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ually developed and extended all previous parative comfort we can derive from the views, and especially systematized the doc- thought that future times may be better to trine of Rückert, in regard to the ash of our names than the present has been to plants and the constitution of soils and ourselves ! how in our day the works of Mulder in But why should any one wish to deprive Holland, of Liebig in Germany, of Dumas his fellow-laborer of his present reward ? and Boussingault in France, and of Johns- Berzelius and Mitscherlich, Liebig and ton at home, are everywhere diffusing this Dumas, Boussingault and Sprengel, hare knowledge--and by later discoveries and each in their own walks labored long for researches widening and correcting it. the extension of human knowledge ; why

But our space forbids us to enter upon not permit each while he lives to enjoy the this topic. Neither can we spare a single respect he has merited? Why should any paragraph to those important and warmly one chemist-undervaluing all others-atconducted controversies,* which still divide tempt to monopolize to himself the entire chemists and physiologists in regard to respect of all ?' In the public esteem there some of the principles we have attempted to is space enough for all good men. The popularize in the present article. One re- respect given to Berzelius, or Sprengel, or flection, however, occurs to us which is not Johnston, is not deducted from that which unworthy the attention of these opposing is due to Liebig or Dumas. All will die parties. Chemistry is an eminently pro- alike, and in a few years, more or less, the gressive science. The new knowledge of reputation of each will scarcely even be a last year has already become old, and has matter of history. Why should the barmobeen succeeded by further acquisitions and ny and peace of life be sacrificed for any experimental results. Facts, as they are thing so ephemeral? successively discovered and confirmed, be- Of the men of our time, who will ever come parts of our positive and permanent attain the living eminence of Paracelsusknowledge. They are, therefore, recorded of their writings, which can hope to surand remembered, while the names of their vive a lithe of the time of those of Avicendiscoverers are first omitted and then for- na? And yet in what estimation do we gotten. Few men are fortunate enough to now hold either these men or their works? throw so sudden and broad a gleam across Is it worth a good man's while to heave a the dark parts of nature, as necessarily to single sigh for all the fame they now enjoy ? connect their names with the history of Present happiness is above all same—and natural science. The mass, even of zealous he will both be happiest himself, and will investigators, must be content to die and least interfere with the happiness of others, be forgotten. Their reward is to be found who while he commends himself to the pubin the respect of their contemporaries lic esteem, by laboring for the common among whom they have lived and labored good, is ready to allow their due share of for the common good—and without this re- merit to others also, who devote their time spect and sympathy, how small the com- and talents to the same end

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* The reader who wishes to study the contro. In conclusion, if this new knowledge be versy in regard to Liebig's peculiar views, may so very important to agriculture—how imhave recourse to the following among other

pamphlets. We have not adveried to any of these portant is it also that it should be diffused views in the text, because we wished to avoid all among the agricultural classes—that what occasion of controversy.

is so likely to benefit all should be brought 1. Beleuchtung der Organischen Chemie des within the reach, and, if possible, be made

Herrn Doctor J. Liebig, &c. Von Dr. F. X. the property of all! How important, like

Hlubek. Grütz, 1842. 2. Ueber, Liebig's Theorie der Pflanzenernähr wise, that encouragement should be given ung. Cassel, 1842.

for the further development of this kind of 3. Offenes Sendschreiben an Herrn Dr : Justus knowledge—for clearing up many dark and

Liebig. Von M. J. Schleiden, &c. Leipzig, misty spots which still present themselves, 4. Dr. Justus Liebig's Verhaltniss zur Pflan- and for cultivating with assiduity those new zenphysiologie. Von Dr. Hugo Moh). Tabin fields of research which are daily opening

up in connection with scientific agriculIt is to be regretted that one so talented as Lie

ture. big, and so deservedly eminent as an organic

The agricultural community, especially chemist, should have done so little justice either to himself or to others, when he ventured upon in the north of our island, appear to be in the field of physiology.

some degree alive to all this. Their de


gen, 1843.


