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minds now intent upon heaven, from preconceited opinions against forms of prayer.
10. The gift of extemporary prayer is an acquired gift, or habis got by art and exercise, as the gift of extemporary preaching, pleading, declaiming, or making verses is; and, like those gifts, it is common to good and bad, to the hypocrite and sincere, to the worst as well as the best men. Major Weire of Edinburgh (not to mention others) who was as bad as a man could be, indeed little better than a devil, had it in greater perfection than any man was ever yet known to have it. You may see an account of him in Ravillác Redivivus.
11. They were popish priests in the time of Q. Elizabeth who first magnified extemporary prayer in opposition to the church's liturgy, calling it spiritual prayer, or praying by the spirit, as you may see proved in a little book called Foxes and Firebranda, with which the papists being charged in the late controversy, could not tell what to reply.
12. Almost all the reformed churches worship God by prescribed forms as well as ours, and particularly the Lutheran, French and Helvetian protestants.
[To be continued.]
A Survey of the Seven Churches of Asia, as they now lie
in their ruins.
[From Travels in the East, by Thomas SMITH, B. D. Fellow of Magdalen
College, Oxford. 8vo. 1678.]
PHILADELPHIA. THIS City, distant from Sardes to the south-east about twenty-seven miles, is situated upon the rising of mount Tmolus; the streets to a good height lying one above another, which gives it a very advantageous prospect from most parts into the plain both toward the north and east.
It is called by the Turks Alah Shahr, or the fair city; which must be understood only in reference to the situation, for there is nothing of building in it to make it deserve that name. A city formerly of as great strength as beauty, having had three strong walls toward the plain ; a great part of the inmost wall yet standing, though decayed and broken down in several places, with several bastions upon it. Defended by them, but more by the valor of the inhabitants, it maintained its liberty, and held out against Ur-chan and Morat the first, when all the lesser Asia besides had been overrun by the Ottoman forces; but at last, in the reign of Bayazid the first, whom the Turks call Yilderim or Lightning, after a long resistance, the Philadelphians having made several sallies, but all in vain, to remove and raise the siege, it was forced to submit to the fate of other cities, and became a prey to the barbarous conqueror, who was not wanting in cruelty to express his revenge and furious rage against the distressed citi. zens, for daring to withstand so long his victorious arms; there being about a mile and a half out of town to the south, a thick wall of
men's bones confusedly cemented together with the stones; in all probability raised by his command ; (for sure none but such a barbarian would have done it) in compliance, perchance, with some rash vow that he had made, when he lay fretting and storming before it. The churches felt the terrible effects of his fury, as well as the inhabitants; most of them being demolished and turned into dung-hills; as is that of St. John to the south-east, most probably its cathedral for its largeness, where they throw rubbish and filth; and the rest -made moschs. Southward is the river Cogamus flowing from the hill; abundance of vineyards all along, which the poor Greeks used to cultivate, but at that time deterred from making wine, by reason of the severe prohibition of the Grand Seignior; so that here, as a Greek Pappus told us, they had scarce wine enough for the Sacrament. The city is very populous, there being above five hundred Janazaries in it, who according to their privileges, (the government being so much in their favor) can be judged only by their Serdar or captain; the Cady or civil governor having no power over them in the least. Next to Smyrna, Philadelphia has the greatest number of christians, above the other metropolitical seats, there being above two hundred houses of them there, and four churches ; whereof the .chief is dedicated to the Holy Virgin Mary; the other three to St. George, (a great saint among them) St. Theodore, and St. Taxiarchus.
On the 12th, after three hours riding from Philadelphia, we past over the river Cogamus, whose channel was narrow, but stream deep and full; and leaving the plains some hours after, we climbed up the Tmolus, which we found in some places steep und rocky; on each side covered with vast numbers of pine and fir-trees : and having gained the top, we entered into a wood very dangerous to passengers, there being that shelter for thieves in it, and that advantage they have, keeping together upon the hills, between which the road lies, to pour their shot upon them; after three hours past out of it, and getting on the other side of the mountain, we came at last to a village called Kosh-yenigehkuy, where we lodged that night, having travelled twelve hours complete.
