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" troops complain of the unwholesome and I very bold attempt at imposition; but, “ tormenting climate in which they are after what this nation has swallowed, what “posted. It is almost impossible to de- may it not be expected to swallow ? After “scribe the effects of the burning heat of sucking down George Rose's doctrine “ the day followed by the noxious va- about “ the blessed comforts of religion;" “ pours of tbe night. The myriads of in- after sucking down the belief, that, if they “ sects by which they are incessantly as- did not give their money freely to be handled
sailed, are also not merely troublesome and disposed of by Pitt and Rose and the “ but pernicious, for they infame and rest of those who were in power, they “ blister the body to a degree of fever : would not only lose their lands and houses, “ and in this situation they are doomed to but that they would be made atheists and “ remain, we suppose, until Buonaparté have all the blessed comforts of religion” “ shall enable his Generals 10 resume the of- taken away from them; after swallow“ fensive!" -Resume the offensive! Why, ing this, and after burning Paine in what are they doing now. Have they not effigy because he wished to persuade just made the Conde de Vimiera raise the them, that they might, if they chose, siege of Badajoz after he had made three keep their money and their religion breaches on its ramparts? Has he not too; after this, one must confess, that drawn backwards? Is not this acting upon a man will find it dificult to suppose the offensive on the part of the French? an imposture the practising of which ought Their object clearly was to drive him to be regarded as a proof of his temerity; away from Badajoz, to keep that import- for, what may not one expect such a peoant place in their hands, and then to let ple to believe. The IMPOSTOR PAPER him lie as far from Lisbon as possible, and was, in my last, clearly proved, from inthere continue to support his army and lernal evidence, to be a forgery. We his hospitals at an enormous expence. shall, hereafter, learn something more Aye, to be sure, the heat and the insects about the origin of; but, that it is as gross and the fevers are what the French wish a forgery as the famous Eclair was, there to leave our army to! This is a situation can be no doubt at all.
-Let me now, in which oar enemy must wish to see our then, ask what could be the object of this army. It is a situation that daily creates forgery? It is a foolish paper: it verifies a necessity for fresh supplies. There is, the old maxim, than which nothing is in the Times newspaper (which has be- truer; namely, that knuves are generally come one of the most nauseously slavish) fools. The object is to incense that part an article, of the 8th instant, affecting to of us, who are friends of public liberty, regard the armies of Dalmatia and Ragusa against Napoleon, by representing him as as being dispersed! Thus it is that this na a determined enemy of every reform of tion is cheated. A succession of falshoods abuses, and as having resolved to eradicate is poured out from a venal press, and, the last remaining fibres of freedom in when shewn to be false, none of them are England. - -Poor trick! Miserable shift! ever contradicted. Thus it has been, -Ano, hereupon, we are told, that now, and thus it will be, as long as this war in since this paper is come to light, there can the Peninsula shall last; and, wben that be no man in England, especially if he be is over, some other subject will be started, a lorer of liberty, who must not abhor equally fruilful in falshood and fraud. Napoleon; and that any man who would
propose a peace with him must be a traitor, IMPOSTOR PAPER.In my last, at Poor trick! Miserable shift! But, page 114, I noticed the vile imposture, why attempt this trick? Did the contrivers which has recently been attempted to be of it suppose, that there was any part of practised upon “the most thinking people the people in this country, who liked Na. * in Europe” by the venal prints of Lon- poleon? Is it possible that they could dou, especially the Courier and the Times, have supposed that? Oh! what a foolish which are the principal channels for the as well as kuavish crew! But, what a circulation of " intercepted letters," and other state are they come to, when they are things of the kind, all evidently proceed- driven to attempt to scare the Jacobins and ing from one and the same manufactory. Levellers with a notion that they would
-The Impostor Paper, which I am now lose their liberties if Napoleon could have about to notice a little more fully than Ibis will? Verily they are a silly and a did before, and which I shall insert in the wicked set of men. The Impostor present sheet, if possible, is certainly a Paper has all the jaternal marks of u
forgery. It breathes sentiments hostile to pose that he will be able to do that, if we the views which Napoleon must entertain, be resolved to defend our country : The if he does not wish for the overthrow of man who can culculate upon the possibility his own power; for, despot as he may be, of a conquest of the country, will never he cannot wish for what is attributed to do much towards defending it; and, if a bira in this paper. If he was the real whole people could so calculate, they author of the paper in question, how are might be set down as more than half conwe to account for the following publica quered already.What, then, is the tion, which has appeared in the Paris sense of this vile imposture? How, suppapers, and which has been published in posing it to be generally believed, could the London papers, and especially in the it operate in the way that the venal inCOURIER of the 6th instant. It relates to ventors