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three vessels, abundantly supplied, and gave the command to René Laudonniere an able officer who had accompanied Ribault. Taking a circuitous course by the Canaries and the West Indies, he made for Florida, which he chose to term New France; and at Ribault's first station on the river St. John (named May from the month of its discovery), the party resolved to stop and settle. The fort of La Carolina was erected, and expeditions sent up the river, where small quantities of gold and silver were seen; reports being also received as to the mountainous country in the interior, where these metals abounded. The hopes thus kindled were quite illusory, and diverted attention from the solid labors of agriculture. Alarming symptoms of insubordination appeared; many of the party, notwithstanding their religious profession, were of a reckless character, and had gone out with the most chimerical hopes of suddenly realizing a large fortune. Seeing no such prospect, they formed the criminal resolution of seeking it by piracy. They confined their commander, and extorted from him, by threats of immediate death, a commission to follow this unlawful vocation; while, by rifling his stores, they obtained materials for its prosecution. After various fortune, they were successful in capturing a vessel, richly laden, and having the governor of Jamaica on board. Hoping for a large ransom, they sailed to the island, and unguardedly allowed him to send messengers to his wife; through whom he conveyed a secret intimation, in consequence of which an armed force surrounded the pirates, captured the larger of their vessels, while the other escaped by cutting her cables. Those on board the latter being reduced to extremity from want of food, were obliged to return to the settlement, where Laudonniere condemned four of the ringleaders to be executed.
That chief meantime continued to make incursions to the interior, and entered into various transactions with the natives in the vain hope of arriving at some region rich in gold and silver. Neglecting to establish themselves on the solid basis of agriculture, the settlers depended for food on the Indians, whose own stock was scanty. They were therefore obliged to undertake long journeys, without obtaining a full supply; and the natives, seeing them thus straitened, raised the price, disdainfully telling them to eat their goods, if they did not choose to give them for grain and fish. Amid these sufferings, and no prospect of realizing their fond dreams of wealth, they were seized, as was usual, with the ardent desire of returning home, and shrunk not from the laborious task of constructing vessels for that purpose. Amid their painful labor, they were cheered by a visit from Sir John Hawkins, who gave them a liberal supply of provisions. They did not, however, intermit their task, and on the twenty-eighth of August, 1565, were on the point of sailing, when several ships were descried approaching ; which proved to be a new expedition, under Ribault, sent to supersede Laudonniere, of whose severity complaints had been made. He brought a reinforcement, with ample supplies, which induced the colonists to remain.
VII. The name of Sir Walter Raleigh is dear to Americans, for to him is due the honor of projecting and of keeping up, by his persevering efforts and expensive expeditions, the idea of permanent British settlements in America. His name is thus associated with the origin of the independent states of North America, and must be reverenced by all who, from liberal curiosity or pious affection, study the early history of their country.
Walter Raleigh was born at Hayes, on the coast of Devonshire: when young, he was sent to Oriel college, Oxford, where he exhibited a restless ambition, which prompted him to seek distinction rather in the stirring scenes of the world, than the cloistered solitude of a college; and this natural inclination to adventure was fostered by the study of books relating to the conquests of the Spaniards in the new world, a species of reading which was the delight of his early years, and undoubtedly gave a color to the whole tenor of his life.
His stay at Oxford, therefore, was short; and in 1559 he seized the opportu uity of the civil wars in France, between the Huguenots and Catholics, to visit that kingdom and commence his military education ; but although engaged in war, he found leisure to study the histories of the discoveries of Columbus, the conquests of Cortes, and the sanguinary triumphs of Pizarro, which books were his especial favorites. By the study of the Spanish voyages, and his conversations with some skilful mariners of that nation, whom he met in Holland and Flanders, he had learned that the Spanish ships always went into the gulf of Mexico by St. Domingo' and Hispaniola, and directed their homeward course by the Havana and the gulf of Florida, where they found a continued coast on the west side, tending away north, which, however, they soon lost sight of by standing to the east, to make the coast of Spain. Upon these grounds, and for reasons deduced from analogy and a knowledge of the sphere, he concluded there must be a vast extent of land north of the gulf of Florida, of which he resolved to attempt the discovery.
