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instruction of children his Majesty per- it says, “ Havre had been constructed by ceives with pleasure the establishment of Vauban some years before the Revolution, small schools; he desirestheir increase.- it was thought proper, under foolish preBesides the houses of St. Denis and tences, to destroy the fortifications. That six bouses have been established for the city was left dismantled and exposed, education of girls whose fathers have been which is the key of the Seine, and which devoted to the service of the State. may properly be called the port of Paris. Sciences and Arts.
It is now fortified and in a state to support The discovery of the magnetised-needle a siege."]-At Corfu, a place already very produced a revolution in conimerce; the strong, great works have been construct. use of honey gave way to that of sugar, ing for the last four years. New plans the use of woad to that of indigo. The have been adopted, and this key of the progress of chemistry is operating at this Adriatic is guarded by 12,000 troops, moment a revolution in an inverse direc- having provisions for two years, and a nution: it has arrived at the extraction of merous artillery provided for a siege of sugar from the grape, the maple, and the the longest duration. The Report then beet-root: woad, which had enriched mentions new additions to the fortresses of Languedoc, and part of Italy, but which the Rhine, and thus proceeds:-)-On was unable, in the infancy of art, to sup- seeing the activity which has reigned for port the competition with indigo, resumes these eight years in the works on all our the superiority in its turn : chemistry at frontiers, one would say that France was this day extracts from it a residuum which menaced by an approaching invasion. I gives it over indigo the advantage of price shall have no occasion to place before and of quality. All the branches of sci- your eyes, by way of contrast to this idea, ence and of art are advancing, in improve the situation of all our neighbours who are ment.
our allies, and who are united to our sysPublic Works.
tem, and the preponderance which the Great works have been undertaken with late campaigns have given us; but I shall in the last ten years, and are advancing only say, that since, under such circumevery year with new zeal, and a new in- stances, more than 100 millions have been crease of means. In 1810, 138 millions devoted within a few years to an expendiwere appropriated for these works : 155 ture which interests only the future, we millions are appropriated in 1811. (Here ought to render thanks to the Government there is a table shewing the different sums which, not content with securing the bapappropriated to each branch, such as piness of the present generation, wishes roads, bridges, &c.)- In the midst of wars, also to guarantee the tranquility of posteof expences required by immense armies, rity, and thus provides against even the by the creation and organization of nu most remote chances of fortune. merous, fleets, the sacrifices which the
Ports. imperial Treasury has made for the pub At our ports the labours go on with the lic works are such, that they surpass in a same activity. At Antwerp, since the end single year all that was employed on them of the last year, they have removed the under the old government for one genera- dam from the bason. Eighteen ships of tion.
the line, even three deckers, can enter, Fortifications.
and go out fully equipped. In the begioGreat part of these expences has for its ning of this year, two eighty gun ships object the creation of new strong places: haye been coppered and refitted there. these are labours engaged in for the bene. The works are going on with great activi. fit of future times, in order to consolidate ty. Before the end of nexi September, and fortify the empire. (Here several the bason will be able to hold thirty ships. works in the Texel, at Autwerp, Cadsand, -Ships of the line can only enter the ba&c. are epunerated.)- In 1810 and 1811 son of Flushing without their guns. The more than eight millions were expended sluice is now dried and insulated, and they on the forts of the Scheldt: it was natural are busied in lowering it, so that 20 ships to bestow great labour upon a point which will be able to enter it with their guns. will ever be the object of the jealousy and The quays which the English damaged the fears of our natural enemies. [The are now restored. They are labouring Report proceeds to enumerate other works now at reconstructing the magazine, and constructed at Ostend, Boulogne, Cher in making it bomb-proof. The ground bourg and Hayre. Of the latter place, has already been chosen for the bason of
Terneuse ; its foundations are now laying.