would have it, namely, to make us certain reforms in the States of the King of ali resolve never to have peace with Nupoleon ? Prussia ; and, as will be seen, the French He may think even as they represent him paper expresses its approbation of those re as thinking; he may be the auibor of such forms, though of a Democratical cast. a paper; but, is that a reason for us to do “According to all the accounts which either more or less against him! Are we “ reach us, there is actually formed in the never to have peace with him, because he “ Prussian States, a very marked opposi- wishes (as they tell us) to see our govern. " tion to the system pursued by Govern- ment annihilated? Why, do not we wish "ment, and to the numerous ameliorations, to see his government annibilated? Is there “ which it is executing in the different scarcely a day which does not bring forth “ branches of the Administration. While an expression of this sort from our venal « all those who do not belong to the privileged prints? And, yet, I'll warrant you, he “ classes, applaud this system, and a certain never will be fool enough to call upon the " number of the members of the noblesse people of France to fight up to their “ also support it, the principles which the knees in blood on that account.' This is a “ Government has laid down, experience ground of eternal war that he would never " the strongest opposition on the part of many be fool enough to put forward, whatever “ of the nobles, who see, in these innova. he think or wish. The inventors of « tions, the destruction of social order. this stupid forgery seem to have known “ These factious men are incapable of en- nothing at all of the bias of the parties, to “tering into the new ideas, and do not whom they ascribe the agency in the pub“ perceive that the genius of the age im- lication; for, Mr. John Quincy Adams, " periously calls for those changes which the who is the American Minister at Peters“ Prussian Government has thought it neces- burgh, has no such leaning towards this"sary to introduce. The suppression of feudul country as they state him to have; and, " rights, and the equalisaion of burthens and though his father, Mr. John Adams, the “tares, are the circumstances which ex successor of General Washington in the "cite the chief animosity; though all en- Presidency, had formerly such leaning, he " lightened politicians have proved to a de- has long since changed his opinion, and " monstration, that they are the only means of has frankly stated it to the people of Ame"recovering Prussia from the unfortunate rica. And, besides, how improbable is it, " situation in which she was placed by the con that he should have made public a paper
sequences of the last war, and by her an- confidentially communicated to his son, a “cient organization, which no longer har Foreign Minister, and still residing at the " monises with the other states of Europe." court who confidentially communicated --Now, I am sure that I shall not be the paper to him! After all, however, told by any of our writers, that this would the best answer of all is, the flat denial of have been published at Paris without the the fact of publication in the American Navs approbation of Napoleon; and, if he ap- paper. It is stated in the Courier and proved of this, is it to be believed, that he Times, that the paper was published in the would sanction a dispatch containing the New York Advertiser of the 24th of June. sentiments of the Impostor Paper ? Now, I believe, that there is no paper of But, what signifies it to us what his opi-thal Title; but, this I know, that other New aions about government are? What have York papers of the 24th, 25th of June, his opinions to do with us? If he could und from that day regularly on to the 121 conquer our country, he would, of course, of July, contain not only no such article, do what he liked with us as to govern- but no mention of, or allusion l0, such neat; but who is coward enough to sopo
article. So that the wbole thing ap
pears to be a sheer fabrication; a poor, | neral verdict, unless some mere point of mean, base device to answer the most silly law is expressly reserved and stated by purpose that can be imagined. Men, ca desire of the Judge; but such special verpable of such an act, are capable of any dict should be final and conclusive in rething: of such men every thing bad is to gard to the facts. be presumed; and, there can be no room 6. Every man is presumed to be innofor doubt, that, if they had it in their cent, vill he has clearly been proved to be power, they would alter and falsify any guilty; no man being bound, required, or real dispatch, state paper,' or any other expected, to prove his own innocency, the document, provided only that they thought onus of the proof of guilt lying entirely such falsification calculated to answer on the accuser. their purpose.' Whether this shameful at 7. It is better that a hundred guilty pertempi ai deception may produce its pro sons escape punishment, than that one in. per effect, that is, prevent the authors of it nocent man should be unjustly convicted. from being ever believed again, is more 8. The issue of a criminal trial involves than I can say; but, of this I am sure, that, every thing dear to the accused, if he be if it does not produce that effect, this na found guilty; but his acquittal, if pertion is doomed to fall a sacrifice to false chance he were guilty, is comparatively hood, fraud, and imposture, practised upon unimportant to the public. it by the most weak and cowardly, though 9. Every Juryman should do to the acthe most malignant of mankind.
cused, or to plaintiff and defendant, as he WM. COBBETT. would those parties should do to him were Stale Prison, Nergate. Friday,
their situations changed. August 9, 1811.
