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on the chartists, counsels Sybil to induce sabred. The indignant spirit of Gerard her father to leave London ere the Govern- resists; he strikes down a trooper to the ment shall strike at the convention. Sybil earth, and calls on those about him not to exerts her influence, but in vain; and Ge- yield. But the father of Sybil is picked rard and his daughier are both arrested, the out and shot dead. Instantly rose a groan daughter having tracked her father to a se- which almost quelled the spirit of Lord cret meeting of delegates somewhere about Marney. The people rush on the troopers, Silver-street. In this agony of her fate, armed with bludgeons and stones, and Lord she addresses, from Bow-street Police-office, Marney falls lifeless on Mowbray Moor, a letter to Charles Egremont, which is de- literally stoned to death. Sybil, who is in livered to hiin at a ball where Lord John the park of Mowbray Castle, is assailed by Russell is also present, and Sybil (through a band of drunken" rioters. One ruffian the instrumentality of the noble Jord) is had grasped her arm, another seized her liberated. Walter Gerard, her father, is garments, when an officer, covered with committed for a seditious conspiracy, is held dust and gore, sabre in hand, jumped from to bail, and immediately on his liberation the terrace, and hurried to the rescue. proceeds to Mowbray, to attend a political We will never part again!' said Egremeeting. He is received with triumph;mont. • Never ! murmured Sybil. Sy bil, and now Baptist Ilatton appears on the in due season, with her title-deeds, and triscene, a prosperous pedigree-maker. He al by jury, gained possession of Mowbray has seen Sybil, and is touched by her beau- Castle and £40,000 a-year; and Egremont ty; he has seen Gerard, her father, and the having become Earl of Marney, marries thought that the representative of an old her; and so ends the third and last volume. family had been cheated out of his birth- Such are the main features of the story, right by him, by one of the same faith—for in so far as the hero and heroine are conBaptist Hatton is also a Roman-catholic— cerned; but there are various episodes and weighs heavy on his mind. The country minor dramatis persona. The condition is in the throes of political excitement. of the people, however, and more especialThere is a talk of strikes, and of rising of ly the condition of the poor, is kept permatens of thousands of working men; and nently in view, and the condition of the Halton now conceives the idea, through the mill and the mine, and that of the agriculinstrumentality of Morley, Field, and oth- tural laborer, is mapped forth with breadth ers of the convention, of inducing the of outline and minute fidelity. But few of working people to attack Mowbray Castle, the individual characters are natural, though where, in a strong box, are Walter Gerard's the dialogue is in general racy and charactitle-deeds to a title and estate which Lord teristic. Sybil is a gentle and delicate bede Mowbray has unjustly obtained by the ing, instinct with deep feeling and self-posfraudulent efforts of this same Baptist Hat- session, but yet ever brooding over the ton. The people proceed to the attack, wrongs of her race and her religion-her headed by Morley and Stephen Hatton, a race, the Saxon, one which predominated ferocious lock-maker, and brother of Bap-over every other in England, and which is tist. They enter the cellars, drink the now mingled with Norman, Dane, Celt, and wines, destroy the furniture, and in the Hun; and her religion the Roman-catholic, confusion, Morley mounts the minaret tow-freed from every disability, and enjoying for er, and gets possession of the box contain the last sixteen years at least, no small faing the title-deeds. But the yeomanry ar- vor. Walter Gerard, too, with all his chartrive at this juncture, and Stephen is fired ism, is ever thinking of his old blood and at, and mortally wounded by a trooper. In older faith. Stephen Morley, the journalhis last agony, he perceives the commander ist, in love with Sybil, is an enigma rather of the forces is Egremont; and throwing than a man—at one period he exhibits the the box of title-deeds to Dandy Mike, con- malignity of a demon; at another, the selfjures him to deliver them to Sybil-a re- devotion and purity of an angel--now, he quest which Dandy faithfully fulfils. While makes a cowardly attempt on the life of these things are enacting at the castle, Wal- Egremont; and again, an unmanly attack ter Gerard is endeavoring to calm and tran- on the feelings of Sybil. Yet maintaining quilize a vast multitude assembled on Mow- the property in common principle, he puts bray Moor, when Lord Marney encounters to hazard his ease, and sacrifices his life the people with his yeoinanry. The Riot to gain an estate for Walter Gerard, who Act is read; the people are fired on and laughs at his politics and loathes his infi
delity. Simon Hatton, the locksmith, is that they really cannot any longer vote with such a character as never existed, though government unless the Treasury assists them his brother, Baptist, the pedigree-maker, is in satisfying their constituents.”
