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and, I also found, that, under this treat- | now, if it should become necessary, she ment, the Merino race of sheep as well as could do very well without importing any others had succeeded perfectly well. I wool or woollens from any part of the now find, too, that the very finest wool world. This is a great event. It is a known to the English manufacturer comes great change in the affairs of nations. from Saxony; into which country the The Americans, who, until now, have breed of Spanish sheep has been introduced been obliged to look 10 England chiefly only forty-six years at the longest ; that is for coats, made of wool that came from to say, a little inore than twice the length Spain; ten millions of people who got the of time that the present war has been principal articles of their wearing apparel going on.-When I learnt, that flocks of in this round-about way, will now grow sheep could be kept for whole winters, those articles upon their own lands, and year after year, in houses and yards, fed will keep at home, for the feeding of upon straw, haulm, dried leaves, horse- cloih-makers, those articles of food, which chesnuts, hay, and potatoes; and, when I they used to raise in order to pay England perceived, that these flocks not only lived and Spain for manufacturing and for wool. but increased most wonderfully, and that The intelligent reader will be at no loss they sent to England even finer wool than to perceive how great must be the advanany that ever was, or that could now be, tage of this change to the American States; obtained from Spain; when I perceived a change which that country owes to the this, I could entertain no doubt of the folly and tyranny of other governments. practicability of multiplying sheep to any But, this change, favourable as I hope it extent in the American States, where ani- may prove, to the interests of mankind in mals of every kind are uncommonly pro- general, could not have been so rapidly lific, and where all the above mentioned produced, had it not been for the actual means of wintering are found in super- invasion of Spain by the Emperor Napoabondance. Before, therefore, I saw Mr. leon, who, without intending it, perhaps, Livingston's Essay, I was fully convinced, has by this invasion, scattered the inestithat, if the Americans did not speedily mable flocks of Spain over the face of the become independant of all other countries earth. Not the Spanish monarchy only, for wood and woollens, it must be entirely but the Spanish nation, has he broken up, their own fault. It appears that they do dispersing its goods and chartels in all not mean to incur this blame; for, the wbo were in a condition to take them whole country seems to be animated with away. Its pictures and its plate and its the desire of rearing sheep chiefly for the jewels, all its valuable moveables are, long : sake of the wool, as will clearly appear ago, divided amongst its invaders ; ils from the facts stated by Mr. Livingston. flocks have been driven out, shipped off, Indeed, the circumstance of this Essay or devoured; its houses, after having been having been published by Order of the Legis- pillaged, have, in no small proportion, been luture of New York, and at the public er. 1 levelled with the ground: and, the ground pence, professedly, (as will be seen from itself is all that seems to have any security the subjoined Resolutions. of the two of remaining. Yet, amidst all this ruin, Houses,) upon the ground of public utility; amidst this general wreck of society, it is this circumstance alone is quite conclusive much to be questioned, whether the great as to the fact, that the increase of sheep mass of the people in Spain are not as and of the manufacture of wool are be well, and even better off, than they forcome objects of great public interest in merly were ; for, what interest had they America; objects in the accomplishment in the flocks which composed the riches of which they will have been powerfully of their country? What knew they of assisted by the measures adopted against those flocks but in as much as they were a their commerce by the Governments of scourge to themselves ? The exclusive England and France, who, very likely, property of the privileged order, not only were wholly unconscious, that they were, was it impossible for the cultivator of the in this case, acting under the guidance of land to obtain any share in the benefit aristhe genius of freedom.---It is, I think ma- ing from these flocks, but he was compelled nifest, from the following pages, that, in to assist, without payment, in their supa three or four years, at the most, America port, by throwing open his fields and his will be able to supply herself with wool, garden to be devoured by them in their and also with woollen cloch; and that, even periodical journeys from one part of the

commerce.

country to the other !*

With this fact might be employed in making her the before him, what man, who is not either a articles she now gets from us? This is tyrant or willing slave, can regret that the true yiew of it. Men may load the these flocks have been dispersed? And, subject as much as they please with fine I think, it must be peculiarly gratifying sounding terms and epithets; but, at last, to the American farmer, to see raised in to this it comes, that we employ clothiers his own fields and fashioned under his to make coats for the American farmers, own happy roof, that coat, by his former and America employs farmers to raise mode of obtaining which he used to enrich food for our clothiers; and that this is and abet the owner of those flocks whose going on, while we have land 'wbence to ravages insured hunger as well as naked- raise more food than sufficient for all our ness to the miserable peasant of Spain.- people, and while America has ample I am aware, that there are many persons, means of raising wool and of making coats who will learn with sorrow, that America for all her people. If, indeed, it was imis becoming, if not actually become, in possible to make cloth in America and dependent of England. Such is not the also impossible to raise food enough in feeling, with which I have learnt the fact, England for our people, I should be ready being of opinion, that what has generally to acknowledge the exchange to be adbeen called commercial greatness may be vantageous, though carried on at a disfairly numbered amongst the most griev- tance of three thousand miles, with all the ous of our country's calamities. And, in- expences and uncertainties of maritime deed, it does appear to me to require a