sire for knowledge is proved by the number EL DORADO.—No popular illusion ever occa of small periodicals exclusively devoted to sioned such a waste of buman life as the expedi

tions in search of El Dorado. The name of our agricultural subjects, which have lately chivalric and unfortunate Raleigh is closely conarisen in different parts of Scotland, and nected with it; and as the locality of the fable by the kind of matter with which these was shifted to Guiana, he either undertook himperiodicals are filled. The Committee for self or caused four expeditions to be undertaken, Agricultural Education, formed a year

wliich had for their object to achieve the discove

of the capital of El Dorado, called Manoa, and ago for the purpose of promoting the intro- paid the failure with his life. After generations duction of agricultural education into all of fable, Humboldt, partly by personal investigaour elementary schools, in the rural dis- tion, partly by deep reasoning, proved that such tricts, has already effected much, and we Mr. Van Heuvel has lately attempted to restore

an inland lake could not exist. Nevertheless, a hope will speedily see its object fully at- it, and a map of Guiana which accompanies his tained. But the boldest and most success- work on El Dorado exhibits again the Laguna de ful movement in behalf of Scottish agricul- Parima. Sir R. Schomburgk demonstrated from ture in our day, has been the establish- his map (which covers a hundred square feet, ment of the Agricultural Chemistry Asso- cal observations during his exploring tours in

and which was constructed upon bis astronomiciation of Scotland. In founding this in- Guiana from 1835 to 1843) that such a lake could stitution, tenants and proprietors have both not exist, and that M. de Humboldt, with bis concurred. Indeed, we believe it originated general sagacity, bad likewise in this regard with the tenantry themselves—a circum- arrived at correct conclusions. He dwelt afterstance at once honorable to Scottish farm- the geography of Guiana, referred to its fertility,

wards upon some of the most striking points in ers, and illustrative of the amount of and regretted that he did not consider the climate knowledge they already possessed. For a favorable to a European constitution; and he man must already know a good deal not wished that it should go forth as his opinion that

an inhabitant from the northern parts of Europe only of the general nature, but of the

was not able to labor in the open air under the special bearings of chemical science, before tropics. His assertion is borne out by all athe can understand how it can be made of tempts which have been made hitherto to settle actual pecuniary value to the practical farm- European laborers in Guiana, St. Lucia, Guataer. The objects of this Association are

mala, Jamaica, &c.

Guiana, comprising the possessions of Great to diffuse knowledge by lectures and other. Britain and the other European powers, contains wise among the agricultural body—to pro- 690,000 square miles, and is bounded by the tect the farmer by means of chemical Amazon and the Orinoco. By means of that reanalyses from the frauds of the dealers and markable canal, the Casiquiare, which connects

the Orinoco with the Rio Negro and the Amazon, manufacturers of manure—to guide his

may be circumnavigated. With the assistance practice and use of manures by the analysis of short portages over land, starting in a canoe of soils, limestones, and vegetable products from Demerara, the mouth of the Rio Plata, --and to make original researches with Cuzco, Lima, Santa Fé de Bogota, may be reached the view of enlarging our actual knowledge. in Guiana are, the Maravacca, which is about

by inland navigation. The highest mountains These objects are worthy of the character 11,000 fert, and Roraima, about 8000 feet above of the Scottish agricultural body, and are the sea. The largest river in British Guiana is in accordance with the requirements of our the Essequibo ; its length is computed at 650 time. The example set by Scotland has miles, and it drains an area of 42,800 square

miles.-Lit. Guz. already been imitated in other countries. We heartily wish success, therefore, to

LUTHER.–At Stockholm has been discovered this new institution, and we trust it will Luther's original letter to the Archbishop of meet with that support which the national Magdeburgh, protesting against the sale of indul. importance of its objects deserves.


gences ; il bears the date of Oct. 31st, 1547–

Lit. Gaz.

Potato PAPER.-A manufacturer of Vire, after six years' labor, has succeeded in producing excel. leni paper and pasteboard from a substance sep. arated from the potato.- Lit. Gaz.