' well drawn. Lord Marney, too, is a cor
* And what do they want ?' rect sketch, and may be taken as a type of low prices; mild expostulations and gentle
Statement of grievances ; high taxes and the mean, mercenary, hard-hearted portion hints that they have been thrown over by of our nobility ; but his brother Charles, their friends; Poli-h corn, Holstein cattle, and the hero of the story, is an undefined and British income tax.' undeveloped personage, meant to represent "Well you know what to say,' said the the Normans. And the manner in which gentleman in Downing Street. Tell them he introduces hiinself to the hearth of a generally that they are quite mistaken; prove Saxon Catholic, and passes under a false to them particularly that my only object has name and false profession, is neither re- been to render projection more protective, by concileable with honor, honesty, nor gen- making it practical, and divesting it of its sur
plusage of odium; that no foreign corn can tlemanly feeling. Tadpole and Taper ap.. come in at filiy-five shillings; that there are pear but rarely; but then we have mobs of not enough caule in all Holstein to supply gentleman and ladies, who talk with ease the parish of Pancras daily with beef steaks ; to show their breeding, who discuss per- and that as for the income tax, they will be sons instead of principles, and cloak amply compensated for it by their diminished their want of thought in mimetic dogmas, tariff of which they are so superficially com
cost of living hrough the agency of that very and their want of feeling in superficial rail” tariff of which they are so superficially com
plaining.' lery.' The social, heartless stupidity of
· Their diminished cost of living !' said Mr. the higher classes, is occasionally happily Hoaxem, a litile confused. Would not that
• handled; nothing can be truer than the assurance, I humbly suggest, clash a little description of a great dull dinner in a great with my previous demonstration that we had dull house, were the servants even become arranged that no reduction of prices should infected with the genius of the place, and take place ?
' supply your wants with a losiy air of empty is of course true, but, at the same time, you
*Not at all; your previous demonstration pomposity. But it is in describing the very must impress upon them the necessity of genlowest classes of our increasing and man- eral views 10 form an opinion of particular ufacturing population, and the shallow polit- instances. As, for example, a gentleman of ical intriguers of the day, male and female, five thousand pounds per annum pays to the that Mr. D’Israeli conspicuously shines. income tax-which, by-the-bye, always call The description of the girls of the coal property tax-one hundred and filty pounds a mines, and of Degg's Tommy, is admira- year. Well, I have materially reduced the
duties on eight hundred articles. The conble, and the characters of Devil's-dust, sumption of each of those articles by an esDandy Mike, and Master Nixon, are well tablishment of five thousand pounds per anbrought out. Nor is there a better con- nun cannot be less than one pound per articeived nor a truer character in the book cle. The reduction of price cannot be less than that of Hoaxem, in the third volume. than a moiety; therefore a saving of four It is plain that Hoaxem has been a right- the deduction of the property tax leaves a
hundred per annum; which placed against hand' man in high places for some time clear increase of income of two hundred and past. There is an extract we cannot re- fifty pounds per annum; by which you see sist the pleasure of making in reference to that a property tax in faci increases income. this useful person.
I see,' said Mr. Hoaxem, with an admir
ing glance. And what am I to say to the · Well, Mr. Hoaxem,' resumed the gentle- deputation of the manufacturers of Mowbray man in Downing Street, as that faithful func- complaining of the great depression of trade, tionary entered, there are some deputations, and the total wanı of remunerating profits ?? I understand, to-day. You must receive "You must say exactly the reverse,' said them, as I am going to Windsor. What are the gentleman in Downing Street. Show
how much I have done 10 promote the • There are only two, sir, of moment. The revival of trade. First of all, in making prorest I could easily manage.'
visions cheaper; cutting off at one blow half "And these two ??
the protection on corn, as for example, at this "In the first place, there is our friend Colo- moment under the old law the duty on foreign nel Bosky, the members for the county of wheat would have been twenty-seven shilCalfshire, and a deputation of' tenant farmers.' lings per quarter; under the new law, it is "Pah!