Roads. Twenty ships of the line, fully equipped, In the improvement of the roads the will be able to leave this bason in one distances are lessened. It has been comtide. It will be able to hold forty.The puted that Turin has already been brought sluice of the race of Ostend is finished; it 36 hours nearer Paris, 24 hours by the has been of the greatest service to the passage of Mont Cenis, and 12 hours more fort: that of Dunkirk will be finished by by the new road of Maurienne. His Mathe end of the year. Great advantages jesty has decreed the establishment of a are expected from deepening the channel. new road from Paris to Chamberry by The sluice of Havre is finished, and has Tournees. This road, by avoiding the been of great advantage.-At Cherbourg, mountains, will be shorter by eight hours. the
expences of the road are of two sorts. In this manner Turin will be brought The first operation is to raise the dyke nearer to Paris by 44 hours, which is alabove the low water mark, and this will most half the distance. -Milan is by the be accomplished in the course of the pre- road of Simplon brought nearer Paris by sent year; the second is to construct the more than a march of 50 hours, if the preforts at the extremities of this dyke to de- sent, road is compared with that which fend the road: the fort of the centre is just existed ten years ago. Bayonne and finished. The road being in this manner Spain have been brought nearer to Paris secured, it remained to dig the port of wis by 18 hours, by the road which has been great work; nine tenths are executed. made through the sandy plains between Thirdly, ships of the line will be able Bordeaux and Bayonne. - Mayence and to lie in the port and bason; already a Germany have been brought 12 hours vessel which had received damage at sea nearer, by the road which has been made has entered the bason, and been refitted in the sands from Mayence to Metz. there. The avant-port and bason will be Hamburgh will be nearer by more than finished in 1812. The building docks and sixty hours in the course of the next year, frames already exist. The works of by the road made across the sands of Cherbourg alone require more than three Maestricht to Wesel, and from that to millions yearly. -Works are carrying on Hamburgh: and this will be the first ex. at all the ports of the 2nd or 3rd order; ample in history of eighty leagues of roads and all are improving with great rapidity. made in the course of two years. Ten Canals.
sets of workmen are employed: and beThe Canal of St. Quintin is finished. fore the end of the year 1811, much more From the beginning of this year naviga- than half of it will be finished. Amstertion has been in great activity upon it; dam will be brought twelve hours nearer its effect has already been felt in the Paris by the road through the sands of prices of wood and coal in the metropolis. Antwerp to Amsterdam, at which they are --The Canal of the North, to unite the labouring at many points. New roads are Rhine and the "Scheldt, was one third part opened from Spezia to Parma, from. Flofinished, but the union of Holland having rence to Rimini, and from Nice to Genoa. made it useless, these works have been sus -All the Councils-General of the depart. pended.—The Canal Napoleon, which ments rival one another in zeal to second joins the Rhine and the Saone, will be the intentions of the Sovereign; and every finished in four years. Three millions a where roads are opening to establish com. year are applied to it. The Canal of munications between the different points Burgundy, which joins the Saone and the in the departments. The construction of Seine, is continued with spirit. In the a great number of bridges is begun. course of this year a million and a half Those of Bordeaux, Rouen, Avignon upon, will be expended upon it. The canal of the Rhone, of Turin on the Po, are the Arles, which brings the Rhone to the most remarkable. Those of Bordeaux, and Pont-du-Bou, is one-third part executed, Rouen, as well as that over the Durancesa That which cuts the peninsula of Bretany, which was finished last year, were consiin joining the Ronce to La Vilaine, is now dered as impossible. A great number of going on. The canal of Blouet, which other bridges are also finished. joins Napoleonville to L’Orent, and which
Works at Paris. will one day lead from Napoleonville to The canal of l’Ourque, and the distriBrest, is almost finished. Many other bution of its waters in the different parts of canals of less importance, are either finish Paris, are attended with an expence
of ed or going on with the greatest activity. two millions and a half of francs a year.