METEOROLOGY.-Throughout France, as in va. FRENCH SCIENTIFIC EXPEDITION.—The guno rious parts of England, severe storms have raged brig Boulonnaise has arrived at Brest, after an within the last fortnight, and heavy floods and absence of above three years, during which pemuch destruction have been the consequence. riod, she has made a hydrographic survey of imAmong the curious effects, we may notice, that a mense extent within the tropics, including more lightning flash from heaven struck a small church than 250 leagues of the river Amazon and its in the street called " d'Enfer."--Lit. Gaz. principal tributaries.-Lit. Gaz.





FROM MILMAN'S JERUSALEM. My soul's forbidden luxury, I abjure thee!

Thou much-abused attribute of gods
See Plate.

And godlike men. 'Twas nature's final struggle ;
And now, whate'er thou art, thou unseen prompt-

That in the secret chambers of my soul
ADVANCE the eagles, Caius Placidus,

Darkly abidest, and hast still rebuked Even to the walls of this rebellious city! The soft compunctious weakness of mine beart, What! shall our bird of conquest, that hath flown i bere surrender thee myself. Now wield me Over the world, and built her nest of glory Thine instrument of havoc and of horror, High in the palace-tops of proudest kings, Thine to the extremest limits of revenge ; What! shall she check and pause here in her Till not a single stone of yon proud city circle,

Remain; and even the vestiges of ruin
Her centre of dominion ? By the gods,

Be utterly blotted from the face of earth!
It is a treason to all-conquering Rome,
That thus our baffled legions stand at bay
Before this hemm’d and famishing Jerusalem.

It must be-

I feel it now, the sad, the coming hour;
And yet it moves me, Romans! it confounds

Tne signs are full, and never shall the sun The counsels of my firm philosophy,

Shine on the cedar roofs of Salem more;
That Ruin's merciless ploughshare must pass o'er, Her tale of splendor now is told and done ;
And barren salt be sown on yon proud city. Her wine-cup of festivity is spilt,
As on our olive-crowned bill we stand,

And all is o'er, her grandeur and her guilt.
Where Kedron at our feet its scanty waters
Distils from stone to stone with gentle motion,
As through a valley sacred to sweet peace,
How boldly doth it front us! how majestically!

Ab me! how strange !
Like a luxurious vineyard, the hill-side

This moment, and the burrying streets were full Is hung with marble fabrics, line o'er line, As at a festival; now all's so silent Terrace o'er terrace, nearer still, and nearer That I might hear the footsteps of a child. To the blue heavens. Here bright and sumptuous The sound of dissolute mirih hath ceased, the palaces,

lamps With cool and verdant gardens interspers'd; Are spent, the voice of music broken off. Here towers of war that frown in massy strength, No watchman's tread comes from the silent wall, While over all hangs the rich purple ere, There are no lights nor voices in the towers, As conscious of its being her last farewell I do mistake! this is the Wilderness, Of light and glory to that fated city.

The Desert, where winds pass and make no And, as our clouds of battle dust and smoke

sound, Are melted into air, behold the Temple, And not the populous city, the besieged In undisturb'd and lone serenity,

And overhung with tempest. Why, my voice, Finding itself a solemn sanctuary

My motion, breaks upon the oppressive stillness In the profound of heaven! It stands before us Like a forbidden and disturbing sound. A mount of snow, fretted with golden pinnacles! The very air's asleep, my feeblest breathing The very sun, as though he worshipp'd there, Is audible—I'll think my prayers-and thenLingers upon the gilded cedar roofs;

-Ha ! 'tis the thunder of the Living God! And down the long and branching porticoes, It peals! it crashes ! it comes down in fire ! On every flowery-sculptured capital,

Again! it is the engine of the foe, Glitters the homage of his parting beams. Our walls are dust before it-Wake-oh wakeBy Hercules ! the sight might almost win Oh Israel !-Oh Jerusalem, awake! The offended majesty of Rome to mercy, Why shouldst thou wake? thy foe is in the Yon lofty city, and yon gorgeous Temple,

heavens. Are consecrate to ruin. Earth is weary Yea, thy judicial slumber weighs thee down, Of the wild factions of this jealous people, And gives thee, oh! lost city, to the Gentile, And they must feel our wrath, the wrath of Defenceless, unresisting. Rome,

Hark! now in impious rivalry Even so that the rapt stranger shall admire Man thunders. In the centre of our streets Where that proud city stood, which was Jerusa- The Genuile trumpet, the triumphant shouts lem

Of onset; and 1-1, a trembling girl, Now, Mercy, to the winds! I cast thee off- Alone, awake, abroad.