thirteen. To be sure, no wheat could come *These must be attended to. The mem- in at either price, but that does not alter the bers have made a strong representation to me principle. Then as to live cattle, show how I
have entirely opened the trade with the conti-, GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY IN RUSSIA. nent in live cattle. Enlarge upon this, the
From the British Quarterly Review. subject is speculative, and admits of expensive estimates. If there be any dissenters on Revelations of Russia, and the Emperor the deputation who, having sreed the negroes,
Nicholas and his Empire, in 1844. Lonhave no subject lest for their foreign sympa
don : Colburn, 1845. Second edition. thies, hint at the tortures of the bull-fight, and the immense consideration to humanity, that
A COMPLETE and faithful work on Rusinstead of being speared at Seville, the Anda- sia has long been a desideratum in English lusian Toro will probably in future be cut up literature. The older English works of at Smithfield. This cheapness of provisions Milton, Carlisle, Perry, and Motley, are will permit them to compete with the foreigner
now antiquated, while the contemporary in all neutral markets, - in time beat them in
French works, with the exception of Rultheir own. It is a complete compensation, too, for the property tax, which, impress upon heire, who treats only of a particular epoch, them, is a great experiment, and entirely for are superficial and utierly unworthy of irust. their interesis. Ring the changes on great Voltaire and D'Alembert were paid for measures and great experiments till it is time their praises; and though Ségur may not to go down and make a house. Your official be obnoxious to the reproach of receiving duties of course must not be interfered with.
a bribe in solid money, still there are many They will take the hint. I have no doubt you will get through the business very well, Mr. ways of influencing an author without reHoaxem, particularly if you be frank and ex- sorting to the expedient of greasing his plicit;' that is the right line to take when you hands with silver rubles. The Cabinet of wish to conceal your own mind and to conluse Petersburg perfectly understands the effect the mind of others. Good morning.'
of ribands and orders, diamond rings, and
Malachite vases, and has made unscrupuBut the story of this tale is ill contrived, lous use of these persuasives to praise, not and the plot vulgarly managed, in the worst only in France and Germany, but also in spirit of the Minerva-press school. Few
England. will read the volumes for either the story
The modern works on Russia are all or the plot. The book may no doubt be
imperfect. Jones has long been out of taken as a sort of official state-paper of date ; Frankland is unpardonably silly, shalYoung England theories, which are, after low, and superficial ; Slade, though someall, very old exploded English doctrines, what more grave and serious, only touches in the sense in which they are put forth,
on portions of Russia; Bremner, though and may be comprised in the words, fuller, yet speaks with reserve and discreQueen, Church, and People. But the tion, as though he had friends and relatives
, queen must be a Tory queen—with real in the country who might be injured by his power—who not only reigns, but governs frankness; and the authoress of 'Letters by her own will; the church must be a from the Baltic,' though she writes fluently high church, either Romanist or Puseyite, and in flowing strain, is entitled to no credit or a blending of both together; and the whatever. Her work, from beginning to people must be a people, fed with good end, is a pauky panegyric on Russia, writbutcher's meat certainly, but clad in coarse woollens, and humbly disposed to bow to of praising a country which afforded a
ten, perhaps, with the pardonable motive the right divine of princes and of priests
. hone and a settlement to some of her But these jaded, outworn doctrines, how- Scotch relatives ;- but it is not entitled to ever picturesque and medieval they may the least credit as a description of the conseem on paper, are gone for ever by, and
dition, habits, mode of life, manners, and are abhorrent to the people of England; government of the Russian nation. When and though they may please the romantic taste of pure Caucasians, and find favor book at present under review, that the
we state, as we do, on the authority of the with scions of aristocracy, more poetical authoress of the Letters from the Baltic' than wise or far seeing, yet they never lived in the house of the chief of the seagain can find large favor in this good land cret police during the whole period of her of ours.