On the 13th, about a quarter of a mile from hence, we went to several ruins, which in all probability by their distance from Hierapolis, must be those of Tripolis ; of which nothing is left but huge massy stones lying confusedly in heaps, and the appearance of a cas. tle and theatre : near to which we forded the Meander, and about four hours after, we came to
HIERAPOLIS, HIERAPOLIS, (now called by the Turks, Pambuch Kulasi, or the Cotton Tower, by reason of the white cliffs lying thereabcuts) a city of the greater Phrygia, lies under a high bill to the north, having to the southward of it a fair and large plain about five miles over, almost directly opposite Laodicea, the river Lycus running between, but nearer the latter; now utterly forsaken and desolate, but whose ruins are so glorious and magnificent, that they will strike one with horror at the first view of them, and with admiration too; such walls, and arches, and pillars of so vast a height, and so curiously wrought,
being still to be found there, that one may well judge, that when it stood, it was one of the most glorious cities not only of the east, but of the world.
The numerousness of the temples there erected in time of idolatry with so much art and cost, might sufficiently confirm the title of the Holy City, which it had at first, derived from the holy waters flowing from several springs, to which they ascribed a divine healing virtue, and which made the city so famous: and for this cause Apollo, whom both Greeks and Romans adored as the god of medicine, had his votaries and altars here, and was very probably their chiefest deity. In the theatre, which is of a large compass and height from the top, there being above forty stone seats, we found upon a curious piece of wrought marble belonging to a portal, this inscription
To APOLLO the Chief President ; a title peculiar to him. Where these springs arise is a very large bath, curiously paved with white marble, about which formerly stood several pillars, now thrown into it.
Hence the waters make their way through several channels which they have formed for themselves, oftentimes overflowing them, and which crusting the ground thereabous, which is a whitish sort of earth, turns the superficial part into a tophus. Several tombs still remain ; some of them almost entire, very stately and glorious, as if it had been accounted a kind of sacrilege to injure the dead ; and upon that account they had abstained from defacing the monuments; entire stones of a great length and height, some covered with stones shaped into the form of a cube, others ridge-wise.
On the 14th, in the morning, we set forward for Colosse, where within an hour and a half we arrived.
COLOSSE. Colosse, by the Turks called Chonos, is situated very high upon a hill, the plains under it very pleasant; but we were no sooner entered into it, but we thought fit to leave it, the inhabitants being a vile sort of people, so that me doubted of our safety among them. There still remain some poor christians, notwithstanding those horrid abuses they are forced to endure, but without any church or priest : poor miserable Greeks, who amidst that ignorance and oppression they labor under, retain the profession of christianity still, though they have forgot their own language, and speak only Turkish. Has. tily quitting the town, not long after we met the Vaivode of Dingilsley, a very large and handsome Turkish town, about four miles to the south from Laodicea, with about three hundred horse in pursuit of a famous robber called Inge Morad, who with a party of wo and twenty horse, had alarmed the whole country. Our way lay al. most west to Laodicea, where we arrived after six hours and a hals, and passing down the hill, lodged at the bottom of it, to the north of the ruins, in a poor village called Congeleh.
LAODICEA. LAODICEA, (called by the Turks, Eski Hisar, or the Old Castle) a city of Lydia, according to the geography of the ancients, is above
twenty miles distant from Colosse, situated upon six or seven hills, taking up a vast compass of ground. To the north and north-east of it, runs the river Lycus at about a mile and a half distance; but more nearly watered by two little rivers, Asopus and Caper; the other to the south-east; both which pass into the Lycus, and that into the Mæander. It is now utterly desolated, and without any inhabitant, except wolves, jackals, and foxes ; but the ruins show sufficiently what it has been formerly; the three theatres and the circus adding much to the the stateliness of it, and arguing its greatness. That whose entrance is to the north-east is very large, and might contain between twenty and thirty thousand men, having above fifty steps which are about a yard broad, and a foot and a quarter in height one from another, the plain at the bottom being about thirty yards over. A second that opens to the west ; and a third, a small one, whose entrance is to the south : the circus has about two and twenty steps, which remain firm and entire, and is above three hundred and forty paces in length from one end to the other : the entrance to the east. At the opposite extremity is a cave that has a very handsome arch.