With One thou once did meet,
Who light upon thy darkness did confer.
What art thou now?--a conquered Conqueror --

Thy victory was defeat.
Conqueror, and friend, and foe!

Through Him who died for me, Thou who hast ruled the world since that dread I fear thee not! I will not dread thy power

He hath prepared me for the trying hour
When on the earth thy dark and deadly power

Whene'er I meet with thee.
Came linked with sin and woe.


Thou who dost crush the rose,
Or fling the tall pine down the mountain path ;
Who rid'st the tempest-cloud in fiery wrath,
Or comest like twilight's close !

A thought is thrilling me,
Shadowing my spirit in its summer prime;

Four years ago, dear love! Oh! in what place, what season, or what time,

And we were strangers; in a distant land
Where shall I meet with thee?

Long had it been my lonely lot to rove ;

And I had never touched that gentle hand, Shall friends stand weeping by,

Or looked into the lustre of those eyes, Shall a soft sleep mine eyelids gently press,

Or heard that voice of lovely melodies, And shall my spirit, calm and terrorless, Winning its way unto the listener's heart, Pass in a gentle sigh?

And gladdening it, as a fresh stream doth part

The grass and flowers, and beautifies its road Or shall the anguished sob

With fresher hues, by its sweet tides bestowed. And writhing pang my failing brow convulse ? Then I had never heard that name of thine, Shall pain and weary torture bid my pulse Which on this blessed day hath merged in mine' In struggling weakness throb ?

Three years ago, mine own, Or, sadder fate tban this,

And we had met-'twas but acquaintanceship; Shall I lie down in loneliness to die

There was no tremor in the courteous tone No anxious friend, no kind and pitying eye Which, greeting thee, flowed freely to my lip To see these agonies ?

At each new interview. Thy beauty seemed

Indeed the very vision I had dreamed
Shall mine own land receive

Of woman's loveliest form ; but that it shrined
The wreck of this poor frame, and o'er my tomb So bright a gem, so true and pure a mind,
My country's flowers in wild luxuriance bloom, I did not early learn ; for thou art one
And her green sod upheave?

Whose gentle, kindly actions ever shun

The glare of day. I knew not then the power Or shall the cloudless sky

That seems thy richest gift at this blest hour. Of southern climes look down upon my grave ? Shall the rich orange bloom, or citron wave,


year went by, Where at the last I lie ?

And we were friends!" dear friends” we called

each otherOr wilt thou come, O Death !

We said our bosoms throbbed in sympathy,

That we were like a sister and a brother. In mantling flames, and in thy wild embrace

Ah! but do brothers' hearts thrill through Crush me to ashes, that shall have their place

each chord, But on the wild wind's breath ?

At a dear sister's smile or gracious word ? Or in the stormy sea,

Do sisters blush, and strive the blush to hide,

When a fond brother lingers at their side ?
Down 'midst the sounding caverns of the deep,
Shall the cold sea-flowers bloom, and watch my

Do friends, and nothing more, shrink from sur.

mise, sleep

And dread to meet the keen world's scrutinies, Where shall I meet with thee ?

And tremble with a vague and groundless shame,

And start when each doth hear the other's name?
Shall age have stamped my brow,
And cast its film upon my sunken eye ?

One little year ago,
Nay--didst thou laugh that mornent scornfully?
Death ! art thou near me now?

And we were lovers—lovers pledged and vowed

The unsealed fountains of our hearts might It may be but the thrill

Our summer happiness had scarce a cloud. Of natural fear, that this weak spirit dims

We smiled to think upon the dubious past, To think how soon these sentient moving limbs

How could so long our self-delusion last? An early grave may fill.

