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lose their confidence; all that could not without its being possible to bring him to save themselves were killed in the battery: an action, which would have decided his The cannon were immediately turned fate. against the second battery, against which District OF THE ARMY OF THE CENTRE. marched the chief of battalion Ebrand - The town of Cuenca, cleared of the with a picked battalion. He attacked in brigands, has been occupied in a military front, and at once turned the work, which manner, and the province occupied like was carried in a few minutes by the bayo- those of the interior : the greater part of net. The Spanish officer was killed on the prisoners desired 10 enter into our serhis cannon with the cannoneers.-A third vice: those that were dispersed, return battery, with a strong entrenchment, yet successively to their homes : all the Comremained in front of the Convent, and pre- mons are loud against the frightful syssented the greatest obstacles to us to at. tem of these bands, which know neither tack in front; but 50 marksmen had friend nor foe ; they all desired arms and climbed, we know not by what audacity, the honour of. defending themselves : through the clefts of the rocks, and had several have already distinguished themreached the summit of the peaks of the selves by the arrest of soine leaders too mountain ; from thence they plunged famous for their atrocities. into the very interior of the Convent and the entrenchments. D'Ayrolas imme

SWEDEN.-Edict for the repressing of diately descended with part of his men into the ravines and impenetrable paths,

Lurury.- July 10th, 1811. where it was impossible to follow him. Sir,—The King has felt himself obliged, Some oflicers were taken with the rest of in order to destroy that tendency to the soldiers, and the Convent and thirteen luxury and effeminacy which has already, hermitages were instantly occupied by perhaps, taken root in the nation, not only our brave men. We took two standards, to invite his faithful subjects to renounce ten pieces of cannon, of large calibre, a mil. such pernicious abuses, but also to renew lion of cartridges, an immense quantity of the ancient ordinances with regard to ammunition, cloaths, and prorisions.--De smuggling, which shall in future be seserters from the fort of Figueras have de verely punished. Under these circumclared, that there are about 1,000‘sick in stances, I think it my duty to invite you to the garrison, which are reduced to half exert yourself with zeal in this important rations.-The English cruisers have disap- business. The experience of past times, peared with Campo Verde and his ad- and the renewal of the ancient ordinances, herents. The merchants of Valencia are sufficiently show the inefficacy of laws in carrying off their most precious effects to attaining the object proposed. When naAlicant and Majorca.

tions the most respectable prefer an empty DISTRICT OF THE ARMY Of The North brilliancy in that which is real, frivolity -The assemblage of the Gallicians, com to gravity, and the thirst of gain to an manded by Santocildes, bas tried a fresh honest competence, they are led astray; attack upon the posts of Orbigo. On the the superfluities of foreign countries in2nd Juiy, at iwo in the morning, Santo- jure the native productions of their own, cildes at the head of all his troops appeared and every one sacrifices the public good at the village of Vellamor, upon Orbigo. | 10 his personal interest. It is in vain that Gen. Bonnet bad time to collect three the law opposes its authority to the proregiments at Villa d'Angis: he marched gress of the evil, while punishment, slowly iminediately against the enemy, who, reaching two or three individuals, gives after some moment's firing, were staggered time for inventing new subterfuges. But by a fine charge of the 12th dragoons, there is a powerful mean of supporting the which determined them to retreat, leaving law, of rousing the national spirit, and of many dead upon the field of battle.- A re-establishing order,-it is the example reconnoisance pushed on the 10th lowards of suh mission to authority, of respect for Astorga, announced that the enemy seemed the ordinances connected with decency, willing io maintain themselves there, and morals, and sobriety, which should be were reinforcing themselves with pea- given by the first societies of the kingdom, sants.—On the 14th General Bonnet, with by holding up the dissipated and the sela strong detachment, reconnoitred the fish to contempt, and by honouring those position of the enemy, who hastened his who practise temperance, and know how retreat over the mountains of Villa Franca, to impose upon themselves privations. It

becomes me especially, in the high rank seal, during the illness of my most graci. which I hold from the confidence of the ous Sovereigu and Lord, and by his comKing and the nation, to set the first exam- mand, ple; and it will not cost me any sacrifice

CHARLES John, to do so. From the moment when my fate was united with that of Sweden, I have not felt the least foreign want; I have had no wants but those of my new