In a few years these works will be com-. quent sorties of our squadrons, the cruispletely finished.Already sixty fountains ing on the coast, the evolutions of our spread the waters of the Ourcque in the fleets and flotillas in the Zuyder Zee, the different quarters of Paris. The water ar. Scheldt, and in our roads, have enabled rives there constantly. The Seine, the our young conscripts to make a progress Marne, the Yonne, and the Oise, have which justifies our entertaining the best considerable works constructing on them hopes. to improve the navigation. The cut of St.
War. Marne, which will be finished in the next In one year the greater part of the year, will shorten the navigation of the strong places in Spain have been taken, Marne by five leagues, and will spread its after sieges which do honour to the genius waters by numerous channels. The sluices of the artillery of the French army. constructed at Port d'Arche, at Vernon, More than 200 colours, 80,000 prisoners, and at, will facilitate the naviga- and hundreds of pieces of cannon, have tion of the Seine; and other sluices will been taken from the Spaniards, in a numcontinue it to. Troyes and l'Aube.---The ber of pitched battles. This war was bridges of Choisy, Besen, and Jena, facili- verging to its close, when England detate the communications, or concur in the parting from her usual policy, came to embellishment of the capital.-The Louvre present herself in the front line. It is is finishing; they are pulling down that easy to foresee the result of this struggle, quantity of houses which was between the and to comprebend all its effects upon the Louvre and the Thuilleries. A second destiny of the world.--The population of gallery re-unites the two palaces. England not being able to suffice for the Marine.
occupation of the two Indies, of America, We have lost Gaudaloupe and the Isle of and of a variety of establishments in the France. The wish to relieve these colo- Mediterranean; for the defence of Ireland, nies would be no sufficient reason for try and of her own coasts ; for garrisons, and ing to send out our squadrons in the state the manning of her immense fleets; for of relative inferiority in which they are. the consumption of men in an obstinate -Since the annexation of Holland, that war, supported against France on the Spacountry bas furnished us with 10,000 sea- nish Peninsula ; the chances are greatly men, and 13 ships of the line. We have on our side, and England has placed herconsiderable fleets in the Scheldt and at self between the ruin of her population, Toulon. Squadrons of ships of the line, if she persists in supporting this war, or more or less strong, are in the different disgrace if she abandon it, after have ports, and 15 ships on the stocks at Ant- ing put herself forward so strongly.werp. Every thing there is so arranged France has 800,000 men under arms; and as to add every year a great number of while new forces, new armies, march into ships of war to our squadron in the Spain to combat there our eternal enemies, Scheldt. Two ships of the line are build- 400,000 men, 50,000 horses, remain in ing at Cherbourg; and the magazines of our interior, or on our coasts, ready to timber, and other materials of every kind, march in defence of our rights wherever are there so considerable, that we may put they shall be menaced. The Continental five on the stocks before the close of 1811. system, which is followed up with the L'Orient, Rochefort, and Toulon, have all greatest constancy, saps the basis of the their frames occupied. Numerous ships finances of England. - Already her exare constructing at Venice.--Naplesought, change loses 33 per cent.; ber colonies in pursuance of treaties, to have ihis are destitute of outlets for their produce; year six ships of the line, and six frigates. the greatest part of her manufactories are That kingdom has them not ; but its go- shut; and the Continental system has only vernment will be convinced of the neces. just arisen! Followed up for 10 years, it sity of repairing this negligence.---Our alone will be sufficient to destroy the reresources, our interior navigation, are suf- sources of England. Her revenues are not ficient to advance the material part of our founded on the produce of her soil, buton marine to the same point as that of our the produce of the commercorof the world; enemies.—The experiments made of a even already her counting-houses are half maritime conscription have succeeded : closed. The English hope in vain, that young men of 18, 19, and 20, sent on from the advantages of time and of events board our ships, display the best inclina- which their passions light up, some martion, and are rapidly forming. The fre- kets will be opened to their commerce.com