But, situated as the two pretty complete perversion of intellect, to countries are, each possessing within itmake men regard such a traffic as that self ample means of being independent of which has existed between America and the other, it appears to me, that the exEngland, as conducive to the happiness of change operates, and can operate, solely their people. Is there not, upon the face to the advantage of monopolizing indiviof it, someibing offensive to reason in the duals and companies, who thrive not from proposition, that the mutual happiness of administering to the necessities of the two two nations is promoted by the clothing of countries, but from the supplying of wants the one being made by the other in return created solely by folly.—There is another for food supplied to the latter by the light, in which the change, now taking former; and that this interchange takes place, is of great importance. It will, for place across a sea of three thousand miles a while at least, diminish the power of broad, while, at the same time, each na- taxation. The American farmer now pays, tion has the means of making the whole upon his coat, not only all the duty laid of its own clothing and raising the whole on by his own government, but all the of its own food within its own territory ? duty laid on by foreign governments. What we receive from America, in pay. The arm of foreign governments can never ment of our cloth, is the produce of her reach his coat, if raised and wove in his lands. We sell our wool and the labour of own country; and, as to his own governour manufacturers for the produce of Ame- ment, it will be, at least some years before rican lands. Now, why not employ this it will have power to tax the produce of labour upon our own lands, and produce the land or any domestic manufacture : so thereby (as we can as far as her commo- that, as Mr. LIVINGSTON has shown, the dities are useful to us) those articles we American farmer will obtain his coal at a now receive from the American lands? third part of the expence that it has hitherto And why should not she keep her food at cost him ; while he will hare the satisfachome for the use of those persons who tion to reflect, that he is no longer clad by

the labour of the ragged and the naked ; * I have heard of but one species of that he does not owe these, which are oppression to exceed this; and that is the amongst the greatest of his comforts, to instance which the Rev. Mr. BUCHANNAN the ingenuity and the toils of misery; that, gives us of the poor people in the Western “ For him no wretches, born to work and weep, Islands of Scotland being compelled to “ Pinc at the loom, or tempt the dang'rous deep." rear and feed the children of the rich; and When we reflect on the vices and mi. also to give part of their goods to their sery, on the degradation of the human Jandlord's bride at the time of her mar-character, generally attendant on a sea. riage !

faring life, it is impossible not to feel plea

to

sure at the prospect of a diminution of change is to render so large and increasing maritime commerce.

It may be said,

a country as America independent of that men enter voluntarily on board of others, and, of course, 10 prevent the merchant ships. So they do into the corruption of her people by collecting stews and the gaming-houses, and into them together in sea-port towns: and, as every thing that tends to a corruption of to us, I am thoroughly convinced, that, morals and to the producing of unhappi- the same cause will operate equally to our ness and dishonour. It certainly is the advantage; and that, in the end, all that business of individuals to resist tempta- France is now doing, as to commerce, will be tion; but, it is the business of govern- found to have contributed to the permaments, and, indeed, their duty, to lessen, nent safety and happiness of England.as much as possible, the number and the Be it, however, matter of joy or of regret, strength of temptations to vice. The first the fact is, that the dependence of America duty of a government is to see that the upon Europe, is now at an end; and, in. people who live under it are happy; and, deed, political circumstances seem of course, it is its duty to prevent, or, at threaten an end even to the intercourse. least, to discourage, by all the means in This I should regret; because, an interits power, the establishment, or growth, of course between nations is the source of an those professions, or callings, which, from increase of knowledge, which has always experience, have been found to produce been as favourable to the freedom and vice and misery. It may so happen, that, happiness of mankind, as a great, monowithout employing a considerable number polizing, combining, speculating, taxing, of the citizens of a State upon the waters, loan-jobbing commerce has been hostile to the independence of the State itself would every thing that is patriotic, liberal, and be endangered. In such a case the go. just. This sort of commerce, so different vernment has no choice; but, this is not from that which opened and kept up the the situation of America, who stands in enlightening intercourse between nations, need of little maritime force for her defence, is always, and always will be, the fast ally and who, after a diminution of her foreign of despotism, wherever to be found, in commerce, would require sull less, be- whatever shape, under wbatever sham cause she would have less shipping to pro names or outward appearances the accursed tect, and her sea-ports would become an thing may exist. This sort of commerce object of less importance. — The large is not only a fast ally of despotism, but, lowns also, those numerous assemblages is, perhaps, its most powerful ally; and, I of people, which are formed by maritime cannot disguise, that it gives me very commerce, constituie an evil the extent of great pleasure to see, and to have the which is hardly to be calculated. No one proof before me, that, at any rate, this all. will deny, that vice and wretchedness corrupting commerce, which was fast choose populous cities as their favourite growing up in America, has now received abode ; that there no small part of the a deadly blow; and, of that blow, it ap: causes of all the miseries of mankind are pears that no small part of the merit.is engendered; and that, of all descriptions due to the Author of this work. of population, that of a sea port is the