Probably, also, during his residence in France he might have become acquainted with the particulars of the voyage of Verazzano, or have seen the charts constructed by that navigator, who had explored the same coast nearly as far south as the latitude of Virginia. Having fully weighed this project, he laid a memoir before the queen and council, who approved of the undertaking; and in the beginning of 1584 her majesty granted, by letters patent, all such countries as he should discover in property to himself and his heirs, reserving to the crown the fifth part of the gold or silver ore which might be found. The patent
contained ample authority for the defence of the new countries, the transport of settlers, and the exportation of provisions and commodities for their use.
Sir Walter selected for the command of his projected voyage two experienced officers--Captain Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow-to whom he gave minute written instructions, and who sailed with two ships, well manned and provisioned, on the twenty-seventh of April, 1584. On the tenth of May they arrived at the Canaries ; after which, keeping a southwesterly course, they made the West Indies; and, departing thence on the tenth of July, found themselves in shoalwater, discerning their approach to the lands by the delicious fragrance with which the air was loaded—" as if,” to use the words of their letter to Raleigh, 6 we had been in the midst of some delicate garden, abounding with all kinds of odoriferous flowers."
Arrived upon the coast, and sailing along upward of one hundred and twenty miles, they at length found a haven, and disembarked. Their first step was to take possession of the country in the name of the queen; after which they ascended a neighboring eminence, and discovered to their surprise that they had not landed on the continent, but on the island of Okakoke, which they found running parallel to nearly the whole coast of North Carolina. The valleys were finely wooded with cedars, around whose trunks wild vines hungin rich festoons ; and the grape seemed so native to the soil, that the clusters covered the ground, and dipped into the sea. For two days no inhabitants were seen ; but on the third a canoe with three men approached. One of them was easily prevailed on to come aboard, when the present of a shirt and some trinkets gained his confidence. On returning to his boat he began to fish, and having loaded it heavily, paddled back to the English, and, dividing his cargo into two parts, intimated that one was for the ship, and the other for the pinnace.
Next day they received a visit from some canoes, in which were forty or fifty men, among whom was Granganimeo, the king's brother. Having first rowed within a short distance, they landed on the beach; and the chief, attended by his suite, who were handsome and athletic persons, fearlessly approached opposite the ship. A long mat was spread for him, on which he sat down; and four men of his followers, apparently men of rank, squatted themselves on the corner. Signs were made for the English to come forward ; and on doing so, Granganimeo desired them to sit down beside him, showing every token of joy and welcome, first striking his own head and breast, and afterward those of the strangers, as if to express that they were all brethren. Presents were exchanged; and such was the reverence with which these people treated their prince, that while he made a long harangue, they remained perfectly still, standing at a distance; even the four chiefs only venturing to communicate their feelings to each other in a low whisper. The gifts were received with delight; but on some trinkets being offered to the chiefs, Granganimeo quietly rose up, and, taking them away, put them into his own basket, intimating by signs that everything ought to be given to him, these men being no more than his servants-a proceeding to which they submitted without a murmur. A trade was soon opened, in which the strangers made good profit, by exchanging beads and other trifles for rich furs and skins. On exhibiting their wares, Granganimeo's eye fixed with delight upon a pewter dish, for which he conceived the strongest desire. It became his at the price of twenty skins; and, having pierced a hole in the rim, he hung it round his neck, making signs that it would serve as a breastplate to protect him against the arrows of his enemies.
It was now found that these people were engaged in hostilities with a neighboring nation, and that the absence of the king was occasioned by severe wounds lately received in battle, of which he lay sick at the chief town, six miles off. His brother, after a few days, again visited the English, attended by his wife and