With regard to France, the continental, the capitalists. We are now in the fourth system has produced no change in her po- year of the war in Spain; but still, after sition : we have been for ten years past some campaigns, Spain shall be subdued, without maritime commerce, and we shall and the English shall be driven out of it. still be without maritime commerce. The What are a few years in order to consoliprohibition of English merchandize upon date the great empire, 'and secure the the Continent bas opened an outlet for our tranquillity of our children? It is not that manufactures; but should that be wanting, the Government does not wish for peace ; the consumption of the empire presents a but it cannot take place while the affairs reasonable market; it is for our manufac- of England are directed by men, who all tures to be regulated by the wants of more their lives have professed perpetual war; than 60 millions of consumers. The pros and without a guarantee, what would that perity of the Imperial Treasury is not peace be to France ? At the close of two founded on the commerce of the universe. years English fleets would seize our ships, More than 900 millions, which are neces- and would ruin our ports of Bourdeaux, sary to meet the expences of the empire, Nantes, Amsterdam, Marseilles, Genoa, are the result of home taxes, direct or in- Leghorn, Venice, Naples, Trieste, and direct. England must have two milliards, Hamburgh, as they have done heretofore. in order to pay her expences; and her Such a peace would be only a trap laid for proper revenue could not furnish more our commerce; it would be useful to Engthan a third of it. We shall believe that land alone, who would regain an opening England will be able to support this strug- for her commerce, and would change the gle as long as we can, when she shall have Continental system. The pledge of peace passed several years without loans, with is in the existence of our fleet and of our out the funding of Exchequer-bills, and maritime power. We shall be able to when her payments shall be in money, or make peace with safety when we shall at least in paper convertible at pleasure.- have 150 ships of the line; and in spite Every reasonable man must be convinced of the obstacles of war, such is the state of that France may remain ten years in her the Empire that we shall have that numpresent state without experiencing other ber of vessels! Thus, the guarantee of our embarrassments than those she has felt for fleet, and that of an English Administrathe last ten years, without augmenting her tion founded on principles different from debt, and, in short, meeting all her ex- those of the existing Cabinet, can alone pences.-England must every year of war give peace to the universe. It would be borrow 300 millions, which, in ten years, useful to us, no doubt, but it would also will amount to 8 milliards. How is it to be desirable in every point of view: we be conceived, that she can contrive to sup. shall say more, the Continent--the whole port an increase of taxes to the amount of world demands it: but we have one con400 millions, in order to meet the interest solation, which is, that it is still more deof her debt-she who cannot meet her sirable for our enemies than for ourselves; current expences without borrowing 800 and whatever efforts the English Ministry millions a year? The present financial sys- may make to stupify the nation, by a tem of England is baseless without a peace. multitude of pamphlets, and by every All the systems of finance, founded upon thing that can keep in action a population loans, are in reality pacific in their nature, greedy of news, they cannot conceal from because borrowing is calling in aid the re- the world how much peace becomes every sources of the future for the relief of pre- day more indispensable to England. sent wants. Notwithstanding this, the Thus, Gentlemen, every thing at present existing Administration of England has guarantees to us a futurity as happy as proclaimed the principle of perpetual full of glory ; and that futurity has re, war; this is, as if the Chancellor of the ceived an additional pledge in that infant Exchequer announced that he should pro. so much desired, who, at last granted to pose, in a few years, a Bankruptcy Bill. our vows, will perpetuate the most illus. It is, in fact, mathematically demonstra- trions dynasty; of that infant, who amidst ble, that to provide for expenditure by an the fêtes of which your meeting seems to annual loan of 800 millions, is to declare, form a part, receives already, with the that in some years there will be no other Great Napoleon, and the august Princess resource but bankruptcy. This observation whom he has associated to his high desti. every day strikes intelligent men; every nies, the homage of love and of respect campaiga it will be still more striking to from all the nations of the Empire.