10. As the decision of a Jury must be
unanimous, every Juryman is individually GOLDEN RULES FOR JURYMEN. responsible to his own conscience, and
morally responsible to the parties for the From that excellent Work, Sir Richard Philo justice or injustice of the verdict. lips's “ Powers and DUTIES OF JURIES,'
11. A Jury man should discharge bis a Work which every mun in England ought mind from preconceived prejudices, be on to read.
his guard against prejudices of the Court, 1. An honest Juryman should die, and decide on facis only, and on the valid rather than consent to a verdict which he evidence sworn in Court. feels to be unjust; or which in his own 12. He should carefully consider how private judgment is not warranted by in- far the evidence sanctions the charge of a controvertible affirmative evidence. criminal design, no act being criminal, or
2. The worst of social miseries being involving guilt and responsibility, which oppression, under colour and form of law, was not committed with a criminal mind the sole hope and dependence of accused or intention. persons is on the good sense, integrity, 13. No man is punishable for the crime and firmness of honest men in the Jury- or act of another; so that no prejudice box.
should lie against a prisoner, or person ac3. The attendance of Jurymen at any cused, because a crime has been comtrial might have been dispensed with, if mitted, if it is not brought home to him any other opinion than their own were to by distinct and indubitable testimony. make the decision; and their office would 14. Warning to others, and not revenge be a mockery on themselves, on the par on the culprit, is the design of legal puties, and on their country, if their deci- nishment; the decisions of Juries should, sions were not their own, and were not therefore, be made dispassionately, and unshackled and independent.
not be influenced by sinister appeals to 4. In framing the verdict, every Jury- their feelings. man is bound to exercise his own judge 15. The subsequent punishment is ge. ment, to give his private opiniou freely nerally founded on the abstract fact of the and boldly, to remember his oath, and not conviction, and not always influenced by to forget ihat the sole and entire object of the merits or demerits of the case ; therethe institution of Juries is to decide on fore, as the laws are made for extreme their own consciences in regard to the cases, the Jury ought to recommend the points at issue.
convicted to mercy, as often as they per5. The Jury are bound to decide, fully ceive a justifiable reason. and finally on the point at issue by a ge 16. In assessing damages between party
and party, Jurymen should respect that dertiser. The whole is a falshood, but the equitable principle of Magna Charta, cap. device is curious, and worthy of being ra 14, which in amercements even to the corded. Crown reserves to every man the means By the command of his Majesty the of future subsistence; to a husbandman Emperor and King, my most gracious Sobis implements; to a workman his tools ; vereign, I transmit to your Excellency the and to a merchant his merchandise. following confidential communication. It
17. In trying charges of libel, sedition, displays an impartial view of the great or treason, the Jury should be vigilantly question of peace and war ; it shews on their guard against prejudices raised clearly the source from which the past and by the influence of the Administration for present misery of mankind originate and the time being; and they should bear in flow. Had, some centuries ago, the Bri.. mind that it is in such causes chiefly that tish islands been swallowed up in the seas Juries are so eminently the barriers of that encompass them, the European Conpublic liberty, and the guardians of weak tinent would have contained only a grand individuals against concentrated power. and united family. Witnessing its supe
18. In libel causes, Juries ought to rior civilization and prosperity, the inha. know that Mr. Fox's Libel Bill bas legally. bitants of the other parts of the world constituted them the sole independent would then have strived to obtain with it judges of the intention of the parties; and social compact, or a political adoption. consequenily it lies entirely in their own The slaughter of generations, and the dejudgment and discretion, to decide on the vastation of nations would then have been merit, the innocency, or the criminality, unknown. A slight chastisement would of an alledged libel.
then have been sufficient to intimidate the 19. He should commit the material refractory, and to correct the disobedient. points to writing, weigh maturely the evi- The true God would then have been wor. dence on both sides, and decide on his shipped by all nations. Dutiful subjects pwo intuitive perceptions of right and would then have hailed their prince as wrong.
another providence. But when men be20. The Foreman should ascertain and gin to canvass the adoration of their heaequally respect every opinion in the Jury: venly Creator, they will not long hesitate The verdict when unanimously settled, to assail the prerogatives of their earthly should be solemnly delivered; and in de Sovereigns. Rebellion is the twin brother bating upon it every Juryman should re
of impiety : anarchy and atheism are collect that he is acting for his country; their common oftspring. The English and that for the time being he is the arbi- Wickliff had the sacrilegious audacity to ter of justice, and the living guardian for propose innovations in religion, long behis posierity of those rights of Jurymen, fore the Bohemian Huss and the Saxon which have been transmitted to him by Luther proclaimed themselves heretics. his forefathers.