Prussia, Edict relative to Commerce, country. Desolated by war and internal troubles, bardly escaped from dangers

July 21, 1811. which appeared to threaten its speedy We, Frederick William, by the Grace ruin, when its preservation and security of God, King of Prussia, &c. desiring inrequire the slight sacrifice of some ima variably to conform to all the measures ginary wants of luxury, I cannot believe adopted by his Majesty the Einperor of that the thinking part of the nation, who the French, King of Italy, relative to the know our external relations, and our situ-Maritime Comm rce, and the Continental ation at home, who call to mind the ho- System, we have decreed, in accord with nour and the virtues of their ancestors, his said Majesty, as follows: We renew, will forget for a moment their dignity and in the most rigorous manner, the former their duties; but, listening to these two prohibitions against the importation of conoble motives, will enforce the wise views | Ionial products of every description, under of the King. It is to you, Sir, as well as pain of irremissible confiscation; hence'to the other authorities of the kingdom, forth there will be no more certificates that the honour will belong of realising as granted for exportation which state the much as possible, by your distinguished payment of the duties established by the example, the intentions of his Majesty ; Continental tarifi.--On the other hand we and I expect with entire confidence this have established the principle of not new proof of your fidelity to your King, an shackling the exportation by sea of conof your devotedness to your country, as- tinental products, destined for neutral or suring you that I shall mark it with pecu- allied countries, and not to subject to an liar complacency-I therefore recom- augmentation of duties those continental mend you to Almighty God, and am your products which are considered of the first affectionate

Charles John. necessity, in virtue of which we command, Castle of Drottningsholm,

reckoning from this day, the exportation July 10, 1811.

of all kinds of grain and wood for building, destined from any port in our States to a neutral or allied country. It shall be

considered free and lawful, opon paying, Sweden. — Edict relative to Commerce.- nevertheless, an extraordinary duty of 32 July 26, 1811.

thalers 12 gros on each last of either of the said merchandizes.

We consequently We, Charles, by the Grace of God, order our commercial agents in our disie. King of Sweden, of the Goths and Van-rent sea-ports, to throw no obstacle in the dals, &c. hereby make known, that where way of exporting the productions of the as the term for the commercial relations country, and those of the Continent in ge. between Sweden and Finland, stipulated neral, observing at the same time, that by the 17th Article of the Treaty con- they are not to deliver the certificates recluded between us and the Emperor of quired for corn and building-wood, inRussia at Fredericksbanen, on the 17th oftended for exportation, previous to the September, 1809, expires on the 13th of above-mentioned duties being paid.-Be. October next, we have thought proper, sides, the same Commissioners will act with the concurrence of his Majesty the with the utmost vigilance to support the Emperor of Russia, to prolong the same continental system, which will continue in for one year, from the above date, in wit- full and entire vigour. (Signed) ness whereof we have set our hand and


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[290 TO THE PRINCE REGENT: evaded the fulfilment of these promises,

and, in short, that we have not revcked, ON THE DISPUTE WITH AMERICA.

or softened the rigour of, any part of our LETTER II.

Orders. It has, in a word, been shown, SIR,

that, while the French have revoked their Intelligence, received since the date of Decrees, while they, in consequence of the former Letter, which I did myself the the remonstrances of America, have bonour to address to your Royal High ceased to violate her neutral rights, we ness, makes it more imperious upon us to persevere in such violation. examine well the grounds upon which we are proceeding with regard to the Ameri The pretext for this was, at first, that' can States. The President has called the the Emperor Napoleon, though he said Congress together; and, there can be he had revoked his Decrees, had not done little doubt of his object being to propose it, and meant not to do it. This, may it to them, for their approbation, some mea please your Royal Highness, was, it apsure more of a warlike character than

any pears to me, a very strange kind of lanwhich he has hitherto adopted ; nor, can guage to use towards other powers. It we, it seems to me, be at all surprized at was treating the American government as this, if, as is rumoured, it be true, that a sort of political ideot. It was telling it Mr. Foster, our new minister in America, that it did not understand the interests of has made a communication to the Ameri America, and that it was unworthy to be can government, making the revocation of entrusted with power. And, it was sayour Orders in Council depend upon the ing to the Emperor of France, that he conduct of Napoleon as to the Continental was to be regarded as shut out of the pale System.

