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to the new world, it was a very easy thing to follow. The rebuke was felt, and the courtier held his peace. This anecdote," says Irving, “rests on the authority of the Italian historian Benzoni. It has been condemned as trivial, but the simplicity of the reproof constituted its severity, and was characteristic of the practical sagacity of Columbus. The universal popularity of the anecdote is a proof of its merit."

On the twenty-fifth of September, 1493, Columbus sailed on his second voyage, in which he discovered more of the West India islands.

On the thirteenth of May, 1498, Columbus commenced his third voyage, from the bay of St. Lucas, and after seeing some new islands, on the first of August he discovered the continent, but imagining it to be an island, he termed it Isla Santa. From this cruise Columbus was brought back in chains to Cadiz in consequence of false charges made against him by interested individuals ; but he was soon restored to the favor of his king and master.

A new voyage was now projected, which was commenced on the fourth of May, 1502. In this he was very successful as a discoverer, but on his return home his health failed, and he died May 15, 1506. His body was taken to the Carthusian convent, and thence to St. Domingo. His bones, however, were afterward removed to Cuba, and are still preserved in the cathedral at Havana.

In the cathedral of Seville, fig. 8, there is a flat stone with an inscription, which, when translated, states,

To Castile and Leon

Columbus gave a new world. Such was the end of this great man, to whom the Spaniards are indebted for all their American possessions, and who, from the boldness of his undertakings, and the greatness of his achievements, may, in a great degree, be considered as the Father of Navigation.

Columbus was in stature tall, his face long, his aspect majestic, his nose aquiline, his eyes gray, his complexion ruddy and clear; his beard and hair were fair in his youth, but the many hardships he suffered soon turned them gray. He was a man of wit and pleasantry, yet modestly grave, and eloquent in discourse. He was affable to strangers, and kind to his own family. He had an air of authority and grandeur that commanded respect; he was temperate in eating and drinking, and modest in his dress. He was strict in religion, according to the mode of his country, and obliged those under him to pay, at least, a decent regard to it. He much desired the conversion of the Indians, and did what he could to allure them, by obliging the Spaniards to lead a life, in some measure agreeable to the faith they professed. He was a man of undaunted courage, and fond of great enterprises; he remained unmoved amidst the many troubles and adversities that attended him, ever relying on the Divine Providence.

This is the account given of the famous Columbus, by a Spanish writer of knowledge and fidelity, who adds, that .

“ His name will be renowned as long as the world endures." III. Sebastian Cabot, who claims with Columbus to have been the first discoverer of the continent of Anierica, was the son of John Cabot, a Venetian. He was born at Bristol in 1477; and was taught by his father arithmetic, geometry, and cosmography. Before he was twenty years of age he made several voyages. The first of any consequence seems to have been made with his father, who had a commission from Henry VII. for the discovery of a northwest passage to India. They sailed in the spring of 1497; and proceeding to the fiorthwest, they discovered land, which for that reason they called Primavistä, or Newfoundland. Another smaller island they called St. John, from its being liscovered on the feast of St. John Baptist ; after which, they sailed along the

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FIG. 11.--Portrait of Sebastian Cabot. coast of America as far as Cape Florida, and then returned to England with a good cargo, and three Indians aboard. Stowe and Speed ascribe these discoveries wholly to Sebastian, without mentioning his father. It is probable that Sebastian, after his father's death, made several voyages to these parts, as a map of his discoveries, drawn by himself, was hung up in the privy garden at Whitehall. However, history gives but little account of his life for near twenty years, when he went to Spain, where he was made pilot-major, and intrusted with reviewing all projects for discoveries, which were then very numerous. His great capacity and approved integrity induced many eminent merchants" to treat with him about a voyage by the new-found straits of Magellan to the Moluccas. He therefore sailed in 1525, first to the Canaries, then to the Cape Verd islands, thence to St. Augustine and the island of Patos; when some of his people beginning to be mutinous, and refusing to pass through the straits, he laid aside the design of sailing to the Moluccas, left some of the principal mutineers upon a desert island, and, sailing up the rivers of Plate and Paraguay, discovered and built forts in a large tract of fine country, that produced gold, silver, and other rich commodities. He thence despatched messengers to Spain for a supply of provisions, ammunition, goods for trade, and a recruit of men; but his request not being readily complied with, after staying five years in America, he returned home, where he met with a cold reception, the merchants being displeased at his not having pursued his voyage to the Moluccas, while his treaunent of the Inutineers had given umbrage at court. Hence he returned to England; and being introduced to the Duke of Somerset, then lord protector, a new office was erected for him; he was made governor of the mystery and company of the merchant adventurers for the discovery of regions, dominions, islands, and places

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unknown; a pension was granted him, by letters patent, of £166 13s. 4d. per annum ; and he was consulted in all affairs relative to trade. In 1522, by his interest, the court fitted out some ships for the discovery of the northern parts of the world. This produced the first voyage the English made to Russia, and the beginning of that commerce which has ever since been carried on between the two nations. The Russia company was now founded by a charter granted by Philip and Mary; and of this company Sebastian was appointed governor for life. He is said to be the first who took notice of the variation of the needle, and who published a map of the world. The exact time of his death is not known, but he lived to be above seventy years of age.

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IV. Although America was discovered by the Northmen, Columbus, and the Cabots, yet it was reserved for Amerigo Vespucci to give a name to the soil ; that name AMERICA, which is already synonymous with liberty and independence throughout the whole world; where the genius of freedom finds her dearest lace of abiding while living, and which, if she be ever conquered by the strong

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