WM. COBBETT. worst. Let any man, who has a mind

State Prison, Newgate, formed for serious reflection, only walk Wednesday, 3rd April, 1811. through the streets and alleys in the neighbourhood of shipping. The whole

OFFICIAL PAPERS. of a sea-port town presents a picture sufficiently disgusting; but, as we approach FRANCE.-Address to the Emperor from Lu the water's edge; as we draw near the

Lippe und from the Ionian Isles, together bales, the casks, the boxes, the wharts,

with his Imperial Majesty's Answers the lighters and the ships, the aspect of

Puris, 19th Aug. 1811, every thing animate or inanimate, grows

(Concluded from puge 320.) more and more loathsome, every sound

Penetrated grows more and more bideous; all is a with respect for the eminent virtues of scene of wrangling, rapacity, violence, your Majesty, and full of confidence in insolence, deceit, bribery, perjury, filth that powerful genius which regulates the and disease. It is impossible, therefore, destines of Europe, and secures the hapfor a man of a right mind, not to see with piness of all his subjects, we present as pleasure, any change in the affairs of the pledges of our fidelity and entire devotedworld, the natural tendency of which 'ness, the benefits which our department is

about to enjoy from the union of its inha- a moment, but always faithful to your bitants with the great family of which Majesty, could only have been calamyour Majesty is the father. Already the niated by the machiavelism of an enemy genius of your Majesty has divined our envious of their felicity.- If it is true, wants; an uniform and enlightened legisla-Sire, that in those of our isles occupied 'tion will secure the rights of property; at this moment by the enemy, there are speedy justice, founded upon one system, to be found some senseless beings who will watch over its maintenance. The credi. have the audacity to prefer to the glorious tors and pensioners of the State, whom the title of your subjects, the ever hateful misfortunes of war had condemned to long name of enemies of their country and of and painful privations, will owe their hap- its most sacred rights, let them experience piness to their new quality of French sub- the fate which their crimes and the injects. Already the roads which are open. dignant voice of their fellow-citizens ining, the canals which are digging, restore voke upon their heads. But let not Greek comfort and industry in countries little honour be sullied by the crimes of some favoured by the nature of their soil ; and infatuated individuals; the Greeks are your new subjects have formed the hope still the same men, whose former ages of of rivalling your old ones in prosperity, glory can only be effaced in the records as they this day engage to equal them in of immortality by the age of your Madevotedness to the august person of your jesty. - The benefits, Sire, you have conMajesty.

ferred upon us,—the treasures of industry The address closes with felicitations on which your imperial munificence has the birth of the King of Rome.

poured out,-your cares, by which Corfu. Reply of His Majesty.

the central security of the Ionian isles, is

daily surrounded by new resources traced Gentlemen, Deputies of the Department out by your genius, -and the choice of a of La Lippe,—The city of Munster be

man to govern us who does honour at once longed to an ecclesiastical Sovereign. De to humanity and war,-all these are plorable effect of ignorance and of super powerful motives which attach our hearts stition! Providence, which has willed to your sacred person, from whom alone that I should re-establish the throne of we can expect our regeneration.-Should Charlemagne, has caused you, with Hol- the enemy dare to present himself under land and the Hanseatic towns, to return our walls, we will seize with zeal that opto the bosom of the empire. The moment portunity of proving to your Majesty, and you became French, my heart made no

to the universe, the value which we atlach distinction between you and the other to the ever glorious title of subjects of parts of my states. As soon as circum- Napoleon the Great. stances shall permit, I will feel a lively salisfaction in being in the midst of you.