of sovereigns; that he was on no account

to be believed; that no faith was to be The rise and progress of the Orders in given to the official communications of Council and of the French Decrees have his ministers, or of any persons treating already been noticed, and sufficiently in bis name. Thus, then, the door against Jwelt upon; it has been shown, that the peace, . against exchange of prisoners, grounds of the present dispute, namely, against a softening of the rigours of war the flagrant violation of neutral rights, in any way or in any degree, was for ever did not originate with France, but with barred; and, the termination of war was, England, or, if not with England, with in faci, made to depend upon the death Prussia; it has been shown, and no one of Napoleon. will attempt to deny the fact, that the French Decrees were passed after the is But, this pretext could not last long; suing of our Orders in Council; that they for, the Decrees were actually revoked ; were passed expressly in the way of reta the revocation went into effect, and those liation; that they were to be revoked Decrees are now wholly dead as to any when we revoked our Orders. It has violation of the neutral rights of America. been shown, that we professed to be ani It was, therefore, necessary to urge some mated with a sincere and most earnest new objection to the revocation of our desire to revoke our Orders, and, indeed, Orders in Council; and, it is now said, that we expressly declared, that we would that Mr. Foster has demanded, that, as a revoke them whenever the French would condition of the revocation of our Orders revoke their Decrees. It has been shown, in Council, the French shall revoke all that the French officially informed the the commercial regulations which they American Government, that the Decrees have adopted since the Orders in Council were revoked, and that, thereupon, the were issued ; that is to say, that Napoleon American Government called upon us to shall give up what he calls the Continental fulfil our promises in revoking our Orders; System, and admit English goods into the but, that we did not do this; that we

Continent of Europe,


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I do not say, may it please your Royal which we are willing to cease to violate Highness, that Mr. Foster has been in their rights. But, it has been said, that structed to make such a demand : I state Napoleon enforces his system with the proposition as I find it described in much rigour and barbarity. This does our own public prints; but, this I can not at all alter the state of the case behave no hesitation in saying, that a pro

tween us and America, who has no power, position so replete with proof of having and, if she had the power, who has no flowed from impudence and ignorance the right, to interfere with his internal regumost consummate is not to be found in lations. Yet, Sir, it is not amiss to inquire the history of the diplomacy of the uni- a little into the fact of this alledged barba

The Government of America can rity of Napoleon. All rulers are content have no right whatever to interfere with with accomplishing their object; and, in the internal regulations of the French this case, it would not be his interest to Empire or of any other country; and, the inflict greater penalties than the accomContinental System, as it is called, con- plishing of his object required. Our own sists merely of internal regulations. These laws against smuggling are not the mildest regulations have nothing at all to do with in the world; and, we have seen them the rights of neurruls; they do not violale, hardened by degrees, till they answered in any degree, any of those rights; and, the purpose that the government had in therefore, America cannot, without setting

view. We have been told, indeed, that even common sense at defiance, be called Napoleon punishes offences against his upon to demand an abandonment of that commercial code with enormous fines, system.

with imprisonment, and we have heard of

instances where he bas resorted to the puBut, Sir, permit me to stop here and to nishment of death. These severities have examine a little into what that system been made the subject of most grievous really is. It forbids the importation into complaints against him here; they have the Empire of Napoleon and the states of brought down upon him reproaches the his allies any article being the manufac- most bitter; they have been cited as ture, or produce, of England or her colo- proofs indubitable of the intolerable des. nies. This, in a few words, is the Conti- potism, under which his people groan. nental System. And, your Royal High- But, Sir, I have contidence enough in your ness certainly need not be reminded, that justice and magnanimity to remind you, it is a system which has been very ex that there is nothing which his commeractly copied from the commercial code of cial code inflicts; that there is nothing in England herself. Your Royal Highness's any of the punishments that even rumour ministers and many members of Parlia- has conveyed to our ears; no, nothing, in ment have spoken of this system as the any of these surpassing in severity; nay, effect of vindictiveness on the part of Na. nothing in any of them equalling in sevepoleon; as the effect of a mad despotism, rity, the punishments provided for in the which threatens Europe with a return of commercial code of England, having for the barbarous ages; but, I see nothing in their object, towards France, precisely this system that has not long made part of that in view which the Continental system our own system. It is notorious, that the has in view towards England, namely, her goods manufactured in France are pro- embarrassment, and, finally, her overthrow, hibited in England; it is notorious that French wine and brandy are forbidden to In support of this assertion I could cite be brought hither; in short, it is notorious many of the acts in our statute book; but that no article being the manufacture or I allude particularly to that which was produce of France is permitted to be passed in the month of May 1793, at the brought into England; and, that seizure, breaking out of the war against the repubconfiscation, fine, imprisonment, and ruin licans of France. That act, which apattend all those who act in infraction of pears to have been drawn up by the prethis our commercial code.