We laughed at our own fears, whose dim array

One spoken word of Love had put away.
Yet come thou when thou may’st, In love's full blessed confidence we talked,
Thou canst not touch me, save by His command We heeded not who watched us as we walked;
Who holdeth in the hollow of his hand

And day by day hath that affection grown,
The wild sea's tameless waste.

Until this happy morn that makes us one.


Ah, no! the soul remembers

Earth's dear affections still,
And guards those sleeping embers

That time can never kill.

Beloved ! 'tis the day,
The summer day, to which our hearts have

As to a haven that before them lay,
A haven dirn and distantly discerned.
Now we have reached it, and our onward

Must henceforth be beyond earth's fleeting

Unto a better home, when baving loved
One more than e'er each other-having proved
Faithful to Him, and faithful to the vow
That in our hearts is echoing even now,
We two shall dwell His glorious throne before,
With souls, not bound, but blended evermore.





When moonlight softly slumbers

Upon the breezeless lake,
I love to hear the numbers

Of music round me break;

Oh, it is bitter-hard to roam the earth,

Aliens to joy, with sad thoughts overflowing,
To bear the young birds carol in their mirth,
To feel the sunshine, and the warm winds

To see the beauty in the fields and floods,

The plenty of the meadows, green or golden,
The fair full orchards redolent of buds,

And know that we, by a hard fate withholden,
Must keep our appetites aloof, nor dare
To taste the stores which happier birds may share.
'Tis hard to know that the increase of wealth

Makes us no richer, gives us no reliance;
And that while ease, and luxury, and health

Follow the footsteps of advancing science, They shower to benefits on us, cast out

From the fair highways of the world, to wander
In dark paths darkly, groping still about,

And at each turn condemn'd to rest, and ponder
If living be the only aim of life-
Mere living, purchased by perpetual strife.

For then the new-born pleasure

Of life's unclouded morn
Comes back in that sweet measure,

On viewless echoes borne.
oft as the soft note lingers

or some remembered song,
It seems as though the fingers,

That had been mute so long,

O'er silver cords were stealing

With all their wonted sway,
To rouse the heart to feeling,

And call the soul away.
Ye brilliant orbs of glory,

Ye countless eyes of night,
That read the wondrous story

Withheld from mortal sight,

We ask not much. We have no dread of toil;

Too happy we, if labor could provide us,-. Even ihough we doubled all our sweat and moil,

Raiment and food, and shelt'ring roofs to hide us
From the damp air and from the winter's cold ;-

If we could see our wives contented round us,
And to our arms our little children fold,
Nor fear that next day's hunger should con-

found us.
With joys like these, and one sweet day of rest,
We would complain no more, but labor, bless'd.

Oh! sny, do souls departed

Their blissful wings extend To seek the lonely-hearted

The once beloved friend?

Methinks the breeze that fluttery

The silken leaves of flowers, In mystic language utters

" The friends of former hours."

And she above all other,

My childhood's light and guide, My own immortal mother,

Like moonlight seems to glide ; E'en as in life she glided

Along the paths I trodMine own, mine undivided

Till call'd away to God.

Rich men have kindly urged us to endure,

And they will send us clergymen to bless us ; And lords who play at cricket with the poor,

Think they have cured all evils that oppress us. And then we think endurance is a crime;

That those who wait for justice never gain it; And that the multitudes are most sublime

When, rising arm'd, they combat to obtain it; And dabbling in thick gore, as if 'were dew, Seek not alone iheir rights, but vengeance 100. But these are evil thoughts; for well we know,

From the sad history of all times and places,
That fire, and blood, and social overthrow,

Lead but to harder grinding of our faces
When all is over : so, from strife withdrawn,

We waitin patience through the night of sorrow,
And watch th far - off glimpses of the dawn

That assure us of a brighter morrow. And meanwhile, from the overburden'd sod, Our cry of anguish rises up to God.

And can such sweet communion

With life's extinction end ? The soul's mysterious union

Divorce the living friend?

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