sojourn,' we think we state enough to exclude her testimony from consideration. Loath should we be, indeed, to accuse a lady of deliberate misrepresentation ; but without going that length, or any thing like it, we think it very plain that the fair au
thoress must have been insensibly influ- the religious persecutions, the military and enced by the misrepresentations of the un- naval strength of the en pire, the commerce, scrupulous functionary under whose roof manufactures, and mines, on the region of she had consented to remain a guest. In the Steppe and of the Nomades, on the fact, she saw with the eyes, and heard with capitals of Moscow, Novogorod, Kien, and the ears, of the respectable functionary, her Kasan, on Circassia and Georgia, than in brother-in-law, who had become her host
. any other work or works with which it has There remain but the works of Kohl and been our good fortune to meet. Whether Custine, both of which have been given to the fact be, as our author states, that the the public in an English dress. The for- general dislike entertained towards Russia mer is a minute and painstaking observer, in England is instinctively true to the nabut he wants vigor and profundity, and that tional interests, feelings, and position, political education in a free state without whether, still to use his words, 'Russia, or which no writer, however book-learned he at least its cabinet, is the implacable, insidmay be, can ever write a perfect work on ious enemy of British commerce, enterprise, Russia. The work of Custine is, in every and prosperity,' we will not at present stop respect, valuable. He has, with the pierc- to inquire or to determine,- for it is not ing eye of a man of genius, looked through necessary to the matter in hand that we the very core of the Russian system, and should do so,—but of this, at least, aster detected its canker and rottenness with in- reading these volumes, there can be no tuitive quickness. His impressions are al-shadow of the shade of a doubt-namely, most always correct. He gives them forth that Russia is a power invasive of all huin a style forceful, varied, picturesque, and man liberties, civil, political, social, and graphic; and it is an attestation at once to religious. his truthfulness and genius, that the author To the Christian and philanthropist the of the Revelations of Russia,' who has sufferings of sixty millions of Russian subevidently long lived in the country,—whojects will not be less affecting—they will has studied its history thoroughly, and seen rather be more heeded, because they are the working of its administrative system in voiceless and hopeless in their misery, withevery part,-comes, on the evidence of out the power of appeal to any human
profacts, and of facts alone, exactly to the tective sympathy, or, as they are taught, same conclusions as the polished, elegant, even to any in Heaven, which in their eyes and somewhat fanciful Marquis de Custine. is the accomplice of the power for whose The Russian Embassy and Consulate will, sole advantage they are born, and toil of course, raise a cry against this later through life, and die. work as they did against the work of Cus- If these volumes were the production of tine. Some of our own journalists will one who spoke from personal pique and perform their allotted tasks with zeal and prejudice-of one who, like some expatrialacrity, but there is not a material repre- ated Pole, had wrongs to revenge-we sentation in it for which we could not vouch should receive the statements they contain from personal observation, and we rejoice with some grains of doubtful reserve; but to think that not all the Rigby rhetoric in the internal evidence of truth which they the civilized world will suffice to rail down exhibit-the candor not less than the cauthe evidence of facts which these volumes tion of the author-induce us to afford him supply of the tyranny, the perfidy, and the a willing, though not too ready credence. moral turpitude of the Russian system and li is plain that he speaks without prejudice government; of the cureless cupidity, cor- or passion, and that his volumes are ihe reruption, and malversation of her public ser- sult of long personal observation, exceedvants, and of the prostrate and unhappy ing in extent and minuteness the opportucondition of her sixty millions of slaves. nities afforded to the herd of travellers who
To the humane and inquiring minds of generally spend a portion of a winter bethe people of England, the condition of the iween Petersburg and Moscow, and then inhabitants of the eighth part of the hab- obtrude their crudities on the British pubitable globe, and the one-twelfth of the hu- lic as the result of personal observation. man race, can never be indifferent; and we The author of the 'Revelations' distinctdo not hesitate to say, that more light is ly disclaims any prejudice against the Rusthrown, in these volumes, on the Emperor sian nation. He has pointed out many traits and his subjects and serfs, on the secret in its character which render it amiable in police, the civil police, laws, and tribunals, the midst of its degradation. Neither does
Vol. VI.-No. I. 9
he prosess to be actuated by any personal |made Russia European ; but he has done, antipathy to the Emperor Nicholas, because and he bids fair to do, more injury to markind a long study of his character and acts have han all of them put together. Witloui, per
haps, the genius or the boldness to have ever taught him, that if he be a more complete played more than a very subaltern part in tyrant, he is not a worse individual than the
situations of life, he was peculiarly calaverage of his predecessors.