sent Lord Chancellor, makes it High-trea.

son, and punishes with death, and also with This being the case, it does seem to re forfeiture of estates, all those persons, require an uncommon portion of impudence siding or being in Great Britain, who shall or of self-conceit for us to demand of the have any hand whatever, either directly or Americans to cause the Continental Sys- indirectly, in selling any goods (mentioned tem to be abandoned as a condition upon in the said act) to the French government,

or to any body residing in French territo- | wholly out of view our interests and our ries. This act punishes in the same awful humours. manner, any one who shall send a Bank note to any one residing in the French To return and apply what has here been territory, or shall have any hand, in the said to the case on which I have the homost distant manner, in causing such notes nour to address your Royal Highness, to be sent. It punishes in the same what answer would have been given to manner any person residing or being in America, if she, in the year 1793, had deGreat Britain, who shall have any hand in manded of our Government the rescinding purchasing any real property in any coun- of the act of which I have just given a try under the dominion of France; and it faint description? In supposing, even by extends its vengeance to all those, who, the way of argument, America to have in the most distant manner, shall have any taken such a liberty, I do a violence to hand in such transaction. This act is the common sense, and commit an outrage 27th chap. of the 33rd year of the reign upon diplomatic decorum; and it is quite of George the third; and I have never seen impossible to put into words an expression and never heard of any act or edict that of that indignation which her conduct dealt out death and destruction with so would have excited. And yet, Sir, there liberal a hand.

appears to me, to be no reason whatever

for our expecting America to be permitted It was said at the time, by the present to interfere with Napoleon's continental Lord Chancellor, and by the greater part system, unless we admit that she had a of those men who compose your Royal right to interfere with our act of 1793. Highness's ministry, that this act, terrible The dispute between us and America reas it was, was demanded, by the safety of lates to the acknowledged rights of neulral the nation This Mr. Fox denied, and he nations. These rights of America we strenuously laboured to prevent the passing avow that we violate. We have hitherto of an act so severe. I shall offer no opi- said, that we were ready to cease such nion upon this matter; but it is certain violation as soon as the French did the that the code of Napoleon is not, because same; but now, if we are to believe the it cannot, be more terribly severe than intelligence from America and the corresthis act; and this being the case, common ponding statements of our public prints, decency ought to restrain those who justi- we have shifted our ground, and demand fied this act from uttering reproaches of America that she shall cause the contiagainst the author of the continental code. nental system to be done away, or, at Our Government then said that the act of least, we tell her that it shall be done 1793 was necessary in order to crush the away, or we will not cease to violate her revolution that had reared its head in rights. France, and that was extending its principles over Europe. They justified The language of those, who appear to act upon the ground of its necessity. So be ready to justify a refusal, upon the does Napoleon his code. He says that ground above stated, to revoke our Orders that code is necessary to protect the con in Council, is this: that it was natural to tinent against the maritime despotism and expect that the revocation would be made the intrigues of England. His accusa- to lepend upon a real and effectual abolitions against us may be false, but he is tion of the French decrees; that the reonly retorting upon us our accusations vocation is merely nominal unless all the against France; and between two such regulations of Napoleon, made since 1806,' powers, there is nobody to judge. In are also repealed; that when these laiter truth our Government passed its act of are repealed, it will be right for America 1793, because it had the will and the to call upon us for a repeal of our Orders power to pass and to inforce it; and Na- in Council, and not before; and, it is poleon has established his continental sys- added, that the American President will iem, because he also has the will and ihe not have the support of the people, if he power. It is to the judgment of the world attempt to act upon any other principles that the matter must be left, and I beseech than these. So that, as your Royal Highyour Royal Highness to consider, that the ness will clearly perceive, these persons world will judge of our conduct accord. imagine, or, at least, they would persuade ing to the evidence which it has to judge the people of England, that, unless the from, and that that judgment will leave President insist upon the admission of

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