filled to the bread, besides a good allowance of meat and brim. fruit; and one evening three of the grooms ate among them ten pounds of rice, and were

PRINCELY TURN-OUT. grumbling because they could not get any

The Persians say that the English do In the evening we went to dine with the not eat; they only play with their food. Prince. We were shown into the same room

as on our first visit, and found his Royal HighAbout twelve o'clock, the usual Persian time, ness seated on a small sickety chair, at the we were summoned to breakfast; and all re- head of the Russian table before-mentioned. turned to the house exceedingly sharp-sel. It was covered with various nondescript little The meal was a repetition of dinner, and the dishes, and saucers of pickles, chiefly garlic; same feeding scene took place as on the previ- there were also two water-bottles of sherbet, ous evening. I have often heard it remarked two black boitles, conspicuously marked" Lonwith respect to the Eastern custom of eating don Stout,” one of which, however, contained with the fingers, that it was a mistake to re- rum, and several square decanters of Persian gard it as unpleasant; and that the hands, wine. Four glass candlesticks of Russian or which were thoroughly washed, were cleaner German manufacture occupied the corners: implements than our knives and forks. In Per- they were ticketed just as they came from the sia, I can only say, that I found the washing a shop; the tallow ran in streams upon the table very inefficient ceremony: no soap is used, a from the candles, which were all of different little tepid water being merely poured over the lengths; and there being no such convenience hands before and after dinner; and they are as a pair of snuffers, Abbas Kooly Meerza, oftentimes wiped with a pocket-handkerchief who sat at the Shazadeh's right, occasionally which has not been washed for perhaps six snuffed them with his fingers, which he wiped months. The voracious manner in which they on the skirts of his dress. swallow their food is disgusting. In general, Persians admire the European custom of using

The return journey of our author took the knife and fork, and confess that it is more him to the capital, and introduced him to decent in appearance, and cleanlier in reality, the Shah; of whom he and the Persians than their own ; but Ferrajoollah Beg, while think but lig The Prime Minister, admitting this, observed, that after all he pre- however, is well esteemed; seemingly from ferred eating with the hand, as it imparted a bis proficiency in the art of pleasing or and appearance of his own hand, I should humbugging. think the observation correct.

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A PERSIAN PRINCE.

Ardeshir Meerza is a man of middling size, inclining to corpulency, with a jolly-looking round visage, bearing a strong resemblance to the rest of the royal family. He was dressed in a plain, single-breasted drab-colored coat, buttoned to the throat by about forty gilt but

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THE OLD TREE.

Go preying oft for spiders and for flies !
No mantling ivy wraps it round and round,

To screen it from the sweep of bitter winds,
It bends, as with the weight of many years, Or make it gay with green leaves not its own;
Over a brook-tbis venerable tree;
Not where the water blithely leaps along,

The parasite expired in infancy,

As one dead sinuous stem endures to show. Like giddy youth, in chase of some gay dream; But lichens have spread over it so thick, But where it stops, to ponder mournfully, It seems to want no other covering Like Age reflecting on the Past with blame. Than their shot robe of silver, green and gold. Over this tranquil pool the Old Tree stoops, And when the summer sun shines out in power, Gazing upon its semblance undisturbid,

Flooding his old acquaintance with rich light, As though in self-inspection all-absorbed, How vivid are the tints that live between Patiently waiting for its time to fall. 'Tis utterly alone in its old age;

The chequering shadows playing on its trunk!

No hues that glitter in a field of flowers, With nought about it to companion it,

Or lurk about the western clouds at eve, Saving the faithful image in the brook,

When that same sun has gone down gorgeously, That steadfast sticketh to its ancient friend. Present more brilliant painting to the eye. The saplings, and the vigorous trees around, Flowers love the shelter of the ancient tree : So full of life, evince no sympathy;

A knot of primroses, in early spring, Swing their lithe branches to and fro with glee, For years has bloom'd and wither'd at its foot; And stretch, exulting, every lwig to heaven.

In June a wild-rose, with its sanguine flowers, They sing glad songs, and chatter to the breeze,

Goes burning past; and on through autumn And make a inerry whistling with their leaves ;

months While the Old Tree's poor paralytic limbs, The røgal foxglove keeps its state beneath. Rubbing across each other, as with pain, Winter yields nothing but the long, dry grass, Do make a doleful creaking in the wind. That feebly waileth in the icy wind.

The Raven comes to the Old Tree to croak; Lone, venerable thing ! how sad thy age ! The Owl, at night, to shout Tu-whit! Tu-whoo! Man, when he's stricken in years, and near to The sentinel Rook to keep a sharp look out,

die, The while his fellows feed in fields hard by. Looks forward to a life beyond the grave, Upon the top of a dead limb he sits,

When he is young again, to know no age, That perpendicular above the rest

When ghastly death shall never greet him more; Shoots up aloft-gray, barkless, wither'd, dead - This hopes he, and draws comfort from the hope. Looking just like some old bleach'd gibbet-pole. But thou, Old Tree! hast no such cheering Most welcome visiter, the Redbreast oft

thought ; (When winter winds are whistling through the And when the root that holds thee to the earth thorn,

Is snapt by some rude gale, that soon shall blow, And deep snow hides the smiling face of earth,

Headlong thou fall'st, to moulder swift away; And icy coldness broods for weeks and weeks,

Spring shall ne'er waken thee again to life; Freezing man's blood whene'er he stirs abroad)

Nor glowing summer gild thy host of leaves; Takes pity on the lonely, poor Old Tree; Nor autumn paint thee with his gold and red; From branch to branch, from spray to spray he Nor with pure snow hoar winter mantle thee: hops,

Thou'rt dead and gone for ever !-poor Old Tree And trills a strain so sweet, so silver clear,

W. H.
So full of love and joy, that the lone thing
To fancy seems more patient for his song.
Sometimes a child, in sunny summer-time,
Exploring round the fields, will creep within
The Old Tree's hollow trunk, and, looking up
To where the sky is dimly seen afar,
Tremble with terror in the ghostly hole.
And should perchance some little bird, disturb’d,

“ WHERE ARE THEY GONE?"
Start out above his head, alarm'd he flies,
Breathless and pale, across the neighb'ring mead,
As though a spirit follow'd at his heels.

WAERE are they gone-
Oh, poor Old Tree! poor, desolate Old Tree! The smiling faces that once bloom'd around
What wrinkles and deep furrows in its bark ! The fresh green scenes my childhood's rambles
How full of knots and warts, and curious holes,

found, Wherein the tiny Wren and pert Tom-tit

Where are they gone?

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