culated, when placed by the chances of birth The following extract will explain the in possession of such power, and at the head author's view of the character of the En- of such a system, to push it to its exire mest
limits. He possesses, besides his singleness peror :
of purpose, precisely the quantum of moral "The Emperor Nicholas, is a more complete courage, of obstinacy, and of intellect, to altyrant than any of his predecessors, because low him to use the means in his power, in the he has the power of being so: many succes- most effective manner, to attain this end, and sive reigns, like the growth of succeeding withal the exaggerated self-veneration 10 inyears which bring a tree to maturity, have im- duce him to do so. During the nineteen years proved and completed the mechanism of a of his reign, only seven men have been convast engine of levelling oriental despotism, demined to deain, but probably more than in and enabled him to use it with the full light of all the united reigns alluded to have in realEuropean science, whilst all his passions and ity perished by the hands of the executioner. propen-ities, tending to the acquisition of ab. Men, indeed, are not decapitated, impaled, or solute power, have never diverled him, like his hanged up by the ribs with hooks, as formerpredecessors, from that object. The Emperor ly; but whole companies of Polish prisoners Nicholas, has not the brutal instincts of the are flogged to death; the knout and plitt
, Tsar Peter the First, any more than his tal.. which iear away in strips the muscles from the ents ; he has not the disordered passions of hone, have been inflicted upon thousands and the lustful Catharine, his grandmother, any thousands for political offences, who die withmore than her brilliant intellect, and her in- in a day or two, or perish on the Siberian nate liberality; he has not the fitful ferocity of journey which ineviiably follows. So those Paul, his murdered sire, any more than his en- have been treated who only refused to change thusiastic generosity; neither has he the ir- the faith of their fathers on an imperial order. resolule, in pressionable nature of Alexander,
"We read with horror, that, under the long his brother and predecessor, nor Alexander's
regency of Biren, twenty thousand individuals benevolence of intention.
were banislied to Siberia for political crines. "If the Emperor Nicholas had been born in The Emperor Nicholas, on the lowesi computhe place of Peter, he is the man to have shut tation, has sent on the same weary journey himsell up with his slaves, in the isolation of a two hundred aud filiy thousand-a quarter of a Chinese despot, although he might never have million of individuals. Of these, three-fiths cut off heads with his own hand, or presided had offended politically, in sonie direct, or at the impalement of his enemies.
Incapable indirect manner.' of the vices of his grandmother, he would
This is horrible to read-horrible to think never,
like her, have turned his imperial palaces into temples of the Venus Meretrix ; but of-but the vice may be more of the system he is equally incapable, either of allowing his than the man, for the self-deification to subjects, like his bold progenetrice, the liberty which absolute and irresponsible power which did not immediately impede the march acting on a limited intellect and selfish heart of her government, or of conceiving the idea leads, it is not in the power of human inof giving them liberal institutions-a project tellect to conceive, or human pen to portray. which the intoxication of her pleasures and successes caused her to postpone until 100 late, This emperor who recently appeared among but not to abandon. He is not the man 10 us, all blandness and smiles, is the greatest shoot, for a wager, a female slave working in slave-proprietor in the world-upwards of his garden, like his brother Constantine, any i wenty millions of slaves belonging to his more than to have given up, like Constantine, personal domain. Each
he lends an empire to dry the tears of a woman. He
money on the slaves of his nobles, and each would not like Alexander, for the sake of seeing his favorites smile, have allowed them to year he appropriates them as unredeemed tyrannize over his subjects on their own ac- pledges. Not only does he trample on the count, any more than he would, like Alexan-bondsman and the slave, but on his vander, have wept to see it
, any more than he quished enemies, the nobility of the Polish would, like Alexander, have advocated a nation. In that unhappy land, he has upcharter for the French people, although to rooted whole races, and succeeded, accord. be given without prejudice to his own auto: ing to the author of these volumes and every cratic rights, but in sacrilegious precedent against the right divine of princes. On the trustworthy traveller, in extirpating the re whole, therefore, Nicholas is neither better ligious creed of millions. nor worse than the average of his predeces- moment at which we write, he seems beni, sors, inclusive of the great Tsar, who first not only in destroying the nationality, but
At ihe very