FRANCE.-Intelligence from the Armies in hundred English remained on the spot. A
second assault had the same result; so Spain.
that the English lost more than 1,200 men Raising of the Siege of Badajoz. in these fruitless attacks. Wellington was The Duke of Ragusa, Commander-in about to make a desperate effort, when on Chief of the army of Portugal, put him the 16th the Duke of Ragusa arrived at self in motion in the beginning of June, Merida, and effected his junction with the with the intention of driving beyond the Duke of Dalmatia. The two armies Coa that corps of the English army which marched on Badajoz, the siege of which Wellington (on departing for the siege of place Wellington precipitately raised, reBadajoz) had left on the frontiers before entering Portugal with all his troops. Part Ciudad Rodrigo.-On the 5th of June, of his battering artillery and many of his the Duke of Ragusa arrived at Ciudad sick have been taken. On the 21st, the Rodrigo with bis advanced guard, and a Duke of Ragusa had his head quarters at corps of 2,000 horse: the enemy did not Badajoz.-The details of the siege are think proper to wait the arrival of the every instant expected to be brought by army, and retreated during the night. At General Philippon, who, as well as the day break, the Duke of Ragusa sent his garrison, has covered himself with glory; cavalry in pursuit: only some parties of for the breach was every where practiGeneral Crawfurd's division were met cable. with, who were driven into the Coa under
Fourth Corps of the Army. the ruins of Almeida. Some prisoners were taken. The English divisions forced The insurgents of Murcia thought they tbeir retreat into the mountains of Sabugal should be able to profit by the absence of and Alfayates, in order to gain the Tagus. the Duke of Dalaialia to attack General
- The Duke of Ragusa baving, without a Sebastiani, and by threatening his comblow, succeeded in his plan of expelling munications with the Sierra Morena, force the enemy from this part of the frontier, him to leave Grenada open. Their chief immediately directed the march of his corps took up a position at Gor, between army towards the Tagus.-General Reg. Basa and Guadix, whilst their right, wing nier took the command of the advanced proceeded upon Ubeda, which ihe weals guard, and arrived on the 9th at Placentia. garrison was forced to evacuate, to take -On the 12th two divisions passed the up a better position towards Baesa.-01 Tagus at Almaras, the bridge of which the 12th of May General Sebastiani rewas securely established, and covered by connoitred the enemy upon Gor, with some strong batteries. Quantities of provisions squadrons. Some blows of the sabre were and stores had for some time arrived at sufficient to check the march of the enemy, this important point. The Duke of Ra- who fell back upon Venta del Babul, gusa also received there a grand bridge where he began to entrench himself: this equipage, which he sent forward with the skirmish was sufficient to check at Ubeda rest of the army, in the direction of Me the enemy's column which had proceeded rida.-Meanwhile the Army of the South, thither. From that moment the enemy, under the Duke of Dalmatia's orders, had instead of attacking the fine position of received numerous reinforcements. Twelve Guadix, where General Sebastiani waited thousand men, under the Count D’Erlon, for them to make them repent their teme. had arrived on the 8th at, Cordova, and rity, employed themselves only in eafollowed the Duke of Dalmatia's move. trenching themselves at Ubeda and Bahul. ments, who again advanced to Santa Mar- General Sebastiani, wishing to force them tha, and occupied Almendralejo with his to abandon Ubeda, directed a strong coright, thus being in readiness to commu- lumn on that point by Cabra Santo Christo, nicate with the Duke of Ragusa. Wel whilst he proceeded bimself, on the 24th lington, whose army was greatly fatigued of May, with a strong reconnoitring party through want of provisions, and sickness, upon Venta del Babul. The enemy's ad successively collected his troops round vanced posts were attacked at Gor, and Badajoz; but feeling himself so much overthrown in a moment: they were pur. pressed, resolved to make a great effort to sued at the point of the sword to Ventadarry the place before the junction of the 50 men were killed and three officers at two armies. After a dreadful firing of the foot of their intrenchments, which artillery, a first assault was made ; but the they dared not quit. However, this mabreach was defended by Frenchmen. Six noeuvre, joined to the march of the columa