Reply of His Majesty. M. Theotoki, President of the Ionian Gentlemen, deputies of the Ionian Isles; Deputation, presented the following ad- I have caused great works to be carried dress.

on in your couutry. I have there collected SIRE; Interpreters of the wishes of your a great number of troops, and stores of people of Ionia, we come to place at the every kind. I do not regret the expence foot of your Majesty's august throne, which Corfu costs my treasury-it is the their renewed expressions of fidelity and key of the Adriatic. I will never abanlively joy for the fortunate event which don the Isles which the enemy's naval has given an heir to your great empire, superiority has caused to fall into his an infant to your paternal heart, and to us bands. In India, in America, and in the the assured hope of an hero, who, to be Mediterranean, all that is and has been the worthy Sovereign of forty millions of French, shall always be so. Conquered men, has only to place before himself by the enemy through the vicissitudes of your immortal model.–From the sove- war, they shall be restored to the empire reign height of glory to which your tri- by other events of war, or by the stipuumphs, and magnanimous talents have lations of peace. I should consider it as raised you, deign, Sire, to turn your re- an indelible blot on the glory of my reign, gards towards the inhabitants of the Ionian ever to sanction the abandonment of a Isles, of which a part, thougb usurped for 'single Frenchman.

Published by R. SAGSHAW, Brydges-Street, Covent - Garden :-Sold also by J. BUDD, Pall-Mall.

LONDON :-Printed by T. C. Hansard, Peterborough-Court, Floet-Streer,

VOL. XX. No. 12.] LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 1811.

[Price 19.

" The universal Spanish Nation.". -MR. CANNING. Declaration against France. 333)

(354 SUMMARY OF POLITICS.

thing of a revolutionary tendency; and,

in short, that the Spaniard who should SPAIN.-English Minister's COMPLAINT think of a revolution, or of any new spe. AGAINST THE PRESS THERE. -The phrase, cies of government to the prejudice of which I have taken for my motto, will re• Ferdinand, ought to be considered as not mind the reader of what took place in the less a traitor than if he were actually fightSpring and Summer of 1803, and, if he has ing under the banners of France. -forgoiten it, he need only refer to the Re- There appeared to me to be something so gister, Vols. XIII and XIV, where he will foolish, so wild, so perfectly mad, in this find, under the head of “ SPANISH Revo- last set of notions, that it was impossible “LUTION,” the history of the origin and for me to impute them to mere want of grounds of the war, which, from that time understanding. I could not help thinkto this, England has been carrying on in ing, and I said at the time what I thought, Spain.--- It will there be seen, that the that those who held this language were invasion of Spain by the French was much more afraid of the example of viewed in different lights by different per- Spanish liberty regained, than they were sons in Englaud; that while some of us, of the establishment and extension of amongst whom I was one, regarded it as a French despotism; and I must say that he fine opportunity for the people of Spain who has not arrived, by this time, at a to recover their freedom and forin a conviction of the truth of this opinion, new government; others saw in it nothing must have a mind incapable of profiting more than an opportunity of opposing a from observation, or must have been a new resistance to Buonaparté, caring much very inattentive observer of what has been less for the liberties of the people of Spain, passing during the last three years.than for that security which they thought To our opponents, therefore, the present the event likely to bring to themselves. state of things in Spain.gives much less We contended that if England took any pain than might be imagined. The French part in the contest she ought by no means are sweeping over the country, and there to concern berself in the internal affairs of appears little ground to expect that they the country, and, above all things, that she will not become its conquerors; but, at. ought to avoid, as she would avoid the any rate, there has no revolution taken poisoned chalice, making herself the sup- place in Spain; the people of Spain are porter or partizan of any part of the old not republicans; the people of Spain reigning family: we contended, in short, have not regained their liberties.-- But, that the thing to be desired was a real, how is all this to end? How is it to end radical revolution in Spain, without which with regard to England, who has already there was not the smallest chance of even- expended so many millions of money in tually succeeding in a resistance of France. the cause of Ferdinand the seventh ? This Our opponents contended, that England question cannot be answered with certain

ought to take a decided part for Ferdinand ty yet ;-but a pretty good guess at it may , the 7th, though it was notorious, that his be formed from the facts, which have refather was still alive, that his father denied cently come to light, and which it was the right of the Son to the Crown, and impossible any longer to disguise, with though it was equally notorious, that both all the means which a hired press holds of them had abandoned the people of forth for that purpose.We have obSpain, that both of them, and the junior served, for some time past, that Cadiz was members of the family, had made a far from being a scene of harmony; we saw formal abdication of the Crown in favour gen. Graham,whom the parliament and the of the Emperor Napoleon. Our opponents city had thanked, quitthe theatre of his glocontended too, that the only way to secure ries, and join the army in Portugal. Mr. success to the resistance against France, Sheridan's speech blubbering with joy, and was for us to set our faces against every the Scotch poems, seem not to have ac

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