To the south-east are the ruins of a fortification cut for an aqueduct, the channel of which is cut through massy stones : formerly there were two rows of pillars from south-east to the north-west, the bases only remaining, continued on a great way, and other rows from north-east to south-east, which probably might bound the walk leading to some palace.
The walls of a very large church still remain : to the west side of which are adjoining three very curious arches.
More to the southward, two rows of arches, five on each side.
On the 16th we left the village an hour after sun-set, the moon favoring us; and after six hours and a half, at the bottom of a small hill, but not far distant from a very high one, we saw a boiling fountain, whose waters were extraordinary hot and scalding; it sent forth a very thick vapor like the smoke of charcoal, which diffused itself over the plain. About half a mile thence we cross again the Mæander over a very rotten and dangerous wooden bridge, a fair and large bridge of stone somewhat above it, being so broken in the midst, that there is no passing over it, and so entered upon the pleasant and fruitful plains of Apamea, watered by the Meander, whose various windings and turnings we observed with great pleasure and satisfaction : riding all along its banks for several hours. After almost seventeen hours riding, arrived at Nozli.
On the 18th after we had rode three hours from Nozli, we came to a village called Teke-kuy, very pleasantly situated, and about a quarter of a mile thence, on the right hand, went to see several great ruins that lie on the north upon a hill ; between which and the opposite great hill is a very lovely plain. We made up to the ruins of the castle, and a great aqueduct; other vast ruins lying dispersed up and down for a great way : these ruins are called by the Turks, Sul. tan Hisar, or the Sultan's castle ; and can be no other than those of Tralles, formerly the seat of a bishop, and a famous city in the first beginnings of christianity ; situated about three quarters of a mile from the Mæander. Having travelled eight hours this day, we came to Guzel-Hisar, where we took up our lodging in a chane.
GUZEL-HISAR, or the fair castle, is a very great and well built town, walled, and having very handsome gates, with several moschs. We found in it several pillars and ancient buildings, which made us conclude by its distance from Tralles, that it is Magnesia ad Meen. drum, formerly the seat of a bishop, to distinguish it from another city of that name in the same province, upon mount Sypylus. It is now maintained by the trade of cotton yarn, which they send to Smyrna, caravans going weekly hence. On the 10th from Guzel Hisar to Gherme Aule we made it six hours : our way lying northwest.
On the 20th our way lay hence west by north, till we came to de scend the hill, upon the top of which we had seen the island Samos, to the north-west ; at the bottom is a very large aqueduct, with three great arches below, and five above, to convey the water from one side of the hill to the other, and so to Ephesus, where we arrived after six hours.
EPHESUS. Ephesus, called by the Turks, Ayasaluk, formerly the chief matropolis of the Lydian Asia, and the seat of the Roman Proconsul, (who had the government of these parts) as being the principal city subject to his jurisdiction, was not then so famous in its flourishing and glory, as it is dismal and despicable at present; being reduced to an inconsiderable number of poor cottages wholly inhabited by Turks, is distant from Smyrna to the south-east, about forty-six miles. It lies to the south of the river Caystrus in a plain (abounding with tamarisk, growing to such an height as to hide a man on horseback) under two hills: the one to the south-east, which runs out a little way; the other, which is very high, to the south ; under which lie the most considerable parts of the city, between which is a plain of about a quarter of a mile in breadth; upon the sides of both are rery great ruins, the walls and some arches remaining: upon the latter, are the ruins of a wall, which seemed to have bounded the city that way, with several caves upon the declivity of it. There lie dispersed upon the ground in several places vast marble pillars; some white, others speckled ; these latter stand by the temple of Diana, of about seven foot in diameter, and about forty foot in height; their chapiters fallen off, and lying near them, proportionable, of about eleven or twelve foot square, and about four or five foot thick, the bases whereon they were fixed being alike thick.
The temple of Diana (for so tradition and fancy will have it, though I suppose it might have been the ruins of a christian church built upon the ruins of it,) is to the west north west, where lie stones of a huge weight, heaped one upon another; it lies north north east, and south south west, the entrance from the former, as we conjectured hy reason of a very fair gate that way still remaining, formerly enclosed with a wall, (taking up a good compass of grouud, where they might have their gardens and other accommodations) though most of it was broken down to the west of it. Having lighted our tapers, and made fast our cord, we went into the labyrinth on the