The latter would not have dared to stir, had not England already distributed
its poison among the Germans; they IMPOSTOR PAPER.
merely took advantage of a contagion, The following Paper was first published, in suffered to become popular by the igno
England, in the Courier news paper of rance and viċes of the clergy, and by the the 30th of July, 1811. - The Publisher apathy and impolicy of governments. prelends, that he took it from an American Since this time, in particular, England bas Paper, the New York Advertiser of the never been quiet within herself, and has 24th of June. It is manifestly a fabrica- never ceased to disturb the tranquillity of rion from the beginning to the end ; and all other states. As might have been there can be no doubt that its object was to foreseen, the success of the religious innocheut the people of England. - It wus valors encouraged the attempt of political stated in the Courier, that this paper was incendiaries. The Continent was inundelivered to the Russian Ambussador at dated with the blasphemous and perverse Paris, that he sent it to his court, that his reveries of English antichristians and Eng. court guve a copy of it to Mr. John lish antimonarchists. They sapped the Quinsey Adums, Americun Minister at very foundation of social order. To prove Petersburgh, that he sent a copy to his their thorough contempt for all institutions, father in America, and that his father divine as well as sacred, they opened their published it through the New York Ad- temples to the most ignorant and vicions
of fanatics, delivered the most virtuous of pose her whole strength. Another Contheir Kings into the hands of the most fe- stitution must be offered her. If she pru. rocious of regicides. How many millions dently adopts it, her independence and of Continental Europeans have not bled, dominions will be guaranteed : but if because these islanders had with impunity she is blind and obstinate enough to rebraved their God and butchered their fuse, a solemn decree of all civilized goMonarch? (Alas! said feelingly, his lm vernments will repudiate her for ever perial and Royal Majesty,* without their from the great family of the European enormous perpetrations, Louis XVI might commonwealth ; and she shall be ranked still have reigned, and a happy obscurity for the future among the piratical States been my lot. Supreme authority is but an of Africa. No more neutrals shall be inadequate indemnity for my anxiety and endured. Capital punishments shall be labour to be the worthy sovereign of the inflicted on the master and crew of the greatest of nations.) In fact, if the in- ships of any foreign country trading fernal assassins of Louis XVI were de- with her; and the law of high-treason based Frenchmen, they had been tutored shall be executed on smugglers, purby English sophistry ; they had been chasers and sellers of her productions and misled by the examples, or seduced by commodities. These plans and regulathe gold, of the English factions. Is it not tions may at an imperfect view appear England alone which at this moment dis- rather severe ; but without them, a truce tracts Europe, and causes the blood of its | alone can be signed ; but a peace can children to be lavished in Turkey, Germany, never be concluded between her and the Spain, Sicily, and Portugal? Has not bis Continent. This severity towards her is, Imperial and Royal Majesty almost year. therefore a real humanity with regard to ly, and in the midst of his most splendid all nations upon the globe, not excluding achievements, presented the olive branch, Great Britain herself. This fact may be always interwoven with laurels, to uno proved without any difficulty, or the posgrateful England ? How often has he sibility of a contradiction. if Englishmen not, from the bottom of his patriotic soul, were made of those materials that comin vain exclaimed "Englishmen, I love pose all other people, it would require lite you as men, and I esteem you as warriors! ile knowledge of the human mind to foreLet all human carnage be at an end ! Let tel the most flattering issue, without reoutraged humanity recover its too long sorting to extremities; but they differ lost rights! Let us be friends upon terms totally from the rest of the human species. reciprocally honourable! Let our future -Who can deny, that a British King, acrivalry be 10 enlighten, instead of de cording to the organized constitutional stroying our fellow. beings !" But his Im- anarchy of his kingdom, is now the most perial and Royal Majesty has addressed humble of slares ? When the monarch is bimself to a Government too weak to dare not free, how dare his subjects talk of li. to be just, and ton powerful not to be able berty? The truth is, that the bondage of to do mischief; and to a nation too selfish Englishmen becomes heavier as it ascends; to feel for the sufferings of others, and too it emanates from the lowest of the rabble, licentious to attend to its real interests. It a sett of petty tyrants, ignorant and brutal, cannot longer be doubted, that mankind corrupt and oppressive. - Is that Monarch must continue to be disturbed, until the not a slave who is deprived of selecting Constitution of the British Empire is re- his own counsellors and servants? Who, formed in a manner more congenial with during a reign of half a century, has, the spirit of the constitutional charters, among scores of ministers, not been surwhich at present secure the dignity and rounded by ten he could like or trust; the power of sovereigns, and the obedience by six, he could love or esteem? Are the and safety of the subjects of the Continent. fetters of that royal parent light, who To effect such a salutary reform in the during months is forced to see and hear a British Islands, the principal European beloved son the butt of the most maligCabinets must be unanimous in their re nant passions, of the most malignant solves, and firm and vigorous in their pro and debased of men? Do these miceedings. England must fall prostrate if nisters deserve the name of freemen, the Continent remain upright. The di who are obliged to be undutiful and unvision and weakness of other States com- grateful to the Prince who has elevated
them ; to flatter a licentious mob, that • Buonaparte,
despise